Conspiracy Theory Glossary

Copyright Notice: This material was written and published in Wales by Derek J. Smith (Chartered Engineer). It forms part of a multifile e-learning resource, and subject only to acknowledging Derek J. Smith's rights under international copyright law to be identified as author may be freely downloaded and printed off in single complete copies solely for the purposes of private study and/or review. Commercial exploitation rights are reserved. The remote hyperlinks have been selected for the academic appropriacy of their contents; they were free of offensive and litigious content when selected, and will be periodically checked to have remained so. Copyright © 2018-2019, Derek J. Smith.






First published 09:00 GMT 8th February 2018. This version 09:00 BST 1st May 2019 [BUT UNDER CONSTANT EXTENSION AND CORRECTION, SO CHECK AGAIN SOON]



Author's Home Page and e-mail Address



"Conspiracy theories only remain 'theories' when there is no court, no lawyer, no judge, no Congress with the courage to expose the evidence" (Mae Brussell).


"But when some confessed they owed their greatness and wealth to Sodomy, or incest;

others, to the prostituting of their own wives and daughters;

others, to the betraying of their country or their prince;

some, to poisoning;

more, to the perverting of justice, in order to destroy the innocent;

I hope I may be pardoned if these discoveries inclined me a little

to abate of that profound veneration which I am naturally apt

to pay to persons of high rank" (Swift, Gulliver's Travels).


How to Use this Glossary

(1)     Histories have no beginning or end. They like to twist and turn, branch out and double back. So by all means read this glossary from start to end if you insist, but you'll enjoy it more if you keyword search it, or follow the various prepared threads, shown like this. We also sometimes use [q.v.] to indicate that a brief divert to an associated entry might be profitable.


(2)     Unless otherwise stated, all ages, occupations and ranks, workplaces, places of residence, etc., are with effect 22nd November 1963, the day of the JFK assassination. Three-element Hispanic names are filed alphabetically using the middle name, the father's family name. The italicised adjective/adverb convenient(ly) indicates that the assertion at hand is to some extent suspicious.


(3)     This is a student resource designed to introduce JFK conspiracy theory to the younger audience, that they might hit the ground running and not sink in what is largely a sea of lies. Statements referenced in academic style may safely be interpreted as "scientific"; all other content is merely encyclopaedic - it collates what others have been saying, and those others might be wrong. Research opportunities are highlighted where particular issues are historically pivotal.


***** Sherlock Holmes' First Law of Deduction *****

***** Eliminate the Impossible and See What Remains *****

(4)     Sherlock Holmes once famously pointed out that if you are able to reject as impossible all but one competing explanation of an event, then the explanation which remains - no matter how improbable it may strike you - must be the truth (Conan Doyle, "The Sign of the Four", 1890 [full text online], p21). He would therefore have had great fun with the JFK Story, because ALL the competing explanations are in at least one crucial respect impossible ...


ASIDE - WHAT TO DO WHEN NOTHING MAKES SENSE: The highly respected Sixth Floor Museum in Dallas [homepage] identifies nine competing types of alternative assassination theory, which, given sub-variants within each type, makes for perhaps two-to-three dozen decent candidate alternatives in all. The problem, however, is that every one of these alternatives has come from a never-totally-objective source, and so must be treated as a deliberate attempt either (a) to muddy the waters, or (b) to make money at tragedy's expense. Sherlock Holmes would therefore not have allowed himself to be distracted by the repeatedly told story of the sale and eventual publication of the Zapruder Film [see own entry], treating it instead as a thriller writer's red herring. Rather, he would have wondered why there were so few spectators on Dealey Plaza's John Nealy Bryan Pergola [see own entry] in the first place, despite the fact that the entire Grassy Knoll [see own entry] was a perfect spectating point. He would have pursued why there were only a dozen well-scattered souls in this area when fifty yards away the crowds were lined up three-deep both sides of South Houston Street ...


ASIDE - THE BRONSON PHOTOGRAPH: One of the Bronson Photographs [see own entry] shows the Pergola very clearly a fraction of a second before the fatal shot - check it out. Note the wide open spaces. Then, from one of the Altgens Photographs [see own entry], compare South Houston a mere 50 yards away - check it out. Note also from Bronson the 4S/5 witness cluster [=four suspicious out of five] straddling the killing zone all too precisely. The four suspicious characters here - are (on the median) Babushka Lady (possibly the closest camera to the killing; neither she nor her film were ever traced, and she has been theorised as a close associate of Jack Ruby), (on the kerb) Umbrella Man (came forward only years later, and is the subject of some very sinister deep state theorising), (next to him on the kerb) Dark-Complected Man (complete with walkie-talkie; never traced but tentatively identified as a sniper's radio man), and (at the top of the grass) Charles Hester (who makes one brief witness statement and then drops entirely from the investigation). Only Hester's wife Beatrice is half convincing, as one of Abraham Zapruder's employees enjoying the spectacle. In short, nowhere in the crowds watching JFK's motorcade that day was there a greater concentration of suspicious characters, and nowhere was less investigation done (or, if done, made public). Good citizens, meanwhile, with far less to report, queued for hours to offer their help.


Holmes would also have wondered why Abraham Zapruder himself, and his mob-connected business partner, went AWOL from the scene for several hours after the shooting, before coming forward in late afternoon with the movie. More on this in due course.


So all in all, our substantive advice to would-be conspiracy detectives is to keep your eyes closely on the pea whenever officialdom is moving the shells; in the Kennedy case it is only the gangsters and the Cubans who have ever told the truth (Hager, 2017)! The best way to do this is - as a matter of routine - to consider the inverse of every proposition immediately it is encountered: if someone tells you way, think no way. It really is that bad. And never forget that in the end Holmes would have got so close to those spinning the lies that he would have been exterminated with the same clinical precision as were Lee Harvey Oswald, Jack Ruby, Deputy Roger Craig, Lt-Commander William Pitzer, Mary Bledsoe, and Richard Nagell (to mention but a few) [see own entries]. Happy sleuthing!!


(5)     Steer especially clear of internet broadcasting channels and the broader truther-debunker confrontations, for they are all in our judgement part of the problem, not of the solution - the louder the mouth or the darker the glasses, the more suspicious you should be. On the other hand there is much to learn from the established research chatrooms and bulletin boards, although this sort of material is often difficult to cite academically.


(6)     Remember that lawyers, although they insist that witnesses swear to tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth, are themselves paid to steer those same witnesses in the direction of a dollar's-worth truth. Worse - all intelligence agents [Allen Dulles was exceptionally clear on this (indeed, the only time he was ever clear was when he was telling you he would lie to you if he thought he had to)], all lodge-members, and the religiously devout are bound by higher oaths NOT to tell the truth in something as mundane as a court of law, even though they have sworn that they will!


(7)     Before you go, feel free to familiarise yourself with some of the noises you will be encountering. Just click and inspect ...



.38" Smith and Wesson revolver (incls. Jack Ruby re-enact)


Here are three rifles, two bolt-action and one semi-automatic ...


7.65mm Mauser

6.5mm Mannlicher-Carcano (incls. JFK re-enact)

ZH-29 Czech semi-automatic


Here are two types of bullet strike, conventional and fragmenting ...


.223 non-frangible into gel

.223 frangible (JFK headshot candidate)


And here is some of the bigger stuff ...


Thermite (lo-tech for welding or demolition)

Nanothermite (super thermite, here as loose powder)

Nanothermite (shaped for demolition) - CLASSIFIED!

Plastic explosive (shaped for demolition)

This is a U-2 spy plane

(as mentioned in the entries for the Atsugi Naval

Air Station and Gamal Abdel Nasser)



The Glossary Entries (A to Z)


107 Decatur Street, New Orleans: The location of Carlos Bringuier's shop, and therefore (a) the effective base for the New Orleans chapter of the DRE, and (b) one of the two sources, in late afternoon 22nd November 1963, of the pre-scripted This-is-your-Assassin briefing material which shaped the world's headlines on the morning of 23rd November.


112th Military Intelligence Group: For a detailed history see Larry Hancock's 2001 paper "Mysteries of the 112th Intelligence Corp" [full text online].


201 File: A 201 File was/is a U.S. military personnel record file, specifically the Master Personnel Folder [Wikipedia text and images].


214 West Neely Street: About a quarter of a mile SSW of 1026 North Beckley Avenue, this is the property in the upstairs apartment of which LHO, Marina Oswald, and baby June lived between 2nd March 1963 and (although paid up to 2nd May) 24th April 1963 (negligible neighbour-confirmation, however). It was from here, on at least one occasion (2nd April 1963), that Michael Paine collected them to take them to the Paine House for dinner. And it was in the backyard here that, on 31st March 1963, Marina Oswald took the three Backyard Photographs of LHO proudly displaying a Mannlicher-Carcano [UNLESS, OF COURSE, SAID PHOTOGRAPHS WERE SUBSEQUENTLY FAKED]. It is also where, after being cleaned and padlocked by owner Waldo George in May, and quickly re-inspected on the afternoon of 22nd November by same, that Special Agent (FBI) William Brookhart nevertheless managed to find a cheque counterfoil from American Bakeries to one James Jackson.


21st Century Fox: MSM conglomerate 21st Century Fox [Wikipedia briefing] was formed on 28th June 2013 by spinning off the North American assets of Rupert Murdoch's News Corp. With 87-year-old Murdoch still at the helm as Executive Chairman, the corporation is presently [April 2018] one of the "Big Six" MSM players.


28 Bolsheviks, The: The "28 Bolsheviks" were a group of Russophile Chinese students based at Sun Yat-Sen Chinese University [Wikipedia briefing] in Bolshevik Moscow during the late 1920s and early 1930s. They were led for much of this time by Wang Ming [see own entry], and their style of Communism naturally followed that of their university's rector, Pavel Mif [see own entry], a member of the Comintern Central Committee at that time. After the Kuomintang-Communist schism in 1927 [see 1st October 1927], they attempted, but failed, to develop Chinese Communism along Comintern lines and were doomed to play little part in Chinese politics after the mid-1930s.


488th Military Intelligence Detachment: Established in Dallas in 1956 by Jack Crichton as a special duties detachment under the Army Reserve umbrella 488th MID [Spartacus Educational briefing] was effectively big oil's private army. Some 40-50% of the hundred or so members in 1963 had day jobs with the DPD; one of them - Deputy Chief of Police George Lumpkin - even drove the Motorcade's Pilot Car.


501 Elm Street, Dallas: See the entry for the Dal-Tex Building.


508 Young Street, Dallas: Offices of the Dallas Morning News between 1949 and 2017.


531 Lafayette Place, New Orleans: Guy Banister's office and headquarters. It was contiguous (it being a corner property) with Katz n' Jammer's Bar at 544 Camp Street.


544 Camp Street, New Orleans: Katz n' Jammer's Bar. It was contiguous (it being a corner property) with Guy Banister's office and headquarters at 531 Lafayette Place.


604 Elsbeth Street, Dallas: See the entry for Elsbeth Apartment.


1026 North Beckley Avenue, Dallas:  A boarding house owned by Earlene Roberts, where LHO roomed from 14th October 1963 during his working week (while his wife Marina Oswald was staying with Ruth Paine at the Paine House). The address features boldly in the Tippit Murder Thread, and is nowadays on the JFK tourist circuit as a living museum [see brochure]. The house is a difficult two miles SSW of Deeley Plaza, across the Trinity River, and just short of a mile NNW of Patton and 10th, where Patrolman J. D. Tippit was murdered.


1101 Elm Street, Dallas, TX: See Rio Grande Building.


1312½ Commerce Street, Dallas: Demolished in the early 1970s this was the site of The Carousel Club nightclub, one of two such businesses owned by Jack Ruby. Acquired in 1961 it was, though he said it himself, "a fucking classy joint".


1502 North Zangs Boulevard, Dallas, TX: See Gloco Gas Station.


2515 W. 5th Street, Irving: See Paine House, The.


4907 Magazine Street, New Orleans: One of LHO's rooming houses during his stay in NOLA in the summer of 1963. Appears as an LHO address on some of the famous Fair Play for Cuba Committee flyers, and therefore part of the LHO Patsification Thread.


Aaronsohn, Aaron: Romanian-born Palestinian crop scientist, Zionist activist, and British spy Aaron Aaronsohn [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context as a convenient exemplar of a Great War semi-professional spy. Specifically, he used his field research fighting locusts, etc., as a cover for mapping Ottoman troop movements, fortifications, and oases. After the Ottomans came into the war in early 1915, he set up Nili [Wikipedia briefing], an espionage network of family and friends, reporting to William Ormsby-Gore [see own entry], at the Arab Bureau [=British intelligence, Middle East - Ed.] in Cairo, Then, when command structures changed following the arrival of General Allenby in June 1917, he was passed across to a new handler, Richard Meinertzhagen [see own entry]. The network was penetrated by the Turks in October 1917, Aaronson's sister Sarah to suicide and other members to execution. Aaronson himself was out of the country at the time, conducting a political tour of the United States at the request of Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann [see own entry]. He was due to put in an appearance at the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference, only to be killed in a plane crash on his way to France 15th May 1919. For a lot more detail of the Aaronson story we recommend Bloom (2005 [online]). [THREAD = WW1 ESPIONAGE AND INTELLIGENCE]


Abrams, Elliott: Of New York Jewish heritage, "American diplomat, CIA operative, economic Hit Man, lawyer, and political scientist" (Wikipedia, 30th January 2019) Elliott Abrams [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been Special Advisor on international democracy to President George W. Bush between 2001 and 2009, (b) for having specialised in same as Director of the National Security Council (NSC) in much the same period, and (c) for having been appointed 25th January 2019 as United States Special Envoy to Venezuela. He was classified within Ron Paul's List of Neocons [q.v.] under "Leo Strauss students and philosophical adherents", and described as a "key player in designing our new strategy for pre-emptive war".


Abrams, Gus: Bona fide innocent tramp Gus Abrams [no convenient biography] was one of the Three Tramps in the Mary la Fontaine documenting of the Three Tramps Thread.


Abrasion Collar: An abrasion collar is a circle (or near-circle) of bruising around a bullet entry wound, caused by the incoming bullet immediately prior to its penetrating the skin. Very importantly, the collar is radially only of equal extent when the bullet strikes perpendicularly to the skin. If the bullet comes in at an angle then the collar is wider on the side facing the shooter. In cases where it is not possible to dissect or probe through a wound to establish the direction of fire, the abrasion collar becomes one of only two available points of evidence (the other being the presence of a clearly associated exit wound). During JFK's autopsy the Secret Service explicitly forbade dissection or probing of the wounds. Taking the abrasion collar indicator in isolation Michael Kurtz points out in his 1982/1993 book "Crime of the Century" that JFK's back wound was - very perversely - on an ascending trajectory.


Abt, John: Without knowing it Chicago born civil libertarian lawyer John Abt [Spartacus Educational biography] entered the assassination story on 23rd November 1963 when LHO gave his name as the lawyer he would like to represent him. There had, however, been no previous contact of any sort between the two men. Abt's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].


Acheson, Dean Gooderham: WW2 non-combat veteran (Assistant Secretary of State) and Cold War player Dean Acheson [Wikipedia biography] had retired from public service in 1953 but was nevertheless frequently called upon for his advice by JFK during his Presidency. He is noteworthy in the present context for, in a May 1950 exchange with Senator Thomas Connally [q.v.], having helped establish the U.S. Pacific Rim "chain of defence" through the Straits of Formosa [=Taiwan] and along the 38th Parallel between the two Koreas.


***** How about this for a coincidence!! *****

Acker, Raymond: Some histories record that a Dallas Southwestern Bell Telephone Company manager named Ray Acker [no convenient biography] provided DPD with a list of operator interrupted calls from Jack Ruby's listed number to the busy payphone at 1026 North Beckley Avenue, only to be thanked and told to keep the matter to himself. The following year, Acker would be mentioned en passant in the Warren Commission testimony of Irving gun shop owner Charles Greener [q.v.] as one of very few people in the area who was equipped to hand-load the rather uncommon "6.5 Italian". [Our verdict - you couldn't make it up. But there is a distinct possibility that someone did.]


Adams, Don A.: 32-year-old Korean War veteran FBI Agent Don Adams [no convenient biography] began as a rookie on the FBI's investigations of the assassination. One of his first duties was to study the Zapruder Film, instantly judging that JFK's throat injury came from a frontal shot. He was then able to identify no less than 11 possible shots. Later in life he would become co-author with Harrison Livingstone of the 2012 book "From an Office Building with a High-Powered Rifle", in which the general case is made that the assassination was on balance of probabilities a conspiracy made successful by a security cock-up, and then followed by a long and painful cover-up conspiracy. More specifically he wished in retrospect that more had been done at the time to "crack" the Joseph Milteer case, for in his opinion, much of value would have emerged. YouTube him now.


Adams, Victoria Elizabeth: Employed in the Scott, Foresman Company area of TSBD4, Victoria Adams [no convenient biography] was watching the Presidential motorcade from a window when the shooting took place, in the company of fellow-workers Sandra Styles, Elsie Dorman, and Dorothy Garner. She reported hearing shots "from the right below". She then left the building along with Styles, via the back stairs, sighting only Bill Shelly and Billy Lovelady on the way. She then exited by the north (back) door and made her way leftwise round to the front of the building. Here she milled around for a short time, taking it all in, before re-entering the building by the front entrance. She would go on to feature in Barry Ernest's 2013 book "The Girl on the Stairs", the central thrust of which is that the Warren Commission systematically massaged many minor details in order to fit witnesses into the official narrative. Adams' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Subject of the video documentary "The Girl on the Stairs" [YouTube it now] and similar on-line follow ups to that book.


Adlai Stevenson Riot: On 24th October 1963 U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Adlai Stevenson, II [Wikipedia biography] attempted to speak at the Dallas Memorial Auditorium in defence of government policy toward hot topic issues such as communism and civil rights. Unfortunately ultra-right-winger General Edwin Walker [q.v.] had spoken at the same venue the previous evening, and had arranged for many of his followers to be in Stevenson's audience. Stevenson was introduced by local dignitary Stanley Marcus [q.v.], but was then immediately heckled by the ultras. The affair soon degenerated into a riot and Stevenson had to be whisked away by his bodyguards.


"Aggressors For Peace Speech", The: While visiting the Boston Navy Yard on 25th August 1950, at the height of the broader debate over what U.N. objectives in Korea should be, Secretary for the Navy Francis P. Matthews [q.v.] put his personal cards on the table by arguing that  "declaring that the U.S. should declare its intention 'to pay any price, even the price of instituting a war to compel co-operation for peace', adding that by becoming 'an initiator of a war of aggression, it would win for us a proud and popular title— we would become the first aggressors for peace'" (Wikipedia). This, needless to say, was the phrase which has echoed - usually in paraphrastic form as FUCKING FOR VIRGINITY - throughout Peacenikville ever since, to many a despairing head-shake.


RESEARCH ISSUE: Interestingly, when President Truman took half of Washington on the 18,000 mile round trip to the Wake Island Conference [q.v.] on 15th October 1950 to meet mere theatre commander General MacArthur, SECNAV Matthews did not accompany SECARM Frank Pace and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Omar Bradley. We should love to know why.


Aguilar, Gary L.: Assassination researcher Dr. Gary Aguilar [Spartacus Educational biography] was co-author with Josiah Thompson of the public domain paper "The Magic Bullet: Even More Magical Than We Knew?" [full text online], exposing the inadmissability of CE-399 - the famed Magic Bullet [q.v.] - as evidence of anything but an ruthless and far-reaching Establishment cover-up. Browse the Magic Bullet Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.


Aguilar, Manuel: Cuban exile (but very possibly a double agent) Manuel Aguilar [no convenient biography] pops up only infrequently in the histories, usually as a member of INTERPEN. Reportedly often photographed with Loran Hall.


Aguinaldo y Famy, Emilio: Philippine revolutionary leader President[1899-1901] Emilio Aguinaldo [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been a nationalist insurgent against the Spanish Empire's colonial possession of the Philippines, in punishment for which he was exiled to Hong Kong in December 1897, (b) for having then been brought back to the Philippines in May 1898 by the United States, only to lead a rebellion against his rescuers once it became clear they were simply replacement colonial oppressors, (c) for having declared a provisional government  a few days later [see 12th June 1898], and (d) for having waged (indeed, almost winning) the American-Philippine war, 1899-1902 [see 4th February 1899]. He died in 1964, aged 94 years.


Aitken, [Sir]1911 William Maxwell [1st Baron Beaverbrook]1917: Canadian-born journalist turned financier-industrialist turned British press tycoon [Sir]1911 Max Aitken [Lord Beaverbrook]1917 [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having relocated to Britain in 1910, becoming friends with fellow-Canadian and rising star Conservative politician Bonar Law and bridge partner for Winston Churchill, (b) for entering Parliament in 1910 as member for Ashton-under-Lyne, a seat he would hold until 1916, (c) for acquiring control of the Daily Express in November 1916, (d) for being made Minister of Information and Cabinet Minister in February 1918, (e) for expanding his stable of newspapers during the 1920s, openly using positive and negative editorial to influence party political policy, (f) for generally promoting Appeasement until the very late 1930s, (g) for serving as Minister of Aircraft Production between May 1940 and May 1941, greatly increasing output, and again as Minister of Supply until February 1942, (h) for resigning to concentrate on the Combined Raw Materials Board [Wikipedia briefing], a high level commodity coordination forum just agreed upon by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Churchill, and (i) for accompanying/ representing Churchill on a number of high-level missions in those years, not least to Roosevelt (accompanying) and Joseph Stalin (representing).


Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade: This was/is the Palestinian-centric direct action paramilitary group [Wikipedia briefing] founded in 2000 as a loose adjunct to the legally constituted Fatah [q.v.] Palestinian nationalist political party.


Alba, Adrian Thomas: New Orleans businessman Adrian Alba [no convenient biography] ran the Crescent City Garage, 618 Magazine Street, in whose waiting room were the gun magazines which a customer named "Lee" spent a lot of time studying. Lee also asked lots of questions about guns, how to mail order them, and whether it was worth joining the National Rifle Association. Many of these magazines were removed by the authorities after the assassination, eventually finding the one from which the order slip for the Mannlicher-Carcano C2766 had been torn (Hurt, 1985).


Albarelli, Hank P.: "Meticulous and cautious researcher" Hank Albarelli [no convenient biography] was author of the 2010 book "A Terrible Mistake: The Murder of Frank Olson and the CIA's Secret Cold War", an investigation of the Frank Olson case - YouTube a 2010 book promo.


Aldrich, Nelson Wilmarth: Civil War veteran turned businessman-politician Senator[1881-1911] Nelson Aldrich [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having been the Senate's resident economic theorist [he had been a provincial merchant between 1862 and the mid-1870s prior to refocusing into politics - Ed.] during the 1890s (when his tariff policies helped cause the Panic/Slump of 1893 [check it out]) and 1900s (when he chaired the National Monetary Commission [check it out] and helped create the Federal Reserve System [check it out]).


Alexander, Ward: Ward Alexander was the false identity of low end JFK conspirator Rod Mac Kenzie during his half century of wise invisibility.


Alexander, William F.: Ex-FBI Agent Assistant District Attorney Bill Alexander [no convenient biography] entered the assassination narrative when he was driven to the scene of the J. D. Tippit shooting by Lieutenant Calvin Owens and Captain Bill Westbrook. He was then at the rear door of the Texas Theater during LHO's arrest, and on the scene again for the search of LHO's room at 1026 North Beckley Avenue. Back at DPDHQ he assisted LHO's interrogations, and prepared the indictment against him that same evening. Reporter Jim Ewell would later remember him as "a squad car prosecutor" - always out where the action was.


Allende, Salvador: Democratically elected Chilean President Salvador Allende [Wikipedia biography] was deposed on 11th September 1973 by a military coup fomented by the CIA. He conveniently committed "suicide" and was replaced by General Augusto Pinochet.


Alger, Philip Rounseville: Career U.S. Navy officer and head of the Department of Mechanics at the Naval College, 1891-1903, Philip Alger [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having been the navy's resident expert on explosives, and yet neither called to serve on, nor give evidence to, the Sampson Inquiry Board into the sinking of USS Maine [see 21st March 1898]. His own considered opinion on that sinking was that it was caused by an undetected bunker fire spreading to the adjacent Reserve 6" Magazine.


Alger, Russell Alexander: Civil War veteran of fully 66 engagements, industrialist-politician Russell Alger [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having been Secretary of War at the time of the Spanish-American War [q.v.]. As such he stopped the buck for the catalogue of technical hitches which afflicted the U.S. Army's operations against Cuba.


Alpha 66: Alpha 66 [Wikipedia briefing] was a 66-member anti-Castro commando force created and maintained by Antonio Veciana Blanch [q.v.] and responsible during March 1963 for a series of heavy raids on Cuban and Soviet shipping and shore installations (specifically selected as politically sensitive targets by David Atlee Phillips). He then used tame journalist Virginia Prewett to guarantee positive press coverage (Summers, 2013e). Because of the international implications of Soviet casualties JFK ordered a clampdown on Alpha 66 activities on 30th March, whereupon the group withdrew to cover and started to organise a second full invasion. They also - very probably - added a second president to their list of targets. [Note that the skills and equipment of a commando force like Alpha 66 are different to the skills and equipment of an assassination force like INTERPEN - Ed.]


Altgens, James William ["Ike"]: AP photojournalist James Altgens [Wikipedia biography] was stood on the south verge of Elm Street level with the John Neely Bryan Pergola, so that any photographs he might take of the approaching limo #1 would automatically have the front of the TSBD in the background. The sixth of his exposures - evidence-coded as Altgens6 - was taken at Z255 [view it now] and shows the two right-side secret service men on limo #2 looking back over their right shoulders, and JFK already holding his throat. Billy Lovelady is in the TSBD doorway, and perhaps Johnny Roselli and David Morales are spectating at the foot of the Dal-Tex Building fire escape. The photograph exists in many variants some, it is believed, tampered with. Altgens' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Interview to camera, CBS 1967 [YouTube it now].


Alvarado, Gilberto: Pro-Castro freedom fighter, Nicaraguan intelligence agent, and alleged CIA informer Gilberto Alvarado [Spartacus Educational biography] walked into the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City at 1200hr 25th November 1963 and told officials he had some important information concerning LHO. The CIA Head of Station Winston Scott was involved, and on 26th November Alvarado was interrogated by David Atlee Phillips himself. Alvarado's since discredited story was that he had seen LHO in the Cuban Embassy on around 18th September, at which time "a red-haired Negro" had passed him a $1500 down-payment on an assassination. Given that the lone nut story was already being strictly enforced in Dallas and Washington, Larry Hancock suggests in his 2006/2010e book "Someone Would Have Talked" that Alvarado's story - and similar reports out of the woodwork at much the same time - represented a "second effort" attempt by the real plotters to resurrect the Castro link. Indeed it has been suggested that Phillips had set the whole thing up and was merely going through the motions.


Alyea, Thomas: WFAA-TV cameraman Tom Alyea [no convenient biography] had just got off the train from Fort Worth when the news of the shooting came through and managed the two blocks to Dealey Plaza in time to be one of the first reporters to reach the TSBD. He then entered the building alongside the first search teams, and filmed the progress of the search - including the recovery of the hidden Mannlicher-Carcano. Finding then that the building had been locked down he had to throw his film out of window to stay ahead of the competition - YouTube his footage now.


American Bakeries Pay Stubs: These were the two small pay cheque counterfoils  forming part of the official narrative's evidential trail. Both had originally been attached to American Bakeries pay cheques in favour of employee James Jackson. One was found in LHO's back trouser pocket, and the other was discovered by Special Agent (FBI) William Brookhart [q.v.] in the already twice-searched upper apartment at 214 West Nealy Street, Dallas, which LHO had rented after Jackson in Spring 1963.


American Federation of Labour (AFL): Mentioned in the entries for CIA Front Organisations and Samuel Gompers [see own entry].


American Volunteer Group ("The Flying Tigers"): [Read firstly the entry for Claire Chennault.] This was the combat mercenary group formed by Chennault in 1941 to support Chiang Kai-Shek's [see own entry] ROCAF in its struggle against the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War [see 12th March 1925ff] as well as its simultaneous involvement against the western flank of the 1941-1942 Japanese advance toward Malaya and Australia. We have been unable to quantify the division of effort between anti-communist and anti-Japanese operations.


Amery, Leopold Charles Maurice Stennett: British journalist turned politician Leo Amery [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been war correspondent for The Times during the Second Boer War, (b) for entering parliament in 1911 as member for Birmingham South, which seat he would hold until 1945, (c) for serving as an Intelligence Officer in the Balkans during WW1 (thanks to his ability to speak Hungarian), (d) for serving as a member of the War Cabinet, in which capacity he was peripherally involved in drawing up the 1917 Balfour Declaration [see own entry], (e) for serving as Lord Milner's parliamentary secretary during the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference [see own entry], with particular responsibility for the division of the Ottoman Middle East into modern Iraq, Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon, (f) for serving as First Lord of the Admiralty between 1922 and 1924, (g) for taking an anti-appeasement position against Germany in the mid-1930s, and for advocating the higher defence spending which would be needed, (h) for serving as Secretary of State for India and Burma during WW2, and (i) for then retiring to write it all up.


AMLASH: Codename for Rolando Cubela [Spartacus Educational biography], a wavering member of Fidel Castro's military staff, who was being cultivated by the CIA as the delivery man for a poison-tipped Q-pen.


AMSPELL: CIA codename for Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil (DRE), which see.


AMWORLD: see the entry for Lamar Waldron.


Anderson. Orvil Orson: WW2 veteran (U.S.A.A.F.) and in 1950 Commandant of the Air War College at Maxwell A.F.B., Montgomery, AL, General Orvil Anderson [Wikipedia biography] delivered the infamous "Saving Civilisation" Speech [q.v.] on 1st September 1950. He was quickly put out to grass. But that is hardly the point!


Andrew, Abram Piatt, Jnr.: Harvard academic Abram Andrew [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having been a member of the National Monetary Commission [see own entry] between 1908 and 1912, by virtue of which experience he was invited to accompany Nelson Aldrich [see own entry] to the 1910 Jekyll Island Conference [check it out], where plans for the Federal Reserve System [check it out] were hammered out.


Angleton, James Jesus: The CIA's Chief of Counterintelligence from 1954 to 1975 James Angleton [Wikipedia hagiography; 2013 YouTube documentary - RECOMMENDED] was brought up in Milan, Italy, where his father managed the local NCR tabulating machinery franchise. He then attended Malvern College in England before returning to the U.S. to study at Yale. During WW2 he was an OSS counterintelligence agent in London before being put in charge of Britain's Ultra operations in Italy in late 1944 (during which time he was not averse to calling on Mafia connections against a common enemy, nor, some say, of passing intelligence to the Nazis). In May 1949 he was made Chief of the CIA's Office of Special Operations, being then promoted by Allen Dulles in 1954 to Chief of Counterintelligence. Angleton testified before the Church Committee in 1975. In his 2006/1013e book "Someone Would Have Talked" Larry Hancock draws attention to the fact that Angleton knew of the November 1963  Attwood Mission [q.v.] by bugging Lisa Howard [q.v.], and saw it as part of JFK's ongoing efforts to peripheralise the CIA.


"Angleton Ops": So effective were James Angleton's type of operation - daring, to-the-point, and ruthlessly pursued - that they became known within the trade as "Angleton Ops".


Anglo-French Financial Commission: See the entry for Rufus Isaacs.


Arab-Israeli War, 1948: This is the war which established the modern state of Israel [Wikipedia briefing]. It began on 30th November 1947 as a three-way civil war between Palestinians of Jewish and Arab descent and the British administration, but the Arabs were having so little success that by the beginning of May 1948 the neighbouring states of Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, and Syria were mobilising to come to their aid at their respective borders. David Ben-Gurion proclaimed the State of Israel on 14th May (whereupon the Palestinians of Jewish descent became Israelis), and the Arab columns crossed the border the following day. Fighting continued until 10th March 1949, with repeated Arab defeats.


Arab Spring Offensive: The Arab Spring [Wikipedia briefing] was the name given initially to the 18th December 2010 regime change insurrection in Tunisia, but then extended as the unrest spread contagiously to country after country on a copycat basis. The domino line follows a militarily precise long right hook (i.e., anticlockwise when viewed on the map, rather like the Schlieffen Plan of 1914) from Tunisia to Libya (2011, Civil War), Egypt (2011, Egyptian Crisis), Syria (2011, Civil War), Turkey (failed coup, 2016), Iran. The cumulative events are historically noteworthy for the role played by modern social media in spreading discontent at hitherto impossible speeds. The conspiracy community regularly cites Neocon [q.v.] inspiration and CIA involvement in the insurrections and specifies the destruction of common Arab purpose as the strategic aim.


Árbenz Guzmán, Jacobo: Guatemalan soldier-politician President[1951-1954] Jacobo Árbenz [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for being one of the leaders of the 1944 Guatemalan Revolution [see 1st July 1944] which deposed President Ubico [see own entry], (b) for then backing President Arévalo [see own entry] between 1945 and 1950, (c) for then being democratically elected in Guatemala's 1950 presidentials (72% of the vote), and (d) for then being far from democratically ousted (by the oligarchs of the U.S. Deep State of that decade) in the 1954 Guatemala Coup [see 18th June 1954]. His "crime" was to have governed Guatemala for three years in a manner which smacked a little too much of communistic leanings. More specifically, he used his 1952 Agrarian Reform Law [see 17th June 1952] to give the United Fruit Company (UFCO) [see own entry] less of a free ride than they had grown used to [by many accounts they ran their plantations no better than the slave-plantations they had taken over - Ed.]. UFCO countered with a sponsored public relations offensive in the mainstream media, organised by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and DCIA Allen Dulles (both major UFCO shareholders). Having thus prepared the way, they then forced Árbenz to resign 27th June 1954, and organised their own man, Carlos Castillo Armas [see own entry], to replace him.


Arce, Danny Garcia: Before the shooting Dallas-born TSBD order picker Danny Arce [no convenient biography] was standing on Elm Street outside the front door of the building and allowed "a real old man" to use the TSBD lavatories. "He had on an old brown suit and a western type hat". He then saw the man leave the building "and drive off in an old black Buick". It may or may not be relevant that Arce had only been working at TSBD for two months, having previously worked in the kitchens at "this Rubenstein place on Hall [Street]".


ASIDE: Hall Street is two miles east of Dealey Plaza. Researchers have recently largely excluded the possibility that the Sidney Rubenstein and (son) Stanley Rubenstein of Rubenstein and Son Produce Inc, 1111 Hall Street [looks like a parking lot on my Google Streetview - Ed.] have anything to do with Jack Ruby. We note that some sources give the Rubenstein address as 1111 Hall, while others mention Pearl Street. The descendent company - now just a wholesaler - is Rubenstein Seafood Sales Inc - see the website. It lists at 6210 Campbell Road. We also note that a (then) 73-year-old Richard Pavlick in a 1950 black Buick had tried to car-bomb JFK back in 1960, but was (unconfirmed) in a mental institution at the time of the assassination. Recent attempts to conflate Arce with an anti-Castro Cuban named Amado Cantillo seem to have drawn a blank.


Nobody has yet been able to find any substantive association between Danny Arce and the much older INTERPEN operative Remigio Arce. It may or may not therefore also be relevant that Danny Arce has been recently identified as an INTERPEN field operative in his own right - YouTube him in Dealey Plaza now - which, if true, would make you wonder who the "real old man" really was and what he brought in to the TSBD under his coat [MORE CURTAIN RODS, PERHAPS?]! Arce's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit, 22nd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now].


Arce, Remigio ["Cuku"]: Remigio Arce [no convenient biography] pops up only infrequently in the histories, usually as a member of INTERPEN, and sometimes as having identified Herminio Diaz Garcia as a Dealey Plaza shooter. Nobody has yet been able to find any substantive association between Remigio Arce and TSBD employee Danny Arce.


Archacha Smith, Sergio: [Because Hispanic rules apply to this three part name, we have taken the family name Arcacha as the indexing name and Smith - the mother's name - as supplemental. Some authors prefer the hyphenated surname Archaca-Smith, and others refer to him as just Arcacha.] Cuban diplomat Sergio Arcacha Smith [Spartacus Educational biography] sought refuge in New Orleans after the Castro Revolution, and there - in association with David Ferrie - he established the (Cuban) Democratic Liberation Front (FRD). He was expelled from this organisation for embezzlement in January 1962, and in October 1962 relocated to Miami, thence to Tampa, thence to Houston.  He would in due course be named in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so inner sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination.


Arévalo, Juan José: Guatemalan philosophy professor turned "spiritual socialist" President[1945-1951] Juan Arévalo [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been the first remotely progressive president in Guatemala's history, (b) for surviving 25 coup attempts during his six years in power, and (c) for surviving a further 20 years thereafter.


Arias Sanchez, Óscar: Costa Rican lawyer-politician President[1986-1990, 2006-2010] Óscar Arias [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for the part he played in the mid-1980s bringing together the warring factions in Central America and reducing tensions in the region. The resulting treaty of understanding - the Esquipulas II Accord [Wikipedia briefing] - was signed 31st August 1987 by himself and the presidents of Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala. His efforts earned him the 1987 Nobel Peace Prize.


Arnold, Carolyn Nearn: TSBD secretary Carolyn Arnold [no convenient biography] went into the TSBD2 lunchroom "about a quarter of an hour" before the shooting and saw LHO having lunch, but was never called to testify formally to this. However she was subsequently interviewed in 1978 by Anthony Summers and her very confident recollection did not match the officially approved scenario. Specifically, at around 1215hr - the very time that a number of other witnesses were seeing movements at the TSBD6 windows - she placed LHO elsewhere. Arnold's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]. [Our verdict - we agree with Summers that this is a strong witness.]


Arnold, Gordon: About to return from leave to Fort Wainwright, AL, 22-year-old Gordon Arnold [Wikipedia biography] was told by a man with CIA Id not to spectate from the triple overpass, and so moved down in front of the picket fence.


ASIDE: One of Rod Mac Kenzie's false Id Cards at work, perhaps??


Arnold was then filming the motorcade at about the same moment that Badgeman (Roscoe White or Charles Rogers) took his shot. His camera was then confiscated by a hatless uniformed officer with a drawn gun. Arnold died in 1997. His evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Interview to camera, 1988 [YouTube it now - RECOMMENDED].


Artíme Buesa, Manuel Francesco: Psychiatrist and lapsed Cuban Revolutionary Dr. Manuel Artíme [Wikipedia biography] had been captured on 2nd May 1961 during the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, not being released until on 24th December 1962. Five days after that he shared the saluting platform with JFK at the latter's homage to the Brigade 2506 veterans. With CIA support he then helped organise and train new cadres of anti-Castro exiles in preparation, they hoped, for a second invasion.


Arvad, Inga Marie: [Until 1931, Inga Marie Arvad Petersen] Danish journalist and some time beauty queen and film starlet Inga Arvad [Wikipedia biography] had schmoozed her way (a) into being a guest at Hermann Goering's wedding on 10th April 1935, and (b) into conducting two career-shaping interviews with Adolf Hitler ("You immediately like him"). She did not like "Chews" (Kessler, 1996, e3870). She emigrated to the U.S. in 1940, where in November 1941 she entered into a love affair with the son of a U.S. diplomat. This shameless social posturing led to her being closely monitored by the FBI - wiretaps and all - as a suspected Nazi spy. Now guess the name of the diplomat's son ...


Asquith Resignation Coup: We are referring here to the sequence of events described in Chapter 26 of Jim Macgregor [see own entry] and Gerry Docherty's [see own entry] 2017 book "Prolonging the Agony" [see own entry], whereby the case is made that the ousting of Asquith's coalition administration in December 1916 was more a Secret Elite coup than a simple party political scalp for Bonar Law's Conservative Party opposition. Lloyd George, they note, had long been groomed as Asquith's replacement by Lord Milner, and had been assisted throughout 1916 by Milner's acolytes in and close to the Cabinet.




Astor, John Jacob I: German-American merchant and self-made billionaire [in today's money] John J. Astor I [Wikipedia biography] (1763-1848) is noteworthy in the present context (a) as an example of a rags-to-riches immigrant who by hard work and frugal living helped forge the American Dream, and (b) for the Astor dynasty which sprang from his loins.


Astor, William Backhouse: American merchant and father-made billionaire [in today's money] William B. Astor [Wikipedia biography] (1792-1875) is noteworthy in the present context (a) for being the son of the founder of the Astor dynasty John Jacob Astor I, and (b) for proving no less a single-minded businessman than his father - Kaplan (2007) calls him "a comparably relentless accumulator" (p11). His older brother John Jacob Astor II (1791-1869) was not mentally capable of managing the family fortune.


Astor, John Jacob III: American dynastic businessman John J. Astor III [Wikipedia biography] (1822-1890) is noteworthy in the present context (a) for being the grandson of the founder of the Astor dynasty John Jacob Astor I via William Backhouse Astor (and thus older brother of William Backhouse Astor II), (b) for being the first to eschew "relentless accumulation" and start to enjoy his fortune; he worked hard, "but never after dinner" (Kaplan, 2007, p28), and (c) for fathering William Waldorf Astor [1st Viscount Astor] in1848.


Astor, William Backhouse II: American dynastic businessman William Backhouse Astor II [Wikipedia biography] (1829-1892) is noteworthy in the present context (a) for being the second son of William Backhouse Astor I (and thus younger brother of John Jacob Astor III), and (b) for making "pleasure his religion" (Kaplan, 2007, p29).


Astor, William Waldorf [Baron Astor]1916 [1st Viscount Astor]1917: American socialite and dynastic businessman turned British ditto William Waldorf Astor [Lord Astor]1916 [Wikipedia biography] (1848-1919) is noteworthy in the present context (a) for fathering Waldorf Astor [2nd Viscount Astor] in 1879, (b) for moving to Britain in 1891, buying the Pall Mall Gazette in 1892 and having little difficulty "working his way into the circle of the pleasure-loving Prince of Wales" (Kaplan, 2007, p115), (c) for buying Cliveden House [see own entry] in 1893, (d) for taking British nationality in 1899, (e) for gifting Cliveden to his son on the occasion of his 1906 marriage to divorcee Nancy Langhorne Shaw [see the entry for Nancy Astor], (f) for buying control of The Observer from Lord Northcliffe in 1911, and (g) for becoming ennobled in 1916, concerning which Kaplan notes wryly as follows ...


"The driving force in William's final years remained the determination to win a place in the British peerage. He made no secret of his ambition, even at the cost of inviting ridicule. [...] In the spirit that drove his quest he had more in common with his former countrymen than he would have liked to acknowledge: instead of comporting themselves like citizens of a democracy that had shaken off aristocratic distinctions, Americans were notorious for becoming virtually unhinged with borrowed glory when they found themselves shaking hands with a duke" (Op. cit., p170).


For his part, Astor told his son "I have never gone in pursuit of this honour" (Idem., p172). He severed contact with his children in 1916, and died a gout-ridden and embittered old man in 1919.

Kaplan, J. (2007). When the Astors Owned New York. New York: Penguin.


Astor, [Colonel]1894 John Jacob IV: American dynastic businessman and veteran of the Spanish-American War [Colonel]1894 John Jacob Astor IV [Wikipedia biography] (1864-1912) is noteworthy in the present context (a) for being a cousin of William Waldorf Astor I [1st Viscount Astor], and (b) for being the Astor who died (showing due courage) with the Titanic.



Astor, Nancy: [Néé Langhorne; first marriage as Nancy Langhorne Shaw] American-born British socialite Nancy, Lady Astor [Wikipedia biography] (1879-1964) is noteworthy in the present context (a) for marrying multi-millionaire Waldorf Astor [see own entry] in 1906, setting up the marital home at the rather magnificent Cliveden House [Wikipedia briefing and images] (a wedding present from the groom's father, and nowadays a spa-hotel), (b) for there cultivating a reputation as society hostess (including to a certain Archduke Ferdinand and his wife in June 1914, a fortnight before they returned home en route for Sarajevo), (c) for resolving immediately war began to make Cliveden House available as a war hospital ...


ASIDE - CLIVEDEN HOUSE AT WAR: The War Office declined the offer, and so Cliveden was offered instead to the Canadian Army. New buildings were hastily erected in the gardens of the house, and the Duchess of Connaught's Canadian Red Cross Hospital was open for business the following July - check it out.


(d) for hosting another historically significant dinner party 13th March 1917, this one attended by Chaim Weizmann, Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour, and Prime Minister Lloyd George to discuss the Sykes-Picot Formula [see the entry for Sir Mark Sykes] and the imminent Balfour Declaration, (e) for being in 1919 only the second woman to be elected to Parliament, and the first actually to take her seat ...


ASIDE: The seat in question - Plymouth Central - had previously been held by her husband, who, having just inherited his father's Viscountcy, now had to vacate it and move up into the House of Lords. Nancy was thus already a favourite of the voters there, and would hold the seat until retiring in 1945.


(f) for responding henceforth to her own political agenda rather than her husband's, that is to say, by seeing to it that her entertaining became more personally relevant [she even got the King to dine at the same table as Socialists - Ed.], (g) for thereby being in at the birth of that circle of guests soon to be dubbed the "Cliveden Set" [see own entry], a power bloc of ageing Milner Group high priests whose unifying belief was that the rapidly strengthening Nazi Party in Germany was not a threat to Britain's interests ...


ASIDE - NANCY ASTOR AND APPEASEMENT: On 24th October 1937 Lady Astor hosted a lunch attended, inter alia, by Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, Ambassador to Berlin Sir Neville Henderson, Editor of The Times Geoffrey Dawson, Lord Brand, and Lord Lothian. This get-together represented the high-water mark of Britain's high society's love affair with the Nazis. "There was a consensus," one historian has written, "[...] that Hitler could be handled, talked down, reasoned with" (Livingstone, 2015, p466). Within days, however, an article by the journalist Claud Cockburn [see own entry] had blown the whistle on this sort of Appeasement talk, and it was suddenly no longer fashionable to be described as a member of what he characterised as the "Cliveden Set".


Astor, Waldorf [2nd Viscount Astor]1919: American-born socialite turned British aristocrat-politician Waldorf Astor [Lord Astor]1919 [Wikipedia biography] (1879-1952) is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been the first son of William Waldorf Astor [1st Viscount Astor] (and thus older brother of John Jacob Astor V [1st Baron Astor]1956), (b) for marrying divorcee Nancy Langhorne Shaw in 1906, setting up the marital home at the rather magnificent Cliveden House [Wikipedia briefing and images], a wedding present from his father, and nowadays an hotel, (c) for entering Parliament in 1910 as member for Plymouth, (d) for being introduced into the Milner Group in about 1914 by Philip Kerr (later Lord Lothian), becoming one of the two main financial supporters of that group (the other being Abe Bailey [see own entry]), (e) for taking control of his father's two newspapers in 1915, selling the Pall Mall Gazette but retaining The Observer, (f) for reportedly being part of Lloyd George's Monday Night Cabal [see the entry for Milner's Ginger Group], in the ousting of Prime Minister Asquith during the second half of 1916, (g) for being rewarded with a seat in Lloyd George's Secretariat [see own entry] in January 1917, although in the event he "lingered unhappily in Downing Street" (Turner, 1980, p173), (h) for moving up to the House of Lords when he inherited his father's title in 1919, (i) for generously supporting Chatham House [see own entry] after 1920, and (j) for generally acting with Lord Lothian and Lord Brand to keep the Milner Group going as Lord Milner gradually dropped form the picture (he died 1925 aged 71 years).


Astor, John Jacob V [1st Baron Astor]1956: American-born British socialite turned WW1 hero turned politician turned newspaper proprietor John Jacob Astor V [Lord Astor]1956 [Wikipedia biography] (1886-1971) is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been the fourth son of William Waldorf Astor [1st Viscount Astor] (and thus younger brother of Waldorf Astor [2nd Viscount Astor]) (b) for serving with distinction with the Household Cavalry siege train during WW1, losing his right leg to counter-battery fire in 1918, (c) for entering Parliament in 1922 as member for Dover, a seat he would retain until 1945, and (d) for buying The Times newspaper in 1922 following the death of Lord Northcliffe, thereby providing the Cliveden Set with a direct line to British public opinion in the 1920s and 1930s.


Astor, William Waldorf II [3rd Viscount Astor]1952: British hereditary peer Lord1952-1966 Astor [Wikipedia biography] (1907-1966) was British high society's senior sponsor for osteopath-artist Stephen Ward [q.v.] between the late 1940s and the Profumo Affair [q.v.] in 1963. They shared friends and confidences and generally partied it up, with Ward repaying invitations to aristocratic soirées by turning up with spare women.


ATF: See the entry for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms.


Atkins, Commander Thomas M., USN: Official White House cinematographer Tom Atkins [no convenient biography] was one of the several press corps old hands consigned to Car #6 in the Dallas Presidential motorcade. He managed to take some footage in Dealey Plaza and then proceeded via a short stop at the Trade Mart to Parkland Hospital, where he filmed, amongst other things, the parked-up limo #1. He then flew back to Washington in the press plane and took further footage of the arrival of the body at the White House. Atkins' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT TAKEN]; 19-minute documentary "The Last Two Days" [YouTube it now].


Atsugi Naval Air Station. American military base in the Kanagawa Prefecture of Japan [Wikipedia briefing, maps, etc.]. It is the largest U.S.N. airbase in the Pacific Theatre, and is noteworthy in the present context for having supported the CIA-led U-2 photoreconnaissance effort from 1957. LHO served at Atsugi as a radar operator between September 1957 and November 1958. Other persons of interest to the present narrative who also served/passed through the station were Gerry Hemming and E. Howard Hunt.


Attwood Mission: This was the JFK peace initiative to Fidel Castro undertaken between September and November 1963 using diplomat William Attwood as go-between. The initiative began at the United Nations on 19th September when the Guinean Ambassador to Cuba sought out Attwood between sessions and mentioned that Castro wished some sort of accommodation with the U.S. and would be willing to take part in talks about talks. The CIA, however, had significantly different plans for Castro, and so to keep things out of normal diplomatic channels Attwood chose the ABC correspondent Lisa Howard - already known to Castro - to make the next contact, with Cuba's U.N. delegate Carlos Lechuga in Manhattan. Tragically, as an ex-lover of the Cuban President, Howard was also well and truly on the CIA's radar, and her apartment was promptly bugged. A follow-up contact was in Havana and used French journalist Jean Daniel as intermediary, but by then the cat was out of the bag, and in his 2006/2010e book "Somebody Would Have Talked" Larry Hancock suggests that James Jesus Angleton, David Morales, and David Atlee Phillips all soon knew of this threat to the CIA's self-appointed role in deciding U.S. foreign policy. The upshot was that something as laudable as a peace initiative gave both the CIA (eager to avoid being marginalised) and Castro (uncertain of JFK's bona fides) good cause to discontinue Attwood's mission by force.


Attwood, William Hollingsworth: WW2 veteran, journalist, speech-writer, and diplomat William Attwood [Wikipedia biography] had just been appointed JFK's special envoy to Fidel Castro at the time of the assassination. See now the entry for the Attwood Mission.


Atwell Security: This was the Tel-Aviv based security company which was ejected from the WTC security contract in 1987 - see the entry for Avraham Shalom.


Ayers, Lieutenant (U.S.M.C.) Alexander G.: As recorded in the La Fontaines' 1996 book "Oswald Talked", Lieutenant A. G. Ayers [no convenient biography] was the officer who signed LHO's DD Form 1173, the Buff ID Card found in his wallet at the time of his arrest. Browse the Oswald's Wallet Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.


Ayers, Bradley E.: JM/WAVE CIA officer turned assassination researcher Bradley Ayers [Spartacus Educational biography] was the source in 1994 of a report naming nine persons as having "intimate operational knowledge" of how the assassination was put together. These were: Grayston Lynch, Theodore Shackley, Felix Rodriguez, Thomas Clines, Gordon Campbell, David Morales, Rip Robertson, Edward Roderick, and Tony Sforza.


Aynesworth, Hugh Grant: West Virginian high flying journalist Hugh Aynesworth [Wikipedia hagiography] was in the offices of the Dallas Morning News at around 1130hr on 22nd December 1963 (even seeing Jack Ruby there placing his weekly advertisement). He was then Ultra-conveniently (for a reporter, that is) at Elm and Houston - within 100 yards of perhaps half a dozen assorted assassins - when the shooting took place (although awkwardly not - it has recently been judged - visible in any of the photographic or cinematographic evidence). He then gathered reports from bystanders outside TSBD, while at the same time eavesdropping a DPD motorcycle radio. He thus heard of the murder of Patrolman J. D. Tippit at the same time as the DPD patrols did themselves, allowing him to get a WFAA-TV vehicle to the site of that incident just as further news came in that a suspect for this latter shooting had been sighted in the Texas Theater. A second mad dash saw him hyper-conveniently in at the arrest of LHO a few minutes later. Aynesworth is also central to the Blood or Cola Thread, having himself visited the top of the John Neely Bryan Pergola steps along with Jerry Coley around midday on Monday 25th November, only to find that the area had been scrubbed clean of the blood Coley had seen on 22nd.


ASIDE: Aynesworth has since consistently dismissed the liquid as "it was soda pop", but since nothing at all was there on 25th November he must either have seen the real stain prior to the cleaning, or seen the Hood photograph after its confiscation, or be simply passing on the hearsay of others as direct testimony.


Aynesworth has recently appeared in a 2013 retrospective with fellow witness Buell Frazier [YouTube it now]. On a visit to Cuba six weeks before the shooting (10th October) he was asked to do a favour of some sort for the CIA, but nothing came of it and he received no payment. Aynesworth's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; HSCA [NOT CALLED]; Much to browse online.


Ayres, Joseph: Chief Steward on Air Force One Joseph Ayres [no convenient biography] might have been able to throw light on the Medical Cover Up Thread, but died in a convenient hunting accident in August 1977. His death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".


Babushka Lady: Known only from other photographs and films the still-unidentified [January 2018] eyewitness known semi-officially as the Babushka Lady [Wikipedia briefing] was filming the event from the median lawn of Dealey Plaza just south of Elm Street, level with the John Neely Bryan Pergola. After the shooting she seems to have calmly finished her film, before disappearing unhurriedly into the crowd. One Beverly Oliver claimed she was the person in question, and that her film had been confiscated by law officers on the day, but this story has not been fully corroborated. We shall therefore leave both person and - far more importantly - her film on the Unsolved Riddles Thread.


Backyard Photographs: These things ...


The Backyard Photographs are some of the most hotly debated pieces of evidence in the entire assassination story. According to the official narrative they were taken in the backyard of 214 West Nealy Street, Dallas, on 31st March 1963, confessedly by Marina Oswald using her husband's Imperial Reflex camera, and two prints (CE-133-A and CE-133-B) and one negative (CE-749) were discovered in the garage at the Paine House on 23rd November by Officers Gus Rose and Richard Stovall. Alternative theories began perhaps an hour later at DPDHQ when LHO was shown the photographs, only to reply that they were his head superimposed onto somebody else's body. The debate has swung back and forth between the two extremes of opinion ever since, supported by a test-tubes-at-20-paces battle of photoforensic  experts. YouTube here for some of the doubts. In 1978, the School of Photographic Arts and Sciences gave three of their experts the task of briefing the HSCA as to the validity of the exhibits [full text online]. The report testified, amongst many other things, as follows ...


(1) Fine markings on CE-749 matched those on fresh negatives exposed in LHO's camera, and CE-749 produced CE-133-B when printed.


(2) None of the scratchmarks were abruptly discontinuous as they would be if photocomposited.


(3) No evidence of head substitution was seen.


Then, in 1975 a third slightly variant positive came to light, CE-133-C, previously in the possession of Geneva White [by then Dees]. Again, on 1st April 1977 a signed copy of CE-133-A was found after his suicide in the effects of George de Mohrenschildt. And finally, in 1992, a photographic matte came out of the woodwork, prepared on or about 29th November 1963 by DPD crime scene photographer Bobby Brown, in which any properly posed figure might be inserted into a positive of the rest of CE-133-C; an artifice found in every major fairground and theme-park on earth. The black clothing was ever found amongst LHO's personal possessions (Roe, 2016).


Badgeman: A uniformed shooter revealed on the western end of the John Neely Bryan Pergola during the 1980s in the Mary Moorman #5 photograph by optical enlargement and more recently by digital enhancement by researchers such as Gary Mack and Jack White [Wikipedia entry], and since tentatively identified as either Roscoe White or Charles Rogers depending on whose theory you follow.


Bailey, [Sir]1911 Abraham [1st Baronet]1919: South African diamond miner and politician Sir Abe Bailey [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been "one of the chief plotters in the Jameson Raid [see 29th December 1895]" (Quigley, 1949, p46), (b) for having been "one of the chief, if not the chief, financial supporters of the Milner Group in the period up to 1925" (Quigley, 1949, p46) ...


ASIDE: He is reported as having funded both the Round Table Movement [see own entry] and Chatham House [see own entry].


(c) for being a business associate of Herbert Hoover, another member of the Anglo-American Secret Elite (Quigley, 1949), (d) for having supported the Union of South Africa from its establishment in 1920 [see 31st May 1910], (e) for losing his seat in the Union Parliament in 1924 and thereafter dividing his time between South Africa and the highly secretive world of Milner's London operation. By the 1930s he was recognised as one of the world's richest men.


Baker, Judyth Anne Vary: Indiana born laboratory scientist Judyth Baker [Spartacus Educational biography] was a high school biomedical sciences prodigy who was rewarded just after her 18th birthday with a short internship at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY. She moved on scholarship to the University of Florida in February 1962, but left a year later after a miscarriage. She then moved to New Orleans with her boyfriend Robert Alston Baker, III, and there fell in with LHO, who was - she says - trying to infiltrate New Orleans right-wing -Castro network. As such she soon met mob boss Carlos Marcello, Clay Shaw, Guy Banister, and David Ferrie. She married Bobby Baker on 2nd May 1963, but the next day he left for a three week work away. During this first absence she and LHO found work at the William Reily Coffee Company, with part-time involvement as an outstation to Dr. Alton Ochsner's Ochsner Clinic on a hush-hush government project looking at transmittable cancer led in house by Mary Sherman in "the Bone Lab". Ochsner explained that Fidel Castro was trying to kill JFK, which would likely trigger WW3, and that if - as a cigar smoker - he could be infected with a cancer extract of some sort it could save mankind. She and LHO spent the rest of the summer raising cancer-infected mice and submitting recovered cancer tissues to the main lab. That and falling in love into the bargain. On 9th August, LHO, as a potential mule for the delivery of the material into Cuba, started to cultivate the necessary pro-Castro persona by distributing leaflets on behalf of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Somehow Baker avoided the accidents and murders which disposed of most of the conspirators already mentioned, and kept her story to herself until 1999. Her own book, entitled "Me and Lee", came out in 2010. She has appeared also on numerous YouTube lectures and promotions, but they are generally too poorly constructed to do her story proper justice.


***** Two Bobby Bakers follow - do not mix them up *****


Baker, Robert Alston, III: [Background not known - Ed.] Bobby Baker [no convenient biography] was the Florida University student who married Judith Vary, thereafter Judith Vary Baker, 2nd May 1963 in Mobile, AL, and who then rather conveniently worked away two or three weeks at a time while his new wife fell for, and then conducted a double extramarital affair with LHO.


Baker, Robert Gene: Washington aide Bobby Baker [Wikipedia biography] had been closely associated with LBJ since the latter's election to the Senate in 1948, and had common business interests with him until 1960. Baker resigned as Secretary to the House Majority Leader on 7th October 1963, during an investigation for bribery, and he was eventually sentenced to 18 months in prison for tax evasion.


Baker, Russell Warren: Investigative journalist Russ Baker [Wikipedia biography] joined our story with his 2008 book "Family of Secrets", the first work to make a detailed case that George H. W. Bush had been an active CIA officer at the time of the JFK assassination and the Watergate Conspiracy. For this impudence he has been largely disowned by the mainstream media, although his WHO-WHAT-WHY social media presence is still holding out under fire [check it out].


Balfour Declaration: See Arthur Balfour [own entry and 2nd February 1917].


***** CAUTION *****


Balfour, Arthur James [1st Earl of Balfour]1922: British politician, reported sado-masochist, confessed believer in the paranormal, and described by Winston Churchill as "wicked and moral", Arthur Balfour [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having fast-tracked as a young M.P. 1874-1886 thanks to the patronage of his uncle, Lord Salisbury [see own entry], (b) for becoming Chief Secretary for Ireland in 1887, for opposing Irish Home Rule [see 8th June 1886], and for strengthening the Irish Unionists [see 2nd December 1904], (c) for serving as Prime Minister 1902-1905, during which time he created the Committee of Imperial Defence [Wikipedia briefing] and strongly supported moves to improve relations with  France [see 8th April 1904], (d) for remaining Leader of the Conservative Party after their defeat in the 1905 General Election and until 1911, (e) for becoming Foreign Secretary 1916-1919 in Lloyd George's administration, during which time he pushed for American entry into the war, issued the Balfour Declaration [see 2nd February 1917], and oversaw the Versailles Peace Conference [see 18th January 1919]. Balfour features large in Docherty and MacGregor's (2012) Secret Elite Conspiracy [see the entry for Cecil Rhodes], where he is described as having been one of those "seduced" by Britain's Zionist lobby over the preceding two decades.


Ballin, Albert: German shipping magnate Albert Ballin [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having inherited the Hamburg-America Line (HAPAG) [see 22nd January 1891] in 1874, and (b) for turning it into the world's largest shipping company by cornering the market for European emigrants to the Americas.


Banfield, Bill: NPIC [=National Photographic Interpretation Center] employee. Features in the entry for Dino Brugioni. Browse the Zapruder Film Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.


Banister, William Guy: One-time FBI agent, retired Assistant Superintendent of the New Orleans Police Department, and "first-class prick" (Mac Kenzie (and Hooke), Chap 2) Guy Banister [Wikipedia biography] was one of the leading lights in New Orleans' right-wing activist community, with links to Permindex, Clay Shaw, David Ferrie, and Carlos Marcello. He would in due course be named in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so inner sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination.


Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI): [Not to be confused with International Credit Bank of Geneva] The Luxembourg registered bank BCCI [Wikipedia briefing] was forced into liquidation in 1991 and placed under investigation for money laundering, the funding of covert operations (including terrorism), and fraud. Links with the CIA have also been mentioned in a number of mainstream academic histories of the collapse. Here, for example, is how Peter Dale Scott's [q.v.] 2015 book "Dallas '63" explained how the U.S. deep state circumvented moves to curtail its operations in the mid-1970s ...


"... a number of the CIA's allied intelligence services, in France, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Morocco, had allied in the so-called Safari Club to serve as an alternative source of funding and financing of covert operations. In this they used the resources and networks of the drug-laundering Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI). CIA assets like Adnan Kashoggi and David Rappaport, assisted by officially retired CIA personnel like Miles Copeland [q.v.] and Jerry Townsend, were part of this global BCCI network" (§6205). [This extract continues without break in the entry for Safari Club.]


Bank of North America: Approved by Congress on 26th May 1781 to a specification by Superintendent of Finance Robert Morris [see own entry], and with pump-priming funding from the French, the Bank of North America [Wikipedia briefing] was the United States' first post-Revolutionary bank. Its first President was Morris' long-term business partner Thomas Willing [see own entry].


Banned Books: Books have been controlled ever since Warlord X discovered that a good way to belittle Warlords Y and Z was to deface their statues, grind their icons into the dust, and (literally or figuratively) urinate in their temples. The Catholic Church maintained the Index Librorum Prohibitorum until as recently as 1966, the Nazis banned as "degenerate" anything remotely avant garde, the Soviets anything bourgeois, the Maoists anything imperialist, and ISIS anything western. Ideas, in other words, are universally recognised as offensive weapons. Note, however, that in his 2014e Series Introduction to Open Road Media's Forbidden Bookshelf, Professor of Media Studies Mark Crispin Miller [Wikipedia biography] stresses that an administration can ban books covertly every bit as easily as overtly: they simply get their friends in the publishing business to damn targeted works with anything between faint praise and deathly silence.


Bannerman, Robert L.: CIA officer since 1947 and experienced Cold War warrior Robert Bannerman [no convenient biography] was presently the CIA's Director of Security.


Barclay, Michael James: Dallas lawyer Mike Barclay [no convenient biography] was at the corner of Main Street and Houston when the motorcade passed by, and personally heard the shooting from the direction of the TSBD. Later that weekend, after LHO had himself been shot, and with Jack Ruby in custody, he had a chance meeting with Ruby's flatshare George Senator, whom he reassured that he should expect no public reprisals against the shared residence.


Barcroft, Joseph: See the entry for Porton Down.



Baring, Evelyn, 1st Earl of Cromer: British diplomat and colonial administrator Lord Cromer [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for being mentioned in Chapter 12 of Jim Macgregor [see own entry] and Gerry Docherty's [see own entry] 2017 book "Prolonging the Agony" [see own entry]. In this particular chapter the authors are questioning the true motives for the Anglo-French move against the Dardanelles in Spring 1915 [see entire thread from 1st January 1915], suspecting that the whole thing was a deliberately engineered piece of political theatre designed to keep the Russians in the war by promising them Constantinople. Lord Cromer, they note, was brought in to oversee the subsequent whitewash, being Chairman of the Dardanelles Commission [see own entry] from its creation in July 1916 to his death in January 1917 (when he was replaced by Sir William Pickford [see own entry]).


Baring Family (Bankers and "Merchants of War" [check it out]) at a Glance: The Baring family dynasty began when 20-year-old German wool merchant Johann Baring [Wikipedia biography] settled in Britain in 1717 and married into a large dowry. His first and third sons John Baring [Wikipedia biography] and Francis Baring [Wikipedia biography] set up in business in 1762 as John and Francis Baring and Company (although John seems to have been mostly a silent partner). Then came a merger with Hope and Company [Wikipedia briefing], a Scottish-run bank in Amsterdam with family connections in the Americas. During the 1790s, Francis Baring recruited his five sons, one after the other as they came of useful age, as associates-in-training. The second son, Alexander Baring [1st Baron Ashburton]1835 [Wikipedia biography] was sent firstly to Amsterdam in 1792 to work with Hope and Company as "principal assistant in Mr. Hope's counting house". That same year Francis Baring became Chairman of the East India Company. In January 1795 the Hope Company, complete with Alexander Baring, fled Amsterdam cause de guerre and re-settled in London. That September, Alexander was sent across to Boston on his first adult assignment, and in the ensuing eight years made himself the liaison man of choice for British-American capital loans, and married William Bingham's [see own entry] daughter Ann Louisa Bingham into the bargain. The merged Barings and Hope Bank, and Alexander Baring in particular, then made a name for themselves by financing Napoleon Bonaparte's 1803 Louisiana Sale [Wikipedia briefing] for (reportedly) what would today be in the order of $600 billion (much of which Napoleon then spent fighting Britain). In 1804, Barings and Hope became Baring Brothers and Company, with Alexander as senior partner. The company continued to trade in like vein, sometimes losing deals to rival N. M. Rothschild and Sons [check them out], and sometimes collaborating with them. In 1835 Alexander Baring, for services to the British Establishment, becomes Baron Ashburton and a member of the British Establishment.


ASIDE: Taking the grand view, Tearle (2017) makes much of this ennobling. Not only is it the first time a mere merchant (rather than a warlord-landowner) has become British aristocracy, but the later Lords and Ladies Ashburton will go on to diffuse British high society, including, via the Spencer line, the present [October 2018] heir to the throne.


Then in 1856 young Edward ["Ned"] Baring [1st Baron Revelstoke]1885 [Wikipedia biography] became a partner, and international high finance started to take on its modern swashbuckling spirit. One of Master Edward's favourite investments was the bankrolling of railway construction via the corporate bond market, which he did for the Canadian Pacific and Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe railways, amongst others. He was rewarded by being made a director of the Bank of England in 1879, a peer in 1885, and chairman of Lloyd's of London in 1887. However his brokering of South American debt in the late 1880s was nigh on disastrous and the entire bank nearly failed in the Panic of 1890 [check it out]. After 1890 Lord Ned retired in comfortable disgrace and the company was piloted toward WW1 and its reputation restored by John Baring [2nd Baron Revelstoke]1897 [Wikipedia biography]. In 1995, of course, Barings went down for good when a derivatives trader named Nick Leeson [Wikipedia biography] exposed the money market for the unregulated casino that it was [YouTube it now]. They took the dreams of a lot of innocent people with them.


Barker, Bernard Leon: Havana born Cuban-American, WW2 (USAF) veteran, one-time member of Fulgencio Batista's secret police, sometime FBI undercover agent, sometime CIA operative, and participant in the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Bernard Barker [Wikipedia biography] is now widely suspected as having been on the assassination team representing Team Santo Trafficante, as a fake SS agent at the top of the Grassy Knoll, whose job it was to turn away genuine law officers while the actual shooters made their get-away [as happened, for example, to Mo Mabra]. His story only started to emerge after he was convicted 1st January 1975 for taking part in the 1972 Watergate Affair.


Barnes, Tracy: Following the King Memorandum to the National Security Council and the consequent authorisation of Operation 40, WW2 veteran OSS agent and long time CIA luminary Tracy Barnes [Spartacus Educational biography] was made Chief of the CIA's Cuban Task Force. On 18th June 1960 he reportedly met with E. Howard Hunt, David Atlee Phillips, and others to plan specific anti-Castro operations, not least the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Oilmen George H. W. Bush and Jack Crichton would provide funding.


Barnes, Sergeant W. E.: Having been despatched to the J. D. Tippit Officer-Down call in Oak Cliff. Sergeant W. E. Barnes was the DPD officer who then processed the murder scene, finding the discarded jacket in the nearby parking lot. He then attended the arrest site at the Texas Theater.


Barrett, Robert M.: FBI agent Bob Barrett [no convenient biography] was the FBI's first responder at the J. D. Tippit crime scene, and witnessed LHO's wallet - having been picked up by Officer Kenneth Croy moments earlier - being checked out by Captain Bill Westbrook [q.v.] - YouTube his recollections now. Barrett's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]. Browse the Oswald's Wallet Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story.


Barrington-Ward, Robert McGowan: British journalist and distinguished WW1 veteran Robert Barrington-Ward [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having been Assistant Editor of The Times between 1927 and 1941 and then Editor of same between 1941 and 1948.


Batista, Fulgencio: Cuban politician Fulgencio Batista [Wikipedia biography] was U.S.-backed President of Cuba until - after a decade in bed with American mobsters such as Meyer Lansky and Lucky Luciano - deposed by the Castro Revolution on 1st January 1959.


Bauer, Max Hermann: WW1 veteran Max Bauer [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having commanded the German siege artillery in the 1914 invasion of Belgium [see 5th August 1914], and (b) for having headed up the 1927-1938 German Military Mission [see ??th November 1927] to Chiang Kai-Shek. Somewhat ironically, Bauer, one of whose areas of WW1 expertise was chemical warfare, died unexpectedly 6th May 1929, possibly/probably of a deliberately inflicted smallpox infection.


Beer, George Louis: American historian and politico-economic theorist George Beer [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been the first non-Briton to join the Round Table Movement [see own entry] in 1910, acting thereafter as the New York correspondent of the Round Table Journal and generally speaking out in favour of an early American entry into WW1, (b) for suggesting 1st January 1918 that any future League of Nations should operate a mandate system by which the administration of war-gained territories should be farmed out to individual nations, (c) for thereby being invited into the American delegation to the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference, advising on colonial questions, (d) for duly being installed by the Milner Group as head of the Mandate Department when it was formed in 1919, and (e) for helping to found Chatham House and (its American sister) the Council on Foreign Relations [see own entry] prior to his career being prematurely cut short by illness 15th March 1920.


Beers, Ira Jefferson ["Jack"], Jr.: Dallas Morning News photographer Jack Beers [no convenient biography] was in his lab developing footage taken earlier in the day at Love Field. About 20 minutes after the shooting his editor sent him to the TSBD where he filmed both external and internal scenes (including on TSBD6). On 23rd November he covered City Hall, and on 24th he was in the basement at the time of the Jack Ruby shooting. Beers died 1975 of a heart attack, aged 51 years. His evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].


Begin, Menachem: Menachem Begin [Wikipedia biography] joined and helped expand the Zionist militant group Irgun [Wikipedia briefing] in 1944 to engage in armed rebellion against the British Mandate forces in what was then Palestine.


Behn, Gerald A.: Although Jerry Behn [no convenient biography] was SAIC [=Special Agent in Charge] of the SS White House Detail, whose job it was to ride the President's coat tails at all times, he was being deputised for on 22nd November 1963 by Roy Kellerman.


Beit, Alfred: German-born, Amsterdam-trained, South African-flourished, and Britain-retired Alfred Beit [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for knowing a good retail diamond when he saw one (thanks to his Amsterdam experience), for (b) recognising good diamond workings when he saw them, (c) for forming a business alliance with Cecil Rhodes in the mid-1880s, and (d) for then introducing Rhodes to Nathaniel Rothschild [see own entry] in July 1887, who duly offered him a £1 million loan with which to buy out competitors in the Kimberley diamond fields [which is why Quigley (1949) later assessed him as having had "most to do with making the Rhodes fortune" (p46) - Ed.], (e) for being one of the original Rhodes Trustees [see own entry] in 1902, and (f)  for bequeathing £1.2 million to the Beit Railway Trust [Homepage] to bring about improvements to the transportation system in Africa, including a Cape-to-Cairo Railway.


Belin, David W.: Washington born lawyer David Belin [Wikipedia biography] was Assistant Counsel for the Warren Commission, and conducted many of the questionings referenced in the present resource. He subscribed so strongly to the official lone-nut narrative that his family reportedly read conspiracy works to him during his terminal coma in January 1999 as a test of his consciousness level☻☻☻ He defended the official view in a very informative 10th September 1981 televised head-to-head with G. Robert Blakey - YouTube it now.


Bell, Audrey D.: Nurse Audrey Bell [no convenient biography] was a senior nurse attending firstly JFK and subsequently John Connally during their emergency treatment at Parkland Hospital. She is noteworthy in the present context for the part she played in the chain of custody arguments over the Magic Bullet - YouTube her now, and then browse the Magic Bullet Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.


Bell, Mark: Dealey Plaza spectator Mark Bell [no convenient biography] took home movie footage of the motorcade from the west sidewalk of Houston just after the turn off Main. The film began with a tracking shot along Houston, complete with a sweep of the onlookers on the east sidewalk outside the Criminal Courts and County Records Building. There was then a break at the moment of the shooting (out of sight on Elm) while Bell made his way round the southern end of the water feature onto the grassed median. The film then showed with the limos accelerating away under the triple Underpass, before panning back to show the quite impressive crowd converging on the Grassy Knoll. YouTube it all now - GREAT STUFF [the final quarter of this clip is taken from several floors up and includes an uncropped frontal shot of the TSBD, showing which windows were open - we have not yet established the new camera location for this, nor the time shift involved].


Belloc, Hilaire: Anglo-French author-poet and politician Hilaire Belloc [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been a high-flying Oxford undergraduate in 1895, becoming president of the Oxford Union that Spring, (b) for having been during that time a close friend of future master-propagandist John Buchan, (c) for entering parliament as member for Salford South in 1906, a seat he would hold until 1910, (d) for having been "among Cliveden's most frequent visitors, and for a time a close friend of Nancy's [see the entries for Nancy Astor and the Cliveden Set]" (Rose, 2000, p39) ...


ASIDE: Rose describes Belloc as follows ...


"A zealous Catholic, moved by a deep vein of hysterical anti-Semitism, he allowed his bigotry conspicuous, and continuous, display" (op. cit., p39).


and (e) for being one of the many great minds recruited in September 1914 to contribute positive writings to Charles Masterman's War Propaganda Bureau [see own entry]. [THREAD = CALLERS OF INNOCENTS TO WAR]


Belmont, August: German-born banker-diplomat-politician August Belmont [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been a Rothschild man (Frankfurt chapter) [check them out], and (b) for having helped position the modern Democratic Party in the centre-right of American politics in the 1860s. He began his working life in the late 1820s as an errand boy for the Frankfurt-am-Main branch of the burgeoning Rothschild banking empire, working his way up to peripatetic confidential clerk - one of the famed Rothschild couriers. In 1837, aged only 24 years, he relocated to New York City to represent Rothschild interests there, and founded August Belmont and Company. After 20 years in a number of diplomatic posts and having regularly supported Democratic Party campaigns he was made Chairman of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) in 1860, and stayed in that post until 1872.


Benavides, Domingo: 26-year-old Dallas motor mechanic Domingo Benavides [Spartacus Educational biography] was walking the zig-zag back alleys between his place of employment at Patton and Jefferson, and a motor factors at 10th and Marsalis to buy spare parts for the job he was on. He was on 10th Avenue heading west when he saw Patrolman J. D. Tippit's patrol car ahead of him. <He then provides a close-hand account of Tippit's shooting as per his Warren Commission testimony below, which see>. The shooter then made off southward along Patton, reloading his gun as he went and throwing down the spent shells [indicating that it was a revolver not an automatic - Ed.]. Benavides and another passer-by then used the patrol car's radio to alert DPD, after which he went and successfully recovered two spent shells into an empty cigarette packet, noting that they were chromed. Over the coming weeks Benavides was to receive a number of threatening phone calls, but in the event it was his brother Eddy Benavides who got killed. Domingo Benavides' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now - RECOMMENDED]; Interview to camera, CBS documentary [YouTube it now].


Benavides, Edward H.: 27-year-old Eddy Benavides [no convenient biography] was brother to Tippit witness Domingo Benavides. He was killed bystanding a bar fight in February 1965. Eddy Benavides accordingly has no evidential profile.


Ben-Gurion, David: Poland-born WW1 veteran (both sides) and long-term (1900-1948) Zionist lobbyist and party leader David Ben-Gurion [Wikipedia biography] became the first Prime Minister of the newly declared State of Israel on 17th May 1948.


Bennett, Glen A.: [Read firstly the entry for the Attwood Mission.] Special Agent (SS) Glen Bennett [no convenient biography] seems to have been assigned to the White House Detail to carry out "protective research/technical security" - the advance sweep for eavesdropping devices. He was seated rear-right in limo #2, the SS follow-up car, at the moment of the shooting, and presents as more than averagely alert in the photographic record. He heard the first shot as a "firecracker", saw the second hit home "four inches down from the right shoulder", and then the third strike "right rear high" on the head. In his 2006/2010e book "Someone Would Have Talked" Larry Hancock suggests firstly that "[JFK] had apparently become concerned that he might be under technical/electronic surveillance of some sort" (p192), and then - although far harder to confirm - that it was the CIA themselves, perhaps trying to learn more about the Attwood Mission and keen to continue shaping international affairs, who were regarded as the likely culprits. Bennett's evidential profile is as follows: Handwritten notes, 22nd November 1963 [read it now]; Report, 23rd November 1963 [read it now].


Bennett, William John: Classified within Ron Paul's List of Neocons [q.v.] as an "Other", William Bennett [Wikipedia biography] was author of the 1993 book "The Book of Virtues".


Bentley, Paul: DPD detective Paul Bentley [no convenient biography] was Code 3'd to the scene of the J. D. Tippit shooting. He then moved on to the Texas Theater, where, following time in the balcony, he was right alongside Maurice McDonald in the final tussle for LHO's pistol (during which he sprained his ankle).


***** YouTube Paul Bentley, back at the station, describing the arrest *****


Having safely negotiated LHO through the crowds outside the cinema, Bentley then sat left-alongside the suspect in the rear of the patrol car on the return to DPDHQ, with Charles Walker right-alongside. Officers Bob Carroll (driving), Gerald Hill, and Kenneth Lyons were left-to-right in the front seat. During the drive, watched by detective Gerald Hill from the front seat, he removed Oswald's Wallet [q.v.] from LHO's hip pocket.


***** YouTube Paul Bentley, on WFAA-TV the following day *****

(note early mention of wallet contents)


Only very recently (2014) will it emerge that in at least one FBI agent's opinion the Hill-Bentley wallet story was "hogwash". Bentley's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]. Browse the Oswald's Wallet Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story.



Beresford, Charles William de la Poer, 1st Baron Beresford: British aristocrat, naval commander, and politician Lord Charles Beresford [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been Junior Naval Lord between 1886 and 1888 and then Commander of the Channel Fleet on and off between 1903 and 1909, and (b) for being mentioned in Chapter 5 of Jim Macgregor [see own entry] and Gerry Docherty's [see own entry] 2017 book "Prolonging the Agony" [see own entry]. In this particular chapter the authors are questioning the effectiveness of the Royal Navy's blockade of Germany, especially when it came to shipments of cotton. Lord Beresford, they note, had raised the iniquities of the blockade in a House of Lords drains-up debate 22nd February 1916. We have checked the debate transcript (link below) and here is the nub of Beresford's complaint [the entire debate is fascinating if you have the time - Ed.] ...


"LORD BERESFORD My Lords, Lord Sydenham has made a most interesting speech and brought to the notice of your Lordships the vast amount of commodities which are entering Germany and enabling her to carry on the war. If your Lordships will allow me I will venture to make some suggestions as to how to prevent those commodities getting into Germany to the extent that they are doing at the present time. The one absorbing thought in the public mind is how we are to win this war. The Government wish to win the war just as everybody else in the country does, but there are some doubts as to whether the Government are going the right way to achieve that end. It is with regard to this that I shall venture to make some criticisms, not at all to embarrass or to harass the Government, but to do my level best to help them to do what everybody wants—namely, to win the war. I am firmly convinced that if we had had an effective blockade and had made-enemy goods absolute contraband at first, the war would now have been over—that is to say, had we asserted our legal maritime rights by International Law and effectually used the Fleet. Now we have only a "sort of blockade" carried out by Proclamations, Orders in Council, Agreements, and Committees, and it is not clear who controls that blockade. Is it controlled by the Foreign Office, the Board of Trade, or the Contraband Committee? It would be very interesting to know who is in control" (Hansard, 21, CC72-128).


Bergere, Leon F.: Shipping magnate Leon Bergere [no convenient biography] was a contact in Jack Ruby's address book.


***** The Perils of Neutrality *****

Bernadotte, Count Folke: Swedish diplomat Count Folke Bernadotte [Wikipedia biography] was the U.N. peace-keeping mediator in Israel during the Arab-Israeli War of 1948 [q.v.]. He was assassinated on 17th September 1948 in Jerusalem by militant Zionists for - in short - being too neutral.


***** "THE FATHER OF SPIN" *****


Bernays, Edward: Austrian-born American publicist turned Propagandameister Edward Bernays [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been nephew of the neuropsychologist Sigmund Freud [check him out], (b) for pre-WW1 work as a press agent and promoter of rapidly growing reputation ...


ASIDE: One of the reasons Bernays is now regularly acclaimed as the class-defining public relations man is that he made particularly good use of such emotive gimmicks as sad orphans and other charity causes (nowadays a $multi-billion leech-extraction industry, both on-line and off-line), and high-impact imagery.


(c) for his "psychological warfare" [his term - Ed.] work between 1917 and 1918 with the U.S. Bureau of Latin-American Affairs generally "selling" the war to the unconvinced, (d) for his post-war work with the Committee on Public Information (CPI) spinning the United States' coverage of the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference [see 18th January 1919], (e) for his work between 1919 and his retirement in 1963 more or less single-handedly perfecting the art of aggressive advertising - anything from bars of soap to presidential candidates, (f) for having turned his commercial skills into a fully-fledged psychological science with his 1923 book "Crystallising Public Opinion" and its 1928 follow-up "Propaganda", (g) for thereby indirectly tutoring the Nazi Propaganda Minister, Josef Goebbels, and (h) for contracting with the CIA to edit news releases during the 1954 Guatemala Coup [see 18th June 1954].


Bertram, Clay: Sometime alias of Clay Shaw.


Bethesda: [a.k.a. Bethesda Hospital; in full (1963) National Naval Medical Center; in full (2018) Walter Reed National Military Medical Center] In the present context, "Bethesda" is the colloquial name for what is nowadays [January 2018] the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center [Wikipedia briefing]. It is where, between its arrival on 22nd November 1963 and its interment on 25th, JFK's body was subject to medical examination and mortuary preparation. Browse the Medical Cover Up Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.


Bethune, Philip Higley: [Read firstly the entry for Charles Willoughby.] Long-standing U.S. Army staff officer, WW2 veteran (Tenth Army, esp. Okinawa surrender), Korean War (Eighth Army G-2 intelligence officer), and Cold War intelligence officer in Mexico, General Philip Bethune [West Point AOG obituary] had been head-hunted to the Board of the Dallas Council on World Affairs (DCWA) in 1961, and - drawing upon his wide network of contacts as speakers - was presently embarked upon a program of intellectually stimulating (and of course politically highly correct) luncheon-lecture events. These would continue every couple of months for the duration of his 1961-1968 tenure. Here are some specific events to indicate topic areas and audience ...


On 7th January 1962 he personally gave a talk on "Mexico in the Cold War" to the Shearith Israel Young Adult League (Texas Jewish Post, 4th January 1962, p6).


On 8th November 1962 Chief of Intelligence at the State Department Roger Hilsman gave a talk on relations between China and the Soviet Union (University of North Texas Libraries online).


On 20th November 1963 the Austrian Ambassador to the U.S. Winfried Plätzer gave a talk on the need for European countries to pay more toward their own defence (ibid.).


On 20th October 1964 "an old army buddy", U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam Henry Cabot Lodge, gave a talk on Vietnam and the then-recent Chinese nuclear test (ibid.).


Bewick, Moreing and Company (BMC): London-based but with provincial and foreign offices Bewick, Moreing and Company [Grace's Guide briefing] traded from the 1890s as "consulting mining engineers and managers of mines". The founding partner, Thomas John Bewick died in 1898, and the most active partners then became C. Algernon Moreing [see own entry], T. Burrell Bewick, the founder's son, and one Edward Hooper (their managing agent in Western Australia). This partnership was dissolved 18th October 1901 (London Gazette, 25th October 1901, p6941), and then re-incorporated with Moreing, Herbert Hoover [see own entry], Anthony S. Rowe [no convenient biography], and Thomas Wellsted as partners.


ASIDE: According to Liggett (1932) Hooper resigned because he regarded Rowe as a crook. If indeed he did, then he would be proved right - see 20th January 1902.


Hoover worked hard for the partnership on a series of projects, but his constant profitable networking led to so many tangential directorships that in 1908 he could afford to go it alone.


Billings, Richard N.: Long time Life Magazine staffer, CIA operative in 1963 during Operation Tilt, and on the House Select Committee on Assassinations as Editorial Director, Dick Billings [Spartacus Educational biography] was on the Life team in Dallas which negotiated the purchase of the Zapruder Film. After his HSCA experience he was co-author with G. Robert Blakey of the 1981 book "Fatal Hour", thereby helping to establish the part played by organised crime in the assassination conspiracy [there is, or course, still five years to go before the Iran-Contra Affair [Wikipedia briefing] demonstrated that the CIA were themselves part of organised crime - Ed.].  Browse the Zapruder Film Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.


Bingham, William: Philadelphia-born merchant, diplomat, banker, international deal-maker, and politician Senator[1795-1801] William Bingham [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having been a long-term associate/brother-in-law of loan-arranger supreme Francis Baring [see own entry] in the run up to the American War of Independence. The Secret Committee of the Second Continental Congress (2CC) put Messrs. Willing, Morris and Company in charge of commissioning supplies for the planned uprising, and on 3rd June 1776 they established 24-year-old Bingham on the handiest French possession, namely Martinique [Google Earth]. From here he sold on outbound shipments of American civil merchandise, and used the income to place orders for inbound shipments of munitions for the Continental Army. Ten thousand "good musquets" were top of his initial shopping list. He also ran a network of intelligence agents and directed a small squadron of privateers against the British. During 1777 his privateers captured some 200 British ships and $10 million of cargo, which he brokered to third parties in Martinique in exchange for further war materiel. If cargoes could not be delivered direct to the East Coast they were offloaded into smaller swifter blockade runners in Martinique, and then smuggled past the Royal Navy pickets. In the meantime, the 2CC had sent Benjamin Franklin [check him out] to Paris to smooth the flow of French monies into the Martinique operation from that end. Bingham returned to Philadelphia on 30th April 1780, a very rich man (albeit a large proportion of his riches was in Congressional IOUs). He was disturbed to find morale as low as the Congressional coffers, and arranged for Philadelphia's rich and powerful to club together to found the Bank of Pennsylvania [Wikipedia briefing], with a pledged capital of $300,000. The new bank opened for business 17th July 1780, and war supplies started flowing again. After the war Bingham acquired a liking for real estate speculation and between 1783 and 1786 spent time networking in Europe. While in London he was introduced to banker Francis Baring [see own entry]. Upon his return to the United States he was asked to advise Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton [see own entry] on how best to approach the nation's "financing and debts". In 1792 he bought provisional rights to two county-sized tracts of land in Maine, hoping to sell these on in packets. In 1795 Barings and Hope Bank [see own entry] installed  Francis Baring's second son, Alexander Baring [see own entry], as their agent in Boston. Alexander Baring and Bingham conducted a brief survey of the Maine lands in 1796, and a mutually profitable financing deal was duly arranged. The deal was further sweetened by Alexander Baring marrying Bingham's daughter Ann Louisa 23rd October 1798; and by them naming their first son William Bingham Baring the following year. The stage was now set for one of the greatest financial deals of all time.


BACKGROUND - "LOUISIANA" IN THE 18TH CENTURY: In the 18th Century "Louisiana" was note the modern State, but rather a territory, and at 800,000 square miles a large one at that, consisting in fact of roughly the middle third of the entire modern continental United States ...


***** see "Louisiana" on the map *****


Largely undeveloped the territory was French until 1762, when it was exchanged with Spain for possessions in Italy. Napoleon Bonaparte then approached the Spanish in 1800 and negotiated its return, to be effective 30th November 1803.


William Bingham arrived in France in 1802 just as Napoleon was realising that he had over-extended his physical empire as well as his financial one. He had land campaigns to fight much closer to home and would be happy to pass the land on to the young United States in order to stop the British getting it. Alexander Baring arrived as financial agent of the United States Government and the deal was duly done for a sale price of $15 million, or roughly 3 cents per acre (for details of the separate bonds raised, their coupons, and their redemption dates see Tearle, 2017, p175). Barings and Hope took the lion's share of the bonds, paid Napoleon the proceeds in mixed treasure, and Bingham and team took the "deeds" back to Congress (presently camping out in a half-completed Capitol complex in Washington). The researcher David Tearle minutely chronicles Bingham's highly picaresque career in "Merchants of War", his 2017 history of "revolutionary bankers" [Amazon - RECOMMENDED READING (but be ready to complete the index yourself)].


Bissell, Richard Mervin, Jr.: Senior CIA spymaster since 1954 and veteran of the U-2 programme Richard Bissell [Wikipedia biography] was appointed CIA Director of Plans in 1958 by Allen Dulles. According to Douglas Horne's 2013 book "JFK's War With The National Security Establishment" the Bay of Pigs Invasion was thus essentially Bissell's project. After its catastrophic failure JFK explained that because he could not be fired Bissell was going to be and he duly left to become a defence consultant.


Black Hundreds: The Black Hundreds [Wikipedia briefing] were a vicious Tsarist rent-a-mob around the time of the 1905 Russian Revolution. Like the Klan, like Pinkerton's 2500-strong strikebreaking army, only not so good-natured, they were fictionally "adopted" into the United States by novelist Jack London in his (1908) "The Iron Heel" [see 24th August 1908], thus (for "Iron Heel" read now "Deep State") ...


"'The Black Hundreds are being organized in the United States,' he said. 'This is the beginning. There will be more of it. The Iron Heel is getting bold.' [...] We were to see much of the Black Hundreds as the days went by. Week by week more of the socialist papers were barred from the mails, and in a number of instances the Black Hundreds destroyed the socialist presses. Of course, the newspapers of the land lived up to the reactionary policy of the ruling class, and the destroyed socialist press was misrepresented and vilified, while the Black Hundreds were represented as true patriots and saviours of society. So convincing was all this misrepresentation that even sincere ministers in the pulpit praised the Black Hundreds while regretting the necessity of violence" (Chapter 10).


Black Op Radio: Online broadcasting station fronted by Len Osanic as "the voice of political conspiracy research". The website maintains an archive of past broadcasts, and has posted several good JFK titles to YouTube, not least a 2011 interview with Blood or Cola Thread man Jerry Coley [YouTube it now - RECOMMENDED].


Blackwood, Basil: Book illustrator and "adventurer of the first order" (Quigley, 1949, p59) Basil Blackwood [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been employed in the South African Judge Advocate's Department between 1900 and 1901, and for becoming thereby a member of Milner's Kindergarten [see own entry], (b) for following this with junior diplomatic posts between 1901 and 1910 and then a civil service position back in Britain between 1910 and 1914, (c) for being commissioned into the cavalry (aged then 43) and being seriously wounded at the Battle of Mons [see 22nd August 1914 and thread], and (d) for then returning to service in the Grenadier Guards in 1916, losing his life at Boesinghe 4th July 1917.


Blahut, Regis: CIA employee Regis Blahut [no convenient biography] was dismissed the Agency in 1978 for tampering with images and items from the high security medical evidence vault containing the evidence from JFK's autopsy.


Blaine, James Gillespie: Journalist turned politician, and prophet of Expansionism, James Blaine [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having been Secretary of State under Presidents Garfield/Arthur in assassination year 1881 [check it out], and then again under Benjamin Harrison between 1989 and 1992, for it is in this decade that the Republican Party started to see political capital (as well as financial) in pushing foreign expansion. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF THE MODERN WORLD]


Blakey, G. Robert: Lawyer, diligent servant of the House Select Committee on Assassinations, and academic G. Robert Blakey [Wikipedia biography] was co-author with Richard Billings of the 1981 book "Fatal Hour".


Bledsoe, Mary E.: One time LHO's rooming landlady and with significant right-wing associations Mary Bledsoe [no convenient biography] was on a bus travelling west along Elm Street when a person she knew "was Lee Oswald because he lived in my home from October 7, 1963 to October 14, 1963" got on, looking like "a maniac" and with a "distorted" face. Because of the congestion ahead in Dealey Plaza progress was very slow, and "after three or four blocks" LHO got off again. They did not speak, and the Warren Commission did not pursue why. Indeed, it has been suggested that her testimony was just too heavily supported by written notes and too tightly stage-managed by her lawyer Melody Douthitt. Rather spookily, Mrs. Bledsoe's husband J. E. Bledsoe had been a friend of George Dealey, developer of Dealey Plaza in 1940. Bledsoe's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit 23rd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now - RECOMMENDED FOR THE FINE DETAIL OF BOTH ENCOUNTER PERIODS - NOTE THE LENGTH AND THE UNNECESSARY (PRE-SCRIPTED??) TRIVIA]. [See next Porter Bledsoe.]


Bledsoe, Porter: Son of key Warren Commission witness Mary Bledsoe and perhaps with past Civil Air Patrol associations Porter Bledsoe [no convenient biography but some Internet chatter] began to appear in conspiracy literature after being mentioned in Penn Jones' 1969 obituary for his mother. The poorly supported suspicion has since been that he was the conduit through which the FBI pre-scripted his mother's highly convenient testimony.


Blevins, Leroy, Sr: Kentucky-based JFK researcher Leroy Blevins [LinkedIn Homepage] is the author of (2014) "The JFK Assassination Report" and (2017) "Evidence of a Conspiracy".


Bloomfield, Louis Mortimer: Canadian-born lawyer, SOE operative for the British, FBI Division Five operative for the Americans, and - in what remained of his time - legitimate businessman Louis Bloomfield [Wikipedia biography; Spartacus Educational biography] was a contact in Jack Ruby's address book. He is noteworthy in the present context for being a major shareholder in the CIA front company Permindex. He would in due course be named in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so inner sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination.



Blount, Bertram: British industrial chemist Bertram Blount [Grace's Guide biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been an early 20th Century consulting expert in such topics as cement manufacture, electric furnaces, and the testing of high-tensile steel, and (b) for being mentioned in Chapter 4 of Jim Macgregor [see own entry] and Gerry Docherty's [see own entry] 2017 book "Prolonging the Agony" [see own entry]. In this particular chapter the authors are questioning the effectiveness of the Royal Navy's blockade of Germany, especially when it came to shipments of cotton. Blount, they remind us, campaigned loudly during the war for cotton to be reclassified as war contraband. Of course cotton as harvested is nothing but a seed-protecting fibrous boll, and even when combed, de-greased, twisted into yarn, and finished as underwear it is entirely innocent. When machined as webbing, however, it starts to acquire a distinct military value as strapping and machine gun belting. And when soaked in Nitric Acid its cellulose fibres become nitrocellulose, and nitrocellulose is the main ingredient of the explosive gun cotton and a 37% ingredient of the smokeless propellant cordite. Cotton - both as webbing and propellant - gives machine guns much of their murderous edge. It is therefore surprising that for the first 18 months of WW1 cotton was NOT regarded as blockade contraband. This permitted imports of cotton into neutral Holland and Scandinavia to increase from 60,000 bales in 1913 to 1.3 million bales in 1915, more than a 20-fold increase, all of the increase being destined for Germany and their war effort, at great profit to the American plantation owners and the middlemen - often British - who were involved. Cotton was hot property in wartime, in other words, and was not brought properly under blockade control until 1917.


Blumenthal, Max: See the entry for Grayzone, The.


BMC: See the entry for Bewick, Moreing and Company.


Boggs, Hale: Lawyer, politician, and WW2 veteran Hale Boggs [Wikipedia biography] was appointed to the Warren Commission on 29th November 1963.


Boland Amendment: See the entry for 21st December 1982.


Bolden, Abraham W.: Secret Service agent Abraham Bolden [Wikipedia biography] was appointed to JFK's Protection Division in 1961, but was not on front line duty in Dallas. He was charged in 1964 with accepting a bribe, convicted, and dismissed the Secret Service. While serving his sentence he got in touch with assassination researcher Mark Lane and told of a plot to assassinate the President on a visit to Chicago planned for 2nd November 1963. The visit had duly been cancelled under a covering pretext at the last moment. The possibility has since quite strongly emerged that the source of the information in the first place had been LHO wearing his FBI informer's hat. For the fuller telling of this story see James Douglass' 2008 book "JFK and the Unspeakable".


Bollyn, Christopher: Investigative journalist Christopher Bollyn [website] became noteworthy in the present context on 25th August 2010 when he published his first full article on the 9/11 False Flag Attacks [q.v.]. Since then he has published further exposés about 9/11 and other False Flags [q.v.], while at the same time doing his best to evade the threats to life which traditionally attend such bold journalism. YouTube a typical piece here.


Bolton, John Robert: American lawyer-politician John Bolton [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having been appointed National Security Advisor (NSA) in April 2018. As a Trump loyalist he played an important part in early 2019 in promoting the Guaidó/CIA Coup [see 10th January 2019, et seq.] in Venezuela. He is a member of the [ALT] Troika of Tyranny [see own entry].


Bookhout, James Willingham: FBI Special Agent Jim Bookhout [no convenient biography, but several 2009 online obituaries] had not been on duty on 22nd November 1963, but proceeded to DPDHQ when he heard of the shooting, arriving there before both Will Fritz and the newly-arrested LHO. He then witnessed LHO's arrival, but was not invited into Fritz's initial interrogation of him. He then called his boss, Dallas FBI Chief, Gordon Shanklin, who told him that he and fellow Agent James Hosty were to sit in as soon as possible. This was arranged at 1515hr, no more than "five to ten" minutes after the interrogation had begun. Bookhout contributed questions now and then, and took notes (although by the date of his Warren Commission testimony he had destroyed them). In all he was second only to Fritz in time spent interrogating LHO. When the interrogation continued on 23rd November the observers included two Secret Service men. Bookhout's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].


Boone, Eugene: Dallas County Sheriff's Deputy Eugene Boone [Abilene Reporter-News obituary, 2017] was the law officer who, having spent some minutes searching the Railway Area, entered the TSBD found the Mannlicher-Carcano C2766 behind some boxes on the west side of TSBD6. Boone's evidential profile is as follows: Sheriff's Office Notes #1, 22nd September 1963 [?]; Sheriff's Office Notes #2, 22nd September 1963 [?]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Dramatised Mock Trial testimony, 1992 [YouTube it now]; Interview to camera, 2014 [YouTube it now].


Boone, Ron: Dallas County Sheriff's Deputy Ron Boone [no convenient biography] was in the general gathering of deputies outside the Sheriff's Office as the motorcade went by. When the shooting started he headed across Elm Street, and up the Grassy Knoll to the Railway Area, where several people had been pointing. Boone's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].


Booth, [General (of the Salvation Army)]1865 William: Archetypal British do-gooder [General]1865 William Booth [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having been identified by Quigley (1949) as one of the high-level Circle of Initiates in Cecil Rhodes' 1891 Society of the Elect [see own entry], that is to say, Britain's late-19th-Century deep state. According to Quigley (1949), he was selected in absentia at that Society's February 1891 inauguration, but was too involved with his social missionary work to take the offer up.


Booth, [General (of the Salvation Army)]1912 William Bramwell: British social missionary [General]1912 Bramwell Booth [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having been identified by Quigley (1949) as one of the high-level Circle of Initiates in Cecil Rhodes' 1891 Society of the Elect [see own entry], that is to say, Britain's late-19th-Century deep state. According to Quigley (1949), he was selected in absentia at that Society's February 1891 inauguration, but was too involved with his social missionary work to take the offer up.


Booz Allen Hamilton Inc.: Established in 1914 as the archetypal management consultancy, "government services" contractor Booz Allen [Wikipedia briefing] has gone on to become the high security clearance consultancy of choice for the U.S. government. Indeed, in his 2015 book "Dallas '63" Peter Dale Scott [q.v.] estimated that some 70% of the intelligence budget was outsourced to Booz Allen. Since 2015 the firm has been closely associated with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in developing new protections against cyber attacks.


Bosch, Orlando: [a.k.a. Dark Complected Man - TENTATIVE] 37-year-old physician turned CIA field operative Orlando Bosch [Wikipedia biography] . He would later be convincingly identified as a member of the CIA's Operation 40 team and 73-death airliner terrorist, and has recently been tentatively identified by researcher Larry Rivera as Ground Zero's Dark Complected Man.


Boswell, Commander (U.S.N.) J. Thornton, MD: Military pathologist Commander Thornton Boswell [Spartacus Educational biography] was one of the three military medics who contributed to the JFK autopsy at the Bethesda Hospital between 2000hr on 23rd September 1963 and <time unrecorded> on <date unrecorded>. Browse the Medical Cover Up Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story. Boswell's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Assassination Records Review Board testimony [read it now].


Bowers, Lee Edward: 38-year-old Union Terminal Company railyard controller Lee Bowers [Wikipedia biography] was in the railyard's North Tower at the time of the shooting. At 1155hr he noted "a dirty [later specified as "red sandy"] 1959 Oldsmobile Station Wagon" enter the parking area, cruise around, and then leave again. Twenty minutes later "a 1957 Ford, Black, 2 door" entered and left. Its driver seemed to be speaking on a radio of some sort. Five minutes later still a "1961 Chevrolet, Impala, 4 door", dirty up to its windows and with the same out of state plates as the Oldsmobile, did the same.


ASIDE: Sample and Collom (1995) remark that the Oldsmobile might have been the vehicle Ruth Martinez had used to collect Loy Factor from his home in Oklahama two days previously, its dirt streaking being compatible with the rough dirt tracks in that vicinity.


There were also two men standing "within 10 or 15 feet of each other" against the picket fence, and two policemen and a number of railway workers on the tracks over the underpass. At the moment of the shooting he noted a "commotion", a "flash of light or smoke or something", "something out of the ordinary, a sort of milling around, [...] which attracted my eye for some reason, which I could not identify" in the area of the picket fence. Bowers then proceeded to play a largely unrecognised part in the police sweep of the railyard, by deliberately red-lighting at least one outbound freight so that it might be searched, and generally liaising closely with DPD despatchers. Bowers died 9th August 1966 from injuries sustained when his car either left or was forced off the road. Later second-hand evidence from (friend) Walter Rischel and (researcher) Al Navis will insist that Bowers, fearing for his life, withheld the pivotally important testimony (a) that the two figures had both fired rifles, and (b) that both wore DPD uniforms. Bowers evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit, undated [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Interview to camera, Mark Lane, 31st March 1966 [YouTube it now].



Bowles, George Frederic Stuart: British lawyer-M.P. George Bowles [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for being mentioned in Chapter 4 of Jim Macgregor [see own entry] and Gerry Docherty's [see own entry] 2017 book "Prolonging the Agony" [see own entry]. In this particular chapter the authors are questioning the effectiveness of the Royal Navy's blockade of Germany, especially when it came to shipments of cotton. Bowles, they remind us, complained after the war that his recommendations as Admiralty lawyer that intercepted maritime cargoes be confiscated were routinely countermanded by the Admiralty. [THREAD = WW1 INSIDER TRADING AND PROFITEERING]


Bowley, Temple Ford: Oak Cliff resident Temple Bowley [no convenient biography] was a witness to the shooting of Patrolman J. D. Tippit at 10th and Patton, and used the patrol car radio to alert DPDHQ. Bowley's evidential profile is as follows: DPD Despatch audio, 22nd November 1963 [YouTube it now]; Affidavit 2nd December 1963 [read it now].


Boxing Day Memo: See the entry for Sir Maurice Hankey.


Bracken, Brendan Rendall [1st Viscount Bracken]1952: Born in then-British Ireland, businessman-politician Brendan Bracken [Lord Bracken]1952 [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for an early career as financial journalist and publisher ...


ASIDE: Readers are reminded that financial journalists need to be continuously on their guard against being fed false information and generally being "used" by villains to influence the markets for criminal purposes. [THREAD = INSIDER TRADING AND STOCK-MARKET FRAUD]


(b) for becoming wealthy enough to enter Parliament in 1929 as member for Paddington North, a seat he would hold until 1945, (c) for being a supporter of Winston Churchill during his 1929-1939 "wilderness years" out of political office, (d) for setting up the 1938 emergency funding from Sir Henry Strakosch [see own entry] which allowed Churchill not to have to sell his Chequers home, (e) for lobbying for Churchill rather than Lord Halifax to replace Neville Chamberlain in May 1940, (f) for being appointed Churchill's parliamentary private secretary by way of reward, and (g) for being promoted to Minister of Information in 1941, a post he would hold until 1945, thereby controlling the narrative set by the Political Warfare Executive [see own entry].


Brading, Eugene Hale ["Jim"]: [a.k.a James Lee and Jim Braden] Rod Mac Kenzie (and Hooke)'s 2016 analysis of the assassination places California-based mobster Jim Brading [Spartacus Educational biography] in the County Records Office acting as spotter for CIA-man George H. W. Bush's shooter Chuck Nicoletti. He was unlucky enough to be arrested in that very location for "acting suspiciously", but was soon released. Brading would in due course be named in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so outer sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination. Brading is also suspected of having played a part in the RFK assassination in 1968. Brading's evidential profile is as follows: Deposition, 22nd November 1963 explaining his arrest [read it now].


Bradley, Edgar Eugene: Right-winger and long standing CIA operative Gene Bradley [no convenient biography] pops up only infrequently in the histories, and only then due to his indictment by Jim Garrison for complicity in the broader Clay Shaw conspiracy (Garrison's sources noted that he was "constantly harping on the fact that someone should kill Kennedy"). Some authors have placed him in Dallas on the day of the assassination, perhaps as official photographer; others note with interest that he had experience using storm drains as snipers' nests. Roger Craig [q.v.] tentatively identified him in 1967 as the "secret service officer" who had blanked his initial report of getaway vehicle and suspect at the foot of the Grassy Knoll.


Brand, Ed.: Dallas insurance salesman Ed. Brand [no convenient biography], who had offices across from LHO's rooming house at 1026 North Beckley Avenue, reported after the assassination that LHO had been in for a car insurance quotation in early November 1963. He had seen a driving licence in the name "O. H. Lee", and been told to expect a cash sale in the not too distant future.


Brand, Robert Henry [1st Baron Brand]1946: Well-born British civil servant turned banker-diplomat Bob Brand [Lord Brand]1946 [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context  (a) for having worked in the South African civil service during the 1900s and for thereby becoming a member of Milner's Kindergarten [see own entry], (b) for promoting the idea of a South African union between 1906 and 1908, being duly rewarded by ... (c) for joining bankers Lazard Brothers [Grace's Guide briefing] in 1909; also for being made a director of Lloyds Bank and The Times, (d) for returning to Britain in 1910 to help found the Round Table Movement [see own entry], (e) for being drawn into Lady Nancy Astor's social circle in 1912, being introduced to her sister Phyllis Néé Langhorne, (f) for helping to set up the Imperial Munitions Board of Canada [see own entry] in 1915, (g) for deputy-heading the 1917-1918 British Mission to Washington [see own entry], and for marrying the aforementioned Phyllis Langhorne while he was out there, (h) for being part of the British delegation to the 1919 Versailles Peace Conference [see own entry], as advisor on financial matters to Lord Cecil [see own entry] [he was generally a moderate on the issue of German reparations on the grounds that they would prove historically disastrous; 15 years later, the Cliveden Set got a bad name for being "appeasers" for saying much the same thing - Ed.], (i) for helping to found Chatham House in 1920, (j) for helping the Milner Group acquire The Times in 1922, (k) for buying Eydon Hall, Northamptonshire, in 1929, (l) for being based in Berlin for much of the 1930s wearing his Lazard Brothers hat, "as part of an international effort to save the German banking system" (Livingstone, 2015, p461), (m) for being part of the 1941-1944 British Food Mission to Washington [see own entry], as well as of the follow-on 1944-1946 Treasury Mission to Washington [see own entry], and (n) for heading the Milner Group between 1940 and his death in 1963 (Quigley, 1949). [THREAD = WW1 INSIDER TRADING AND PROFITEERING]


Brehm, Charles ["Chuck"]: D-Day and Korean War veteran Chuck Brehm [Wikipedia biography] was spectating with his five-year-old son from the median lawn of Dealey Plaza just south of Elm Street, level with the John Neely Bryan Pergola, and close to Babushka Lady. He saw the effects of the headshot and then fell to the ground to protect his son from any firefight, should one break out. Brehm's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Interview to camera, 1993 [YouTube it now].


Bremer, Lewis Paul, III: A foreign service diplomat since 1966 and counterterrorism advisor since 1986 Paul Bremer [Wikipedia biography] was appointed in 1999 to head the House's National Commission on Terrorism [q.v.], presenting that commission's recommendations on 8th June 2000. He was then appointed CEO of Marsh Crisis Consulting, one of the Marsh and McLennan Companies [q.v.] spread across 15 floors in both the north and south WTC towers. He was therefore well qualified to be called into the WRC-TV news studio at 1246hr on 11th September 2001 to comment on that morning's WTC attacks - YouTube that interview now, showing remarkable composure given that Marsh and McLennan's forensic accountancy suite on WTC1/93-100 had just been wiped out by a direct hit from "American Airlines Flight 11" [q.v.].


ASIDE: Marsh and McLennan lost 295 staff on 9/11, that is to say, roughly one in ten of the total body count. For details we recommend Thomas (2004 [full text online]).


Bremer's confident opinion to camera was that the very complexity of the WTC attacks meant that only three or four groups/countries could possibly have organised them, and that Iran and Iraq had to be top of the "candidates" list. Twenty months later (Iraq having drawn the short straw for the beating) he was rewarded by being appointed head of the provisional government there, despite knowing neither the country nor the Middle East, and speaking no Arabic (Rosen, 2007 [full text online]). Such measures as he introduced have been harshly appraised by critics, and he was sacked in 2004.


Brennan, Howard Leslie: 45-year-old steam fitter Howard Brennan [Wikipedia biography] was spectating during his lunch break at Houston and Elm, and his account of activity on TSBD6 will lead to his being described by Michael Kurtz in his 1982/1993 book "Crime of the Century" as the "most important" of the eyewitnesses (p27). Most notably he reported having a full facial view of the shooter in the Sniper's Nest, and contributed much of the description of the suspect subsequently BOLA'd. However not all researchers have been as impressed as Kurtz over the years, so avoid over-reliance. Brennan died in 1983, and his memoirs appeared posthumously in 1987 under the title "Eyewitness to History". Brennan's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit, 22nd November 1963 [read it now]; Affidavit, 7th May 1964 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [Part #1; Part #2].



Brett, Reginald Baliol [2nd Viscount Esher]1899: British aristocrat-politician-diplomat  Reginald Brett [Lord Esher]1899 [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for attending a meeting 15th February 1891 at Lord Rothschild's mansion - Tring Park House [Wikipedia briefing] - along with Cecil Rhodes, Arthur Balfour (later to be the signing author of the famous Balfour Declaration), Sir William Harcourt [Wikipedia biography], Albert Grey [see own entry], and Alfred Lyttleton [see own entry], at which they gave the nod - in Brett's own words - to Rhodes' "vast ideas" and "imperial notions" (Brett, 1938, p150 [full text online]), (b) for then being one of the three men (not counting Rhodes himself) who at further meetings that Spring founded Rhodes' famous secret society, specifically as the three second-tier cabbalists of the pyramidally organised Society of the Elect [see own entry] (the other two being William T. Stead and Lord Milner) ...


ASIDE: Balfour and Grey became members of the next conspiratorial tier down, namely the "Circle of Initiates". Rothschild and the others seem to have remained on the side-lines, or died before the substantive business of the Society really got under way.


(c) for accordingly being later described as "one of the most influential and one of the least known men in British politics" (Quigley, 1949, p41), thanks in large part to his contacts with Buckingham Palace ...


ASIDE: "Esher was probably the most important adviser on political matters to Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, and King George V. This position arose originally from his personal friendship with Victoria, established in the period 1885-1887, and was solidified later when [...] he was in charge of [...] all the royal residences. [...] In this way Esher reached a point where he was the chief unofficial representative of the King" (Quigley, 1949, p42).


(d) for serving on the Committee of Imperial Defence [see own entry] between 1905 and 1930, (e) for acting as a high class intelligence operative during WW1 (his son Maurice Brett is reputed to have built up the MI6 operation in Paris), and (f) for promoting the career of Maurice Hankey for a decade after WW1.

Brett, M. V. (Ed.) (1938). Journals and Letters of Reginald, Viscount Esher, Volume I. London: Ivor Nicholson.


Brewer, Johnny Calvin: Dallas shop assistant Johnny Brewer [no convenient biography] was at work in Hardy's Shoe Store, 213 West Jefferson (just down the block from the Texas Theater), when he saw a man - presumably LHO - behaving suspiciously outside. He followed the man to the Texas Theater and watched him go in. He and the cinema staff then rang the sighting in and waited until the police showed up to make the eventual arrest. Brewer's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit 6th December 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Interview to camera, 196? [YouTube it now]. Browse the Texas Theater Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.


Bridges, Henry Styles: Right-wing politician Henry Bridges [Wikipedia biography] was Senator from New Hampshire between 1937 and 1961. He is noteworthy in the present context for taking the Director of the CIA Henry Hillenkoetter to task for allowing the North Korean "surprise attack" on 25th June 1950


Brigade 2506: Recruited mainly from the anti-Castro Cuban exile community in the Miami area Assault Brigade 2506 [Wikipedia briefing] was in effect the CIA's private army for the Bay of Pigs Invasion. It lost heavily on the invasion beaches, and among its survivors were many who held JFK responsible for the loss of friends and homeland. JFK did his best to settle the resentment by addressing the survivors in the Orange Bowl Stadium, Miami, on 29th December 1962, and by promising that their battle flag would one day be returned to a "free Havana" [YouTube the audio now]; he clearly failed to convince everyone present.


Brinegar, John: Dallas gun-dealer Johnny Brinegar [no convenient biography] was one of only two arms dealers in the Dallas-Irving area which stocked the rather obscure 6.5mm ammunition (the other being John Masen). He was mentioned by Dick Russell in his 2008 book "On the Trail of the JFK Assassins", as having sold about ten boxes of 6.5mm Mannlicher-Carcano ammunition to Masen in early 1963.


Bringuier, Carlos Jose: 29-year-old Cuban lawyer Carlos Bronguier [Wikipedia biography] fled Cuba after the Castro Revolution and opened a clothing store named Casa Roca at 107 Decatur Street. He soon became the New Orleans organiser for the DRE. On 5th August 1963 LHO visited Casa Roca to offer Bringuier help in his fight against Castro; only to appear further along the street handing out pro-Castro leaflets on behalf of the FPCC on 9th August. On 21st August he took part in a radio debate with LHO chaired by CIA associate Bill Stuckey. Along with Jose Lanuza in Miami, Bringuier helped disseminate LHO's PRO-Castro credentials to the mainstream media in the late afternoon of 22nd November 1963, hitting the national headlines the following morning. This places him firmly on the LHO Patsification Thread.


British Security Coordination (BSC): See the entry for Sir William Stephenson.


Bronfman, Samuel: Having emigrated from Bessarabia to Canada as a child to escape the Tzarist Russian anti-Jewish pogroms, Samuel Bronfman [Wikipedia biography] settled in Montreal and gradually built up Distillers Corporation Limited, owners of the Seagrams whiskey brand. John Hughes-Wilson perhaps uncharitably described Bronfman in his 2013 book "JFK - An American Coup" as an "ex-Mafia bootlegger" and Zionist, and asserted strong but secretive links to Permindex.


Bronson, Charles: 45-year-old Dallas engineer Charles Bronson [no convenient biography] took 8mm footage at around 1223hr on Houston Street, of a by-stander suffering a seizure. This footage occasionally includes the upper stories of the TSBD [YouTube it now] and might well be showing a number of unclear figures on the 6th Floor. Bronson's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].


Brookhart, William G.: Special Agent (FBI) William G. Brookhart [no convenient biography] would, on 24th November, conduct the search of the apartment LHO had rented earlier in the year at 214 West Neely Street [q.v.] locating one of the two American Bakeries Pay Stubs in the name of former tenant James Jackson. They are evidentially important because, taken together, these pay stubs [TO THE EXTENT THAT THEY HAD NOT BEEN PLANTED] incontrovertibly link LHO to the premises where the Backyard Photographs [TO THE EXTENT THAT THEY HAD NOT BEEN FAKED] had been found. On 8th January 1964 Brookhart interviewed Jackson, who could only surmise that he had lost it during his tenancy there. Brookhart's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].


Brown, Earle Vincent: DPD Officer Earle Brown [no convenient biography] was securing the railway tracks area on top of the Triple Overpass, that is to say, he had no vantage over the three roadway tunnels or the two flanking pedestrian walkthroughs which passed under said overpass. He was positioned, with his patrol partner James Lomax close at hand, and Joe Murphy a little further off, as follows (from his Warren Commission testimony) [Aerial back-up needed?] ...


"Mr. BALL. On November , 1964, were you assigned to a certain post on duty? Mr. BROWN. Yes, sir. Mr. BALL. Where? Mr. BROWN. That would be the railroad overpass over Stemmons Expressway service road. Mr. BALL. Is that the one that leads of Elm? Mr. BROWN. You mean that crosses Elm? Mr. BALL. That crosses Elm, yes; the overpass across Elm. Mr. BROWN. No, sir. Mr. BALL. What does it cross? Mr. BROWN. It's over Stemmons Expressway; in other words, they make that turn of Elm and go up. Mr. BALL. You know where Elm, the corner of Elm and Houston is? Mr. BROWN. Yes, sir. Mr. BALL. Then there Is a road, the highway continues on to the west, a little south, is that what you call the Stemmons Expressway? Mr. BROWN. There's one there, too, but that overpass is actually a road. Where I was was the railroad overpass. Mr. BALL. The railroad overpass Itself? Mr. BROWN. Yes, sir. Mr. BALL. How far were you from the place where the continuation of Elm goes under the overpass? Mr. BROWN. Oh, approximately 100 yards. Mr. BALL. Let me see if we can get something In the record that will be your position. You were appointed to this particular spot? Mr. BROWN. Yes, sir. Mr. BALL. Was there another patrolman on the overpass also? Mr. BROWN. Yes, sir; James Lomax. Mr. BALL. Now, this Is the place where the railroad yards run over the highway? Mr. BROWN. Yes. Mr. BALL. And you are on the Stemmons Freeway end of It? Mr. BROWN. That's right; In other words, Stemmons Freeway and the service road both go under the underpass.


Mr. BROWN. From where I was standing they would be about half way between - no, they would be up more toward that other overpass, whet they call the triple underpass. Mr. BALL. The triple underpass? Mr. BROWN. Yea. Mr. BALL. You were about 100 yards from the triple underpass? Mr. BROWN. Approximately; yes. Mr. BALL. Was there anybody standing on the triple underpass? Mr. BROWN. On the triple underpass? Mr. BALL. Yes. Mr. BROWN. Yes, sir; they had at least two officers. Mr. BALL. Anybody but police officers? Mr. BROWN. Not that I know of. I didn't recall anyone.


Mr. BALL. Mr. Brown, I have had a map made here which I would like to have you inspect here. The railroad overpass is shown - that runs in a north and south direction? Mr. BROWN. Yes. Mr. BALL. And Stemmons Freeway overpass is shown - that runs north and south, doesn't it? Mr. BROWN. Right. Mr. BALL. Were you on either one of those overpasses? Mr. BROWN. Either one of those two there? Mr. BALL. Yes. Mr. BROWN. No, sir. Mr. BALL. Where were you? Mr. BROWN. On this overpass here - this TP Railroad overpass. Mr. BALL. The overpass that runs in an east and west direction? [THERE IS NO EAST-WEST OVERPASS, SO WE PRESUME AN EAST-WEST SIGNAL GANTRY ACROSS SOME NORTH-SOUTH TRACKS] Mr. BROWN. Right - yes, sir. Mr. BALL. Now, will you take this pen and draw on there your position on the overpass? Mr. BROWN. Well, you see, on this overpass, of course, there are the tracks and then there is a railing and then there is a catwalk on each side and we walked the catwalk, and we would come around on each end and we would walk the tracks and come around there. Mr. BALL. Where were you when you saw the President's car turn on Houston and Elm Street? Mr. BROWN. I was on the catwalk."


Now that that is established, we note that Brown personally saw smoke from the Grassy Knoll and smelled gunpowder a few moments later. That particular piece of testimony has been hotly debated ever since ...


ASIDE: The wind at 1230hr 22nd November 1963 was from the WSW, and brisk enough (officially 15 to 20mph) to flare out spectators' coats on the median south of Elm. How then, did Brown smell smoke from downwind!


DOUBLE ASIDE: Because wind can often be locally antidromic in the vicinity of man-made obstacles due to the eddy effect, we have to allow that the fumes from a Picket Fence [or South Knoll!] shooter might have come to Brown in a circular fashion. TSBD6, on the other hand, was more than twice as far away, and much higher in the wind, and may therefore - we feel - be safely discounted. We must also allow that fumes from an accidental George Hickey [q.v.] shot from on board limo #2 would have been released upwind of Brown once that vehicle had passed under the overpass!


One of the reasons that Brown's story remains controversial is that the Warren Commission - either wilfully or out of sheer incompetence [as in the extract above] - failed to ask either of his two fellow officers about either the smoke or the smell. They also did not pursue eight of the nine railway men present and told the ninth - Skinny Holland - what he saw rather than asking him (McLaren, 2013)! Officer Murphy, by contrast, gives a much clearer statement and is worth a quick divert.


When formally questioned Brown asserted that apart from two policemen there was nobody on the overpass. This is demonstrably inaccurate because a dozen or so figures can clearly been seen at the overpass parapet in many movies and still photographs. We guess that these are - mainly or exclusively - Skinny Holland's crew of railwaymen. Brown's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].


Brown, Irving: WW2 veteran (U.S. Army intelligence) Irving Brown [Wikipedia biography] was used as a "one-man OSS" field coordinator [see the entry for Arthur Goldberg] in operations to destabilise the Nazi slave labour force in Occupied Europe during WW2. He was then kept on station throughout the Cold War as part of a CIA strategy to prevent Europe's trade unions (not least those in France, Italy, Greece, and Finland) straying too far to the left.


Brown, Madeleine Duncan: LBJ's mistress between 1948 and 1969 Madeleine Brown [Wikipedia biography] entered the spotlight of publicity in 1988 when she began releasing provocative interviews. Perhaps her most significant allegation was that a meeting of senior conspirators had taken place on the evening of 21st November 1963 at the home of Clint Murchison, Sr. Amongst those who had attended were, she said, J. Edgar Hoover, Richard M. Nixon, H. L. Hunt, George Brown, and John McCloy. Brown's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Assertions in "The Men on the Sixth Floor" (1995); 80-minute interview to camera, Robert Gaylon Ross, Sr, [YouTube it now].


Brown, Robert G.: DPD Crime Search Division detective Bobby Brown [no convenient biography] had in April 1963 been one of the investigating officers in the attempted murder of General Edwin Walker [q.v.] on 10th April 1963, being responsible for the photographs taken of the scene. These darkroom skills would subsequently earn Brown an interview with researcher Alex Cox in 1993, during which it emerged that he had on or about 29th November 1963 created a photofakery "matte" [Wikipedia technical briefing] of one of perhaps the single most visually memorable public consciousness pieces of evidence in the entire case, namely the famous Backyard Photographs [q.v.]. This, in turn, got him several pages' discussion in the La Fontaines' 1996 book "Oswald Talked", who were far from impressed by the explanation Brown offered. Brown's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].


Brown, Robert K.: Vietnam War veteran (U.S. Army Green Berets) turned journalist Robert K. Brown [Wikipedia biography] was the founder in 1975 of Soldier of Fortune magazine [Wikipedia briefing], featuring tales of counter-insurgency and mercenary operations, and targeting a corresponding readership. He was then the co-author with Miguel Acoca [no convenient biography] of a February 1976 article entitled "The Bayo-Pawley Affair", an exposé of Operation Tilt [q.v.], the June 1963 commando raid into Cuba designed to obtain evidence that the Soviets had retained a covert missile presence on the island in the wake of the Cuban Missile Crisis.


Brown, Walt: Assassination researcher Walt Brown [Spartacus Educational biography] is a leading second generation JFK researcher, whose books include "The People vs Lee Harvey Oswald" (1992) and the cleverly titled "The Warren Omission" (1996). He recently promoted his work in a 2015 radio interview with Len Osanic [YouTube it now].


Brugioni, Dino Antonio: WW2 veteran (U.S.A.F.) and long-standing expert in U-2 and conventional photoreconnaissance interpretation at "Lundahl's Palace" (the CIA's NPIC Lab in Washington, DC), Dino Brugioni [Wikipedia biography] would later contribute to the mainstream literature on photofakery in his 1999 book "Photofakery: The History and Techniques of Photographic Deception and Manipulation". This work includes a 10-page discussion of the validity of the Oswald-with-Rifle photographs, the final judgement on which is that "the three photos of him were true and not tampered with" (p91). He was then interviewed in 2009 by researcher Peter Janney concerning his department's involvement with the Zapruder film on the weekend of 23rd-24th November 1963. He was called mid-afternoon on Saturday 23rd by his boss Art Lundahl, and asked to get a team into the lab in short order because SS couriers were bringing a rush job in. He duly rounded up Bill Banfield and Ralph Pearce, and the three men went in to work. At about 2200hr they were delivered an 8mm "slit" positive of the Zapruder film [presumably one of the four "true" copies known to have been developed at the Kodak Lab in Dallas].


TECHNICAL ASIDE: The then popular "Super 8" range of home movie cameras actually contained a 25-foot spool of 16mm film, only one 8mm track of which was exposed at a time. The spool was then turned over at end, and the return 8mm track exposed. The development process was thus (a) to fix a 16mm negative, (b) to produce a 16mm positive, (c) to split the 16mm into two 8mm longitudinal halves, and (d) to splice those two halves together end-to-end giving a 50-foot spool of 8mm film for projection.


Unfortunately NPIC had no 8mm projector and so Banfield had to ring round Washington's photographic shops until he found one. The team were therefore unable to start work in earnest until around midnight. They viewed the film together, being duly shocked by the contents. The SS agents then helped them select which frames to blow up and the team spent the next three or four hours producing enough unmounted prints to send the SS men away, and then continuing with producing two identical Briefing Boards. These last were collected at around dawn by Lundahl, who then had a different team produce a further set of boards from a different master later that day - see the entry for Homer McMahon for the continuation of this story. Brugioni would not learn of the second set of boards and the different master reel until interviewed in 2009 ...


ASIDE:  It is reasonable to conclude from all this that the later master had been tinkered with at Hawkeye. And of course it is one of this later set of boards which today graces the National Archives, for Brugioni has neither seen nor heard of either of his sets of boards since handing them over.


Sadly, nobody seems to have asked Brugioni in 2009 whether the system's ability to fool even its closest and most trusted servants was going to change his 1999 views as to the genuineness of the Oswald stills. Brugioni's evidential profile is as follows: Interview to camera, Peter Janney, 2009 [YouTube it now (the Brugioni footage starts 38mins in) - ESSENTIAL VIEWING]. Browse the Zapruder Film Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.


Brussell, Mae: Beverly Hills housewife Mae Brussell [Wikipedia biography] entered the assassination histories thanks to her near-obsessive collection of newspaper clippings from the period 1963-1971, by the end of which she knew more about the geopolitical milieu of Dallas politics than the intelligence services themselves (who invariably work in assignment-defined compartments). Her knowledge, and the stories it supported, earned her a KLRB-Radio talk show in 1971, in which profession she would remain until, like Jack Ruby, she succumbed to a conveniently aggressive cancer in 1988. The most lurid stories have recently been assembled in Alex Constantine's 2014 book "Investigations of Fascism in America". [Our FWIW verdict - largely smokescreen, with the gems hiding in plain sight and thus effectively concealed.]


Bruton, Admiral Henry Chester: WW2 submariner, Korean War battleship captain, and Director of Naval Communications until his retirement in 1960 Henry C. Bruton [Wikipedia biography] was vice-president of Collins Radio's Dallas factory. Browse the Collins Radio Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.


Buchan, John [1st Baron Tweedsmuir]1935: Lawyer turned author turned propagandist turned diplomat John Buchan [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been a high-flying Oxford undergraduate between 1895 and 1898, speaking at the Oxford Union in February 1898 on "The Russian Menace", and becoming president thereof that November ...


ASIDE: Quigley (1949) lists Buchan's close acquaintances as follows [each has its own, often interesting, entry]: Hilaire Belloc, F. E. Smith [later Lord Birkenhead], John Simon [later Lord Simon], Leo Amery, Thomas A. Nelson, Arthur Salter [later Lord Salter], Auberon Herbert [later Lord Lucas], Edward Wood [later Lord Halifax], and (son of the future Prime Minister) Raymond Asquith.


(b) for his 1900 anti-Russian novel "The Half-Hearted" [Wikipedia synopsis], (c) for qualifying as a lawyer in 1901, (d) for serving as private secretary to Lord Milner in South Africa between 1901 and 1903, and for thereby coming "to know well"(Rose, 2000, p83) the members of Milner's Kindergarten [see own entry] (although, Rose judges, "never counted among their number"Ibid.), (e) for spending the remainder of that decade developing ever deeper contacts with the British political intelligence fraternity, culminating in (f) for taking a vacation touring the Aegean by yacht in 1910 ...


ASIDE: Then as now, when there is an academic in a region at a time of tectonic political unrest [check out the Balkans in 1910], readers must suspect that s/he had been asked to combine her/his legitimate research activities with some political note taking - a,k,a, spying - on the side. It does not always work out as well as it did for Buchan.


(g) for breakfasting with Sir Edward Grey a few days before war broke out, (h) for being recruited by The Times in early 1915 to become one of the five correspondents attached to the British Army on the Western Front, (i) later that year for publishing the novel "The Thirty-Nine Steps" [Wikipedia synopsis], the tale of a wicked German spy ring, (j) for coming thereby to the attention of GHQ, who put him to work on their publicity releases, (k) for publishing the 1916 novel "Greenmantle" [Wikipedia synopsis], a tale of German geopolitical intrigue against British India, (l) for being thereby commissioned 26th June 1916 as Lieutenant in the Intelligence Corps, (m) for thereby being selected as one of Lloyd George's 1917 New Broom Initiatives [see own entry] to become Director of Information, being put to work in February 1917 organising a carefully targeted propaganda campaign against the Ottomans (Fromkin, 1989) ...


ASIDE: Britain's wartime propaganda machine began life as a "jumble" of civil service departments complementing the War Office's foreign and domestic press release service, M.I.7(b), thus ....


"Before [Lloyd George's] accession, propaganda was organised by the Foreign Office, and domestic propaganda (once the Parliamentary Recruiting Committee's [see own entry] role ended with the introduction of conscription) was carried out only by unofficial organisations - like the Central Committee for National Patriotic Organisations (CCNPO - supposedly confined to propaganda in the empire) [three further exemplars are then listed] whose principal merit, in the opinion of official foreign propagandists like Charles Masterman [see own entry], was in distributing their literature, thus enabling them to keep a low profile. Masterman, a writer and Liberal MP heavily involved with publicising the government's national insurance scheme since 1911, had been instructed by [Asquith] to develop propaganda for Dominion and neutral audiences in 1914. He thus established the War Propaganda Bureau [see own entry] at Wellington House [and] a conference in September 1914 [see 2nd September 1914] secured the assistance of many prominent literary figures [...] Despite its foreign propaganda remit, Wellington House also generated some material for home consumption, in part disseminated through bodies like the CCNPO" (Monger, 2012, pp24-25).


(n) for joining Maurice Baring [see own entry] in The Russia Company [see own entry] in March 1917 and for generally liaising closely with pro-war White Russians throughout the 1917 Russian Revolution, (o) for helping to set up the Publicity Department of the new National War Aims Committee (NWAC) [see own entry] in August 1917, (p) for moving in early 1919 to manage publications relating to the League of Nations [see own entry], (q) for then settling back to write a further 16 novels between 1919 and 1934, and (r) for being made Governor General of Canada in 1935, a post he would hold until his death in 1940. [Read next the entry for Buchan, John; Anti-Semitism of] [THREAD = WW1 ESPIONAGE AND INTELLIGENCE] [THREAD = CALLERS OF INNOCENTS TO WAR]


Buchan, John; Anti-Semitism of: There are a number of phrases in Buchan's novels which at first glance might easily be taken as evidence of anti-Semitism on his part. Here are three of those most frequently extracted ...


"The whole gang of Jew speculators and vulgarians who would corrupt a great country" (The Half-Hearted, Chapter 4; discussed by Lownie, 2013, p57).


"All the places with names like spells - Bokhara, Samarkand - run by seedy little gangs of communist Jews" (The Three Hostages, Chapter 1; discussed by Lownie, 2013, p230).


"The Jew is everywhere, but you have to go far down the backstairs to find him. [...And] if you're on the biggest kind of job and are bound to get to the real boss, ten to one you are brought up against a little white-faced Jew in a bath-chair with an eye like a rattlesnake" (The Thirty-Nine Steps, Chapter 1; discussed by Lownie, 2013, p247).


Nevertheless, the biographer Andrew Lownie notes that Buchan is merely characterising fictional anti-Semites for dramatic purposes, and concludes: "It is difficult to find any evidence of anti-Semitism in Buchan's own personal views [... Indeed,] his activities in the House of Commons show him to have been a committed Zionist" (Lownie, 2013, p230). [THREAD = ANTI-SEMITISM]

Lownie, A. (2013). John Buchan: The Presbyterian Cavalier. London: Thistle.



Buchanan, Sir George William: British diplomat Sir George Buchanan [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been Ambassador to Russia between 1910 and 1918, and (b) for being mentioned in Chapter 8 of Jim Macgregor [see own entry] and Gerry Docherty's [see own entry] 2017 book "Prolonging the Agony" [see own entry]. In this particular chapter the authors are questioning the true motives for the Anglo-French move against the Dardanelles in Spring 1915 [see entire thread from 1st January 1915], suspecting that the whole thing was a deliberately engineered piece of political theatre designed to keep the Russians in the war by promising them Constantinople. It was Buchanan, they note, who had since the beginning of the war been monitoring Russia's ability and will to remain in the field against Germany, and it was he who helped promote the notion of a new Anglo-French front in the Dardanelles as a suitable incentive. Buchanan also stands accused in Russian sources of secretly taking sides amongst the power factions in St. Petersburg, to the extent that if the Czar were ever to lose "his stomach for war" (op. cit., p450) Buchanan knew the people most able to replace him. Buchanan gives the usual sanitised account of his experiences as Ambassador in his three-volume 1923 memoir entitled "My Mission to Russia" (Buchanan, 1923 [full text online]).


Buck, Pearl Sydenstricker: American-born author and (Confucian)1sinophile Pearl S. Buck [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been resident in Nanking during the 1927 troubles, and (b) for winning the 1938 Nobel Prize for Literature with her Chinese novels, most notably "The House of Earth" trilogy, 1931-1935. However, Bertrand Roehner's (2014 [full text online]) dissertation entitled "Relations between U.S. Forces and the Population of China" cautions that these works seem deliberately to play down the extent of United States involvement in the region.


1ASIDE - "CONFUCIAN" Vs. MODERN CHINA: The term "Confucian" refers literally to the China of the 500BCE philosopher Confucius [Wikipedia biography], that is to say, to the two and a half millennia of imperial China which died out at the turn of the 20th Century with the "Last Emperor", Pu Yi [see 29th December 1911]. Confucian China is the China of Mandarins and peasants, of silks and parchment art, of flute and lute, of ancestor worship, of triads and tongs and temples, of isolationism and dislike of foreign devils. But to be "Confucian" in the 1920s was simply to hark back in blind hope to better times, and therefore - rightly or wrongly - Confucianism was deliberately vilified by the Chinese Communists. Confucianism was all well and good, the CPC pointed out, but it was the cause of most of the Chinese people's woes, not the cure. Hence the word nowadays usually, as here, has the pejorative meaning of <counter-revolutionary>, and in describing Pearl S. Buck as a Confucian sinophile is to imply that she was pro-Chiang Kai-Shek and anti-Mao Zedong. Sadly the American psyche has taken Confucian China - which for many meant nothing more than the brothels just outside the anchorages - far too much to heart (much more on this shortly - in the meantime, lest you think we're making it all up, enjoy this YouTube trailer - and yes, it is James Cagney).


RESEARCH ISSUE - WESTERN CINEMA AND THE CONFUCIAN IDEAL: Just as the Coca Cola Company's advertising posters from the early 1930s [check them out] define the modern iconography of Christmas, so too has the Western understanding of China been coloured by wishful thinking, mawkish sentimentality, political bias, and no little racial stereotyping. No matter whether we are thinking of Confucian China (pre-1900), Early Civil War China (1900-1931), Late Civil War China (1932-1948), or Communist China (1948 to date), we know only comic book idealisations of that nation and its people.


ASIDE: Readers are reminded that the Chinese Civil War effectively began with the Boxer Rebellion [see 2nd November 1899]. It then brought about the fragmentation of the 2100-year-old Chinese Empire into warring regional factions (the core empire lasted until 1912), and a gradual political polarisation between left and right beginning in the 1920s [see 12th March 1925]. Readers are further reminded that the Red-versus-White Russian Civil War had been fought to-and-fro across Siberia between 1919 and 1922, and that despite substantial Western and Japanese military interference Stalin's Communists were left controlling all of Russia east of the Urals [Wikipedia briefing (esp. Section 3.5)]. By the mid-1920s, Western politicians, with some justification, therefore feared a hostile Stalinist expansion southward out of Siberia into China.


In an attempt to stabilise China against Stalinist influence, the United States recognised warlord-supreme Chiang Kai-Shek and his "Nationalist" Kuomintang (KMT/GMD) administration [see own entries] as the official Chinese government in late 1927 [see 1st October 1927] (albeit much of the ensuing financial assistance was immediately spent equipping the Kuomintang Army with German equipment rather than American [see 15th November 1927]). Given a new strength of purpose by this support for their enemies, the Chinese Communists grew strong enough to mount an experiment with soviet-style government beginning in 1931 [see link below]. To complicate matters even further, early 1932 saw the increasingly expansionist Japanese (who had been a Western ally in the aforementioned Siberian intervention) begin their invasion of China from the north-east [see 28th January 1932], thereby creating a three-way shooting war between (1) the Japanese invaders, (2) the U.S.-backed Chinese Nationalists, and (3) the Chinese Communists. This situation continued until the defeat of Japan in 1945 and the Communist victory over the Nationalists in 1949 [see 1st October 1949]. Chiang Kai-Shek (until his death in 1975) and his successors have ever since carried on their anti-Communist hostility from a condition of exile on the island of Taiwan, and have survived thanks only to the protective screen provided by the U.S. Seventh Fleet [State Department briefing; see also the entry for William Pawley].


ASIDE: The recent USS Fitzgerald Incident [Wikipedia briefing] and the USS John S. McCain Incident [Wikipedia briefing] are part of the broader ongoing battle for control of/access to the South China Sea [Wikipedia briefing]. [THREAD = THE NEVER-ENDED CHINESE CIVIL WAR, 1900-ONGOING]


Buckley, William Frank, Jr.: Oil-monied WW2 veteran, CIA veteran (Mexico), and Skull and Bones member William F. Buckley, Jr. [Spartacus Educational biography]  had founded the Young Americans for Freedom (YAF) [q.v.] right-wing propaganda group on 11th September 1960, and was, at the time of the assassination, an established author/right wing politician. Following lack of election success personally, his interests shifted in 1966 to hosting the TV current affairs discussion programme Firing Line [Wikipedia briefing]. Running for some 30 years in an era which saw the Ramsay Clark Panel (1968), the Rockefeller Commission (1975), and the House Select Committee on Assassinations (1979), these shows could not help but touch occasionally (and that is all it was) upon the JFK assassination, wheeling out the official line in the persons of Allen Dulles in 1967, David Belin in 1975, and Cord Meyer in 1981. Only twice did alternative voices get a decent airing, the first occasion being when retiarius Mark Lane faced the CIA lion (1st December 1966) - YouTube it now [POSITIVELY GLADIATORIAL - ESSENTIAL VIEWING], and the second being when House Select Committee on Assassinations Chief Counsel Robert Blakey gave an update on the proceedings (10th September 1981) - YouTube it now. For the full series list, click here.





Bucknell, David ["Bucky Beaver"]: [a.k.a. Dave Bennett] Marine David Bucknell [no convenient biography] was a Marine Air Control Squadron 9 (MACS-9) messmate of LHO upon his return from Atsugi (as was a third Marine named Kerry Thornley). When interviewed by Mark Lane in 1978 he told the tale of the Queen Bee Incident [see separate entry]. When interviewed by Jim Keith in 1997 he told the tale of "Mister B" [again see separate entry], explaining that he had been too frightened for his life to mention this earlier.


Bugliosi, Vincent T., Jr.: Renowned trial lawyer Vincent Bugliosi [Wikipedia biography] took the part of the prosecutor in the 1992 Dramatised Mock Trial - see him at work here, for example.


Bundy, McGeorge: WW2 veteran (U.S. Army Intelligence) McGeorge Bundy [Wikipedia biography] was National Security Advisor between 20th January 1961 (the day JFK was inaugurated) and 28th February 1966.


Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF): The ATF [Wikipedia briefing] had been established in 1886 as the enforcement arm of the Department of the Treasury, and is part of the assassination story because it was part of an on-going crack-down on gun-runners like Jack Ruby. Browse the ATF Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story.


Burgess, Guy Francis de Moncy: British diplomat but Cambridge-raised Soviet spy Guy Burgess [Wikipedia biography] began feeding secrets to the Russian intelligence service in 1935. He joined the Foreign Office in 1944 as confidential secretary, thus gaining insight into British foreign policy. He was sent to the British Embassy in Washington, DC, in 1950, and defected at the same time as Donald MacLean in 1951.


Burke, Admiral Arleigh Albert, USN: WW2 and Korean War veteran Admiral Arleigh Burke [Wikipedia biography] was Chief of Naval Operations at the time of the Bay of Pigs Invasion. He reportedly had a fierce confrontation with JFK on 18th April 1961 over whether the carrier USS Essex should be allowed to launch aircraft to support the failing beachhead, but was overruled. He subsequently supported the use of nuclear weapons in the defence of Laos.


Burkley, Rear-Admiral George Gregory: Admiral George Burkley [no convenient biography] was JFK's personal physician, and subsequently signed off the Death Certificate, stating the cause of death as "Gunshot wound, skull".


Burris, Colonel Howard L., USAF: LBJ's Vice Presidential military aide Colonel Howard Burris [Washington Post obituary] attended the 20th July 1961 meeting of the National Security Council and prepared what has become known as the "Burris Memorandum" as a briefing for his boss.


Burris Memorandum, The: On 20th July 1961 LBJ's military aide Colonel Howard Burris summarised the proceedings of the meeting of the National Security Council at which prominent ultra-right-wingers such as General Lyman Lemnitzer and Allen Dulles argued for the legitimacy, indeed wisdom, of plan for a full-scale pre-emptive nuclear strike against the Soviet Union "in late 1963". No doubt remembering the dubious military thinking which had brought about the Bay of Pigs fiasco, JFK upped and walked out. The document remained classified until 1993, and is now [click here] reproduced as part of Purcell and Galbraith's (1994) paper "Did the U.S. Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?".


FOOD FOR THOUGHT: "First strike" had long been the recommendation of General Curtis LeMay. What JFK did next cost him his life, but saved the world. Indeed the 20th July 1961 is an historically pivotal moment in a truly apocalyptic sense, because no POTUS since that date has so much as lifted a finger to put the military-industrial complex in its place. They merely caper and prance and read their scripts. It has even been suggested that LeMay was behind the "You Yellow S.O.B.!" symbolism of Dealey Plaza's "Umbrella Man" Louie Witt; and the question then arises, of course, as to who instructed Witt to be where he was when he was, so that his umbrella would be one of the last things JFK would ever see.


Burroughs, Warren ["Butch"]: Cinema manager Warren Burroughs [Spartacus Educational biography] was on duty at the Texas Theater when at around 1315hr he served popcorn from his sales counter to a person he later identified as LHO (who had gone into the downstairs auditorium as much as 15 minutes earlier [and who therefore could not have shot J. D. Tippit a mile away at 1314hr - Ed.]). A short time later, John Brewer [therefore just after 1330hr] came in from the shoe shop down the block and informed him that the last person [whom we shall tag as LHO Look-Alike - Ed.] ...


Pivotal Occurrence: The scenario which has been suggested to explain Burrough's testimony is that the person reported by Brewer was play-acting suspicious and deliberately and ostentatiously heading to the Texas Theater as part of a pre-scripted patsification plot against LHO. It is then usually suggested that the intention was for the real LHO to be shot in the heat of the moment once the police turned up.


... who had entered the cinema had been behaving very suspiciously, and that the police ought to be told. Burroughs checked with pay kiosk clerk Julia Postal, who - possibly distracted by passing sirens - had not actually seen anyone go in without paying; but if they had not passed Burroughs either that meant they must have gone upstairs to the balcony. Not wishing to risk a confrontation, Postal directed Burroughs and Brewer to watch the front and back exits while she rang the police [just before 1345hr]. DPD despatchers then log the all units call at 1345hr, and the cars start to arrive to front and rear of the premises a couple of minutes later. [For an account of the moments of the arrest, see the entry for Maurice McDonald.] After the arrest and removal of LHO from the lower auditorium, Burroughs then witnessed a second arrest, this time of the LHO Look Alike from the balcony, who was duly bundled out of the back of the theatre; and there, according to Bernard Haire, driven off in a police car. Burroughs' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it here]. YouTube it all now. Browse the Balcony Arrest Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story (or if in a hurry go directly to the entry for T. F. White).


Bush/Walker Family (Texas Oil) at a Glance: The Bush/Walker Texas Oil family dynasty began when in 1901 Bush patriarch Samuel Prescott Bush [Wikipedia biography] became General Manager of the Buckeye Steel Castings Company, and began to rub shoulders with the Rockefellers [check them out] who owned the company and the Harrimans [check them out] who ran the railways which bought its product. By the time he retired in 1927 he had become "one of the top industrialists of his generation". His oldest son [Senator]1953-1963 Prescott Sheldon Bush [Wikipedia biography] not only made good use of his own family fortune but in 1920 married Dorothy Walker, daughter of banker George Herbert Walker, Snr. [Wikipedia biography], In 1931 he became a partner in his father-in-law's Brown Brothers, Harriman, and Company [check them out] and lived the life of a businessman until entering politics after WW2, becoming Senator in 1953. Prescott Bush's son [President]1989-1993 George Herbert Walker ["Poppy"] Bush has his own entry, as, in turn, does his oldest son [President]2001-2009 George Walker ["Dubya"] Bush. Poppy Bush's second son John Ellis ["Jeb"] Bush, Snr. [Wikipedia biography] has had a life in politics and was Governor of Florida between 1999 and 2007.


Bush, George Herbert Walker ["Poppy"]: WW2 veteran (U.S. Navy pilot) turned oilman-politician [President](41st, 1989-1993, Rep.) George H. W. Bush [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for his involvement in Texas oil in the early 1950s, (b) for his alleged subsequent career as CIA officer in the late 1950s and early 1960s, including - according to many Conspiracy Theories - being in/near Dealey Plaza at the time of the JFK assassination, and (c) for his known service as Director of the CIA in the mid-1970s. After the war he relocated to Texas and joined Dresser Industries [Wikipedia briefing], part of the Harriman Empire [check them out]. In 1953 he branched out on his own with Zapata Petroleum Corporation [Wikipedia briefing]. According to Rod Mac Kenzie(and Hooke)'s 2016 book "The Men That Don't Fit In", Bush was on the 2nd Floor of the Dal-Tex Building at the time of the assassination, directing shooter Chuck Nicoletti and spotter Jim Brading. Bush was subsequently elected to Congress on 3rd January 1967, became Vice President to Ronald Reagan on 20th January 1981, and elected President in his own right on 20th January 1989.


Bush, George Walker ["Dubya"]: Small-time oilman turned politician [President](43rd, 2001-2009, Rep.) George Walker ["Dubya"] Bush [Wikipedia biography], is noteworthy in the present context for allegedly knowing more about the 2001 Twin Tower Attacks [check them out] than he is letting on.


Butler, Clayton: Ambulance driver Clayton Butler [no convenient biography] was one of the two crew of the Dudley M. Hughes Funeral Home ambulance (the other being Eddie Kinsley) used to recover the body of J. D. Tippit from the 10th Street scene of his murder.


Butler, Edward Scannell: With a long history of right-wing activism in general and presently Director of the anti-Castro Information Council of the Americas (INCA), Ed Butler [Spartacus Educational biography] was a natural choice when New Orleans radio show host Bill Stuckey was looking for panellists for a head-to-head radio debate with (apparently) pro-Castro pamphleteer LHO. The interview was aired 21st August 1963, was fronted by Bill Slatter, and allowed Butler to put direct questions such as "Are you a Marxist?" - YouTube it Now [second of two items @ 36 mins in].


***** Possible accessory to the Jack Ruby shooting *****

Butler, George E.: DPD Criminal Intelligence Lieutenant George Butler [Spartacus Educational biography] had first met Jack Ruby back in 1947 as part of his specialist anti-mob duties. Ironically, he was then in charge on Sunday 24th November of security for the LHO transfer from DPDHQ to the County Jail..


CONSPIRACY ALERT: In this latter respect researcher Anthony Summers (2013e) suspects that Butler had conspired with Ruby and two other basement cops, Patrick Dean and William Harrison, to get him into the basement! Harrison, Dean, and Butler were long-term frequenters of the Carousel Club. For our own part we are less than convinced.


Butler's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].



Butler, Smedley Darlington: Veteran of the Spanish-American War [see 25th April 1898], the Philippine-American War [see 4th February 1899], the Boxer Rebellion [see 14th June 1900], several of the Banana Wars interventions [see 13th February 1903ff], Veracruz (1914), Haiti (1915), WW1, the cleaning up of organised crime in Philadelphia (1924-1926), and the 1927 China Intervention [see 11th April 1927],  Major General (U.S.M.C.) Smedley Butler [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been at the time of his death in 1940 the most decorated marine in the history of the Marine Corps, (b) having been involved at a senior command level with operations of the U.S. Navy's Asiatic Squadron during the 1927 troubles, and (c) for building up the Quantico USMC base facility at the end of the 1930s.


Butler is also noteworthy for having - like Mark Twain - undergone a one-eighty degree Damascene Conversion some time around 1930, and thereafter supporting the peace movement. In one November 1935 article, for example, he lists the real beneficiaries of the USMC's expansionary deployments during his 33 years with them, and, amongst more important things, berates Al Capone for his lack of vision, thus [we particularly like the Al Capone joke - Ed.] ...


"I spent 33 years and four months in active military service and during that period I spent most of my time as a high class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer; a gangster for capitalism. I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street. I helped purify Nicaragua for the International Banking House of Brown Brothers in 1902–1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for the American sugar interests in 1916. I helped make Honduras right for the American fruit companies in 1903. In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went on its way unmolested. Looking back on it, I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts. I operated on three continents" (Butler, November 1935).


Less well-decorated pinkoes have been pushed out of high windows for less.


Byrd, David Harold ("Dry Hole"): David Harold Byrd [Wikipedia biography] was the Texas oilman who, amongst other things, co-founded the Civil Air Patrol on 1st December 1941, bought the Texas School Book Depository in 1939, and in 1961 helped set up the conglomerate aerospace firm Ling-Temco-Vought.


Cabell, General Charles Pearce: WW2 and Pentagon veteran General Charles Cabell [Wikipedia biography] was responsible for Project Blue Book in 1952 and Deputy Director of the CIA from 1953 until forced to resign 31st January 1962 in the wake of the Bay of Pigs disaster. He has since been regularly named in "rogue CIA" theories of the assassination. He was the brother of Dallas Mayor Earle Cabell.


Cabell, Earle: Dallas businessman Earl Cabell [Wikipedia biography] was Mayor of Dallas at the time of the assassination, and because he had personally overseen the entirely unnecessary Main-Houston-Elm dogleg in the motorcade route often appears in conspiracy theories of the assassination.


Cabell, Elizabeth Holder: Traditionally referred to by the histories as "Mrs. Earle Cabell" and not by her given name Elizabeth Cabell [no convenient biography] was in the "third or fourth" (depending whether you count the pilot car) car of the Presidential motorcade. This car was turning left onto Elm at the time of the shooting, giving her direct sight of the windows of TSBD6, at which point she noted a rifle at "the first" of these. Her evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].


Cahill, Thomas A.: University of California at Davis air-pollution expert Thomas Cahill [University homepage] became noteworthy in the present context when in October 2001 he led a team which conducted an assessment of how safe it was for the WTC site clearance workforce to be breathing the plume of blue smoke still issuing from the basement pits of Ground Zero. This work was subsequently published in the 2004 paper "Analysis of Aerosols from the World Trade Center Collapse Site, New York, October 2 to October 30, 2001" [full text online]. Having categorised the air in the vicinity at the time as dangerously toxic, a $750m worker compensation package was eventually forthcoming.


Caifano, Marshall Joseph: [born Marcello Guiseppe Caifano; a.k.a. John Marshall] 52-year-old Chicago-trained Las Vegas-based mobster Marshall Caifano [Wikipedia biography] appears in some histories as a member of the Charles Nicoletti shooting team, along with Johnny Roselli and James Files. Files himself more or less confirms this theory.


Cain, Richard Scully: [a.k.a. Richard Scalzetti] "Notoriously corrupt" Chicago police officer" Richard Cain [Wikipedia biography] was a close associate of mob boss Sam Giancana. He is noteworthy in the present context for having spent much of 1961 organising the training of anti-Castro Cubans for the Bay of Pigs invasion. He was professionally whacked on 20th December 1973.


Calderón Guardia, Rafael Ángel: Costa Rican physician-politician President[1940-1944] Rafael Calderón [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having successfully balanced the commercial interests of coffee plantation owners against a relatively progressive programme of legislation (e.g., minimum wage), (b) for taking Costa Rica into WW2 on the Allied side, even though this alienated the country's many ethnic German families, (c) for having handed over amicably to Teodoro Picado [see own entry] in the 1944 elections, and then (d) for having unsuccessfully run for a second term against Otilio Ulate [see own entry] in the bad-tempered 1948 elections, and for having then been exiled during the ensuing 18 months of civil war [see 2nd February 1948]. He died in 1970.


Califano, Joseph Anthony, Jr: New York born lawyer Joseph Califano [Wikipedia biography] had been made Special Assistant to the Secretary of the Army, Cyrus Vance, in July 1962, in which role he had deputised at meetings of the Interdepartmental Coordinating Committee on Cuban Affairs (ICCCA). His notes from these meetings would emerge in 1997 as the "Califano Papers", and clearly indicate that U.S. policy toward the Castro Regime after the failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion was to rely on diplomatic, economic, and psychological attacks, using the Cuban exiles where possible, while at the same time recognising that a "contingency" might yet serve as the pretext for a second invasion attempt.


Callaway, Ted: Dallas used car salesman Ted Callaway [no convenient biography] was standing outside his car lot in Oak Cliff at around 1315hr when he heard five shots from the direction of 10th Street one block north. He then saw a man with a pistol run on past him down Patton, and then turn right (westward) onto Jefferson. Heading for the site of the shooting he saw Patrolman J. D. Tippit lying dead and used the patrol car radio to report the incident to DPD control. He then stopped a passing cab and tried unsuccessfully to catch the fugitive. Later that day he identified LHO at a DPDHQ line-up. Callaway's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit 22nd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Interview to camera, CBS, 1964 [YouTube it now].


Campbell, Donald: Some time before 0900hr on 22nd November Dallas Morning News advertising salesman Don Campbell [no convenient biography] was drinking coffee with regular Friday advertiser Jack Ruby in the company cafeteria. They were then joined at around 0900hr by Campbell's colleague Jerry Coley and the three spent some minutes chatting. [For what happened next in the Blood or Cola Thread, see the Jerry Coley entry.]


Campbell, Gordon Sutherland: Long-standing CIA officer and "maritime advisor" Gordon Campbell [Spartacus Educational biography] worked for JM/WAVE until his death in September 1962. He would be one of the nine persons identified by Bradley Ayers in 1994 as having "intimate operational knowledge" of how the assassination was put together.


Campbell, Ochus Virgil: TSBD Vice-President Ochus Campbell [no convenient biography] was spectating from the front entrance steps of the TSBD. Campbell's evidential profile is as follows: Statement to FBI, 24th November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].


Campisi, Joseph: Dallas restaurateur Joe Campisi [no convenient biography] testified to knowing Jack Ruby and his sister Eva Grant since 1947. His evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; House Select Committee on Assassinations [read it now].


Canfield, Michael: Assassination researcher Michael Canfield [no convenient biography] was co-author with Alan Weberman of the 1975 book "Coup d'État in America" [revised 1992 and now in multiple volumes].


Cantillo, Amado: Cuban exile Amado Cantillo [no convenient biography] pops up only infrequently in the histories, usually as a Grayston Lynch specialist frogman with Brigade 2506.


Caribbean Legion: The Caribbean Legion [Wikipedia briefing] was the private guerrilla army created by José Figueres [see own entry] and others in 1945, and used to help Figueres depose Teodoro Picado [see own entry] in the 1948 Costa Rican Civil War. A young Fidel Castro [see own entry] was a member in its early years.


Carousel Club: See 1312½ Commerce Street.


Carroll, Robert K.: DPD detective Bob Carroll [no convenient biography] was on kerb duty on Main Street at the time of the shooting. He was then assigned to the TSBD at around 1300hr and helped search the basement. Along with Kenneth Lyons he then relocated in the direction of the scene of the J. D. Tippit shooting, only to be diverted to the Texas Theater at the last moment. At the cinema he searched the balcony and then assisted LHO's arrest. Carroll's evidential profile is as follows: Report, 24th November 1963 [read it now (courtesy of the Portal to Texas History website)]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now].


Carter, Clifton Crawford: Veteran of OSS operations in Italy during WW2, peacetime political agent, and sometime U.S. Marshall Clifton Carter [Spartacus Educational biography] was a LBJ political aide during 1948 and from 1957. Several authors allege his involvement with JFK-assassin Mac Wallace in the commissioned silencing of Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) investigator Henry Marshall, potentially as a favour for business associate Billy Sol Estes [q.v.].


ASIDE: The AAA had been set up in 1936 to set agricultural production quotas and distribute compensations and grants, and had its own investigation team. Estes appears to have been one of the Texan milkers of the system.


Rod Mac Kenzie( and Hooke)'s 2016 analysis of the assassination places him in a forward command post on TSBD2, along with Carlos Marcello and fellow-Texan George Reese, from where they maintained radio contact with Jack Grimm's hit team on the Grassy Knoll. [Our verdict - Carter was well placed to commission terminations, but unlikely to have been in the front line. Moreover we are far from convinced by the LBJ-dunnit theory.] More certainly, Carter it was who - from LBJ's side - managed assassination propaganda in the 48 hours following the assassination, with forceful "don't talk conspiracy" calls to District Attorney Henry Wade, DPD Chief of Police Jesse Curry, and Texas Attorney General Waggoner Carr (Hancock, 2006/2010e).


Carr, Richard Randolph: WW2 veteran construction worker Richard Carr [Spartacus Educational biography] witnessed the shooting from the 7th Floor of the then-under-construction New Courthouse Building at the junction of Houston and Commerce. He had a direct view across Dealey Plaza to the TSBD facade, and specifically noted a figure at Window #3, TSBD6, whom he initially judged to be "a Secret Agent man or an FBI man", who made off after the shooting "on Commerce [Street]". Carr described this man as wearing "a hat, a felt hat, a light hat, he had on heavy-rimmed glasses, dark, the glasses were heavy-rimmed, and heavy ear pieces on his glasses"; and this is nowadays thought to be senior assassin Mac Wallace. Equally specifically Carr testified to three rifle shots coming from "behind this picket fence".


ASIDE: In court in 1969 NOLA DA Jim Garrison carefully established Carr's bona fides as a WW2 combat rifleman and experienced peacetime rifle shooter, and described him as about as expert in rifle fire as anyone could be and still be standing. The court duly accepted his judgement on rifle fire as expert testimony.


Carr also explicitly noted a "Rambler Station Wagon" with "a rack on the back" parked next to the TSBD, pointing north, whereupon (in his own words) ...


"... immediately after the shooting there was three men that emerged from behind the School Book Depository, there was a Latin, I can't say whether he was Spanish, Cuban, but he was real dark-complected, stepped out and opened the door, there was two men entered that station wagon, and the Latin drove it north on Houston. The car was in motion before the rear door was closed, "


Commerce Street runs parallel to, but south of Main Street. A fourth escapee - the man in the "heavy-rimmed glasses" - walked toward the witness for two blocks along Houston, and then turned left to proceed eastward along Commerce. Carr tailed him at a distance, and saw him get into another (unlikely same??) Rambler station wagon waiting for him a block further east. Carr was instructed in the early days by his FBI interrogators to keep quiet about all this, and survived despite repeated murder attempts to die of natural causes in 1996. Carr's evidential profile is as follows: FBI Statement, 4th January 1964 [NOT AVAILABLE, but alluded to by the House Select Committee on Assassinations in March 1979 - read that later source - RECOMMENDED]; Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Clay Shaw Trial testimony, 19th February 1969 [read it now - RECOMMENDED]. Note that along with other perfectly credible witnesses to multiple TSBD shooters - not least Carolyn Walther - Carr was, for whatever reason, not called by the Warren Commission.


Carr, Vincent Waggoner: Texan-born lawyer-politician and WW2 veteran Waggoner Carr [Wikipedia biography] was Texas Attorney General at the time of the shooting, and had breakfasted with the Presidential couple that morning in Fort Worth. He subsequently ensured that investigations within Texas properly dovetailed with those of the Warren Commission generally. His official papers are preserved as a major research archive at Texas Tech University, Lubbock - see the entry for Waggoner Carr Papers for details.


Carter, Amon Giles, Sr.: Newspaperman Amon G. Carter, Sr. [Wikipedia biography] was the founder in 1906 of the Fort Worth Star, and for the next two years vied with the rival Fort Worth Telegram for circulation. He then bought out his rival, and in 1909 began publishing as the Fort Worth Star-Telegram [Wikipedia briefing]. During the ensuing 40 years he used his influence to build up Fort Worth's commercial self-confidence, including, relevant to the present context, new production plants for Lockheed-Martin and Bell Helicopters and a new Strategic Air Command base at Carswell. Indeed, in his 2015 book "Dallas '63", Peter Dale Scott describes Carter as "one of the most powerful civilian backers of the U.S. Air Force (§2272).


Cartwright, Gary: Sportswriter for the Dallas Morning News Gary Cartwright [no convenient biography] became an assassination researcher on the side, and is noteworthy in the present context for his 1990 paper entitled "I Was Mandarin" [full text online] in which DPD Patrolman Roscoe White's wife Geneva White alleged that she had overheard her husband plotting the assassination with Jack Ruby.


Casas Saez, Miguel: [a.k.a. Angel Dominguez Martinez] Suspected Cuban intelligence agent and saboteur Miguel Casas Saez [no convenient biography] is placed in Dallas in some histories. Moreover, in his 1985 book "Reasonable Doubt", Henry C. Hurt, Jr. tells how the 1730hr flight from Mexico City to Havana on 22nd November 1963 was expressly delayed by five hours to allow Casas to catch it.


Casey, Norman L.: FBI agent Norman Casey [no convenient biography] was introduced in the La Fontaines' 1996 book "Oswald Talked" as one of two FBI men sent to Memphis to interview John Elrod, which see (the other agent being Francis Cole). Their report was substantively ignored by the Warren Commission.


Casey, William Joseph: WW2 veteran (OSS) turned lawyer-politician turned Reagan aide William Casey [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having been Director of the CIA between 1981 and 1987, that is to say, squarely in the time of the Congressionally forbidden pro-Contra intervention in Nicaragua, and the equally Congressionally forbidden Iranian Arms-for-Hostages Affair [see own entry].


Cassel, [Sir]1901 Ernest Joseph: German-born British-adopted banker Ernest Cassel [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having been one of the investors in Banque d'Outremer, and therefore - had it come off - an unwitting beneficiary of the Kaiping Coal Field Fraud of 1898-1901 [see 20th March 1898ff]; also for moving in the same social influence circles as King Edward VII, Herbert Asquith, and Winston Churchill.


Castillo Armas, Carlos: Right-wing Guatemalan soldier-politician President[1954-1957] Carlos Castillo Armas [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having been a CIA contact in Guatemala from 1950 onward, (b) for having then figure-headed the Honduras-based CIA-managed 1954 Guatemalan Coup [see 18th June 1954] which brought him to power in place of the democratically elected Jacobo Árbenz  [see own entry], and (c) for having exited international politics feet first on 26th July 1957.


Castorr, Colonel L. Robert: Veteran of the WW2 Burma Campaign, Robert Castorr [Washington Post obituary, 2005] was allegedly involved in a 1962 attempt to have Robert Perrin run guns to anti-Castro forces in Cuba. With such right-wing military credentials one might reasonably expect him to be associated with General Edwin Walker.


Castro, Fidel Alejandro: Cuban politician Fidel Castro [Wikipedia biography] deposed U. S. backed President Fulgencio Batista on 1st January 1959, ushering a period of confrontation which saw the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis, and which, according to Gary Wean's 1987 book "There's a Fish in the Courthouse", culminated in the bungled CIA-false flag operation which allowed the assassination of JFK.


CE-299: See the entry for Magic Bullet.


Cecil, Lord Robert: See under Gascoyne-Cecil.


Centro Mondiale Commerciale (CMC): This now defunct? corporation is part of the Permindex Thread. It is sometimes theorised as having owned Clay Shaw's International Trade Mart. The name translates as "World Trade Centre".


Chamorro, Violeta: Nicaraguan centrist journalist-politician President[1990-1997] Violeta Chamorro [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for being Nicaragua's first and so far only female president, (b) for supporting the rise of the Sandinistas [see own entry] in the 1978-1979 uprising against Anastasio Somoza [Jnr.] [see own entry], (c) for having then clashed quite fundamentally with Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega [see own entry], believing him to be too politically radical and campaigning against him in the run-up to the 1990 elections, and (d) for having then defeated Ortega in 1990, serving as president herself until 1997 and doing much to rebuild Nicaragua's war-ravaged economy (Ortega had attracted U.S. economic sanctions, Chamorro did not).


Chaney, Patrolman James M.: DPD motorcycle outrider James Chaney [no convenient biography] was riding inside-right of the four DPD motorcycles attached to limo #1. Chaney's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Interview to camera [YouTube it now].


Chang, Su-Yan ["Suzy"]: [a.k.a. Jackie Chang; Suzy Chu] Having been displaced by the Chinese Civil War in around 1954 Suzy Chang [Spartacus Educational biography] ended up in Birmingham, England, training as a nurse, while her parents settled in Delaware. She then abandoned her training and moved to London where she found work in West End clubs, soon falling in with society procurer Stephen Ward [q.v.]. Somehow this led to her visiting the U.S., possibly in company with Mariella Novotny [q.v.], where she fell in with society procurer Robert Gene Baker, who introduced her in turn to JFK, with whom she is reported to have had a brief affair.


Chariton, Wallace O.: Texas historian Wallace Chariton [no convenient biography] interviewed Dealey Plaza witness Jerry Coley, featuring it in his 1990 book "Unsolved Texas Mysteries". This was the origin of the Blood or Cola Thread.


Chatham House: Synecdoche for the Royal Institute of International Affairs, which see.



Chatterton, Edward Keble: British magazine editor turned WW1 naval commander (Queenstown Command, Patrol Region XXI) E. Keble Chatterton [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for being mentioned in Chapter 4 of Jim Macgregor [see own entry] and Gerry Docherty's [see own entry] 2017 book "Prolonging the Agony" [see own entry]. In this particular chapter the authors are questioning the effectiveness of the Royal Navy's blockade of Germany, especially when it came to shipments of cotton, a raw material for explosives [for the relevant chemistry see the entry for Bertram Blount]. Macgregor and Docherty cite testimony by Chatterton in his 1932 book "The Big Blockade" that the blockading fleet - his flotilla included - had not been "left alone to do its persistent duties" (Chatterton, 1932, pp166-167) thanks to constant Whitehall interference. Had that not been the case, the Royal Navy, left to its own devices, could have strangled the trade more or less totally. Here is a brief extract ...


"The work done by the [10th Cruiser] squadron has never been accurately recorded. They worked under a cloak of secrecy ... the Germans knew more about the Squadron than did our own people" (Admiral Dudley de Chair, commander 10th Cruiser Squadron 1914-1916, quoted in Chatterton, 1932, K58).

Chatterton, E. K. (1932/2018). The Big Blockade. 1932 edition - London: Hurst and Blackett. 2018 edition - Amazon Kindle under the Making History imprint.


Cheek, Bertha: Dallas businesswoman Bertha Cheek [no convenient biography] owned a number of rooming houses, as did her sister Earlene Roberts, often putting up suspicious transients. Cheek's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].


Chennault, Claire ["Old Leatherface"] Lee: WW1 veteran and interwar pursuit pilot instructor Colonel (ROCAF) Claire Chennault [Wikipedia biography; ignore apparent Frenchness and pronounce as Chen+nought] had retired from the U.S. Army Air Corps in 1937 and taken employment as a combat mercenary advising Chiang Kai-Shek's [see own entry] regime in its losing struggle against both its Communist Party of China (CPC) rivals in the Chinese Civil War [see 12th March 1925ff] and the Japanese Invasion of China [see 7th July 1937]. He soon established an "international squadron" ...


ASIDE: Students are reminded that an "International Brigade" was at this time active in the Spanish Civil War, the only difference being that that one was pro-left.


... which, during 1939-1940 became - with U.S. funding - the fledgeling ROCAF, the Republic of China Air Force [still the official Taiwanese air force in the defence of the Pacific Rim - Ed.]. After President Franklin D. Roosevelt's authorisation on 15th April 1941 of the Rangoon-headquartered American Volunteer Group ("The Flying Tigers") [see own entry], Chennault recruited some 300 American pilots and ground crew to fly into forward fields in the south of China, and from there to support ROCAF operations. For his efforts he made the front cover of Time Magazine on 6th December 1943. After the war he went into civilian aviation as Civil Air Transport [see own entry], running supplies to Chiang's ever-shrinking front-line and supporting U.S.-Nationalist intelligence operations. His organisation was then taken over [three days after the beginning of the Korean War - Ed.] as the air arm of all the CIA's South-East Asian black ops, and was active as such during the Korean War, and - renamed Air America - the Vietnam War. Chennault retired from active involvement in operations after the CIA take-over in June 1950, but stayed around for a while thanks to his intimate knowledge of the players and places in the China theatre. The Chennault Museum [museum homepage] at Monroe, Louisiana, covers the period to 1945, has many of Chennault's personal effects and campaign memorabilia on display, and is well worth a visit.


Cherami, Rose: Sometime Carousel Club stripper, drug mule, and addict Rose Cherami [Spartacus Educational biography] was found by the roadside 20th November 1963 near Eunice, LA, claiming to have been thrown from a car by two men on a mission for Jack Ruby. As her drug intoxication wore off she began to experience withdrawal symptoms, and so was relocated to the East Louisiana State Hospital at Jackson, LA. During the two hour drive she told her escorting officer Francis Frugé  that Ruby was involved in a plot to kill JFK during his impending visit to Dallas. She also repeated this story to her attending psychiatrist Dr. Victor Weiss. Neither authority gave her story any credence, until after the news of the killing came through! Cherami died in a convenient automobile accident on 4th September 1965. Her death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".


ASIDE: Unsurprisingly, there are many  theories of Cherami's death, but they have been very professionally countered. On the other hand, being able to confound a conspiracy theory is what the very best conspirators are capable of, so who knows! Our verdict [January 2018] - foul play. Just.


Cherami's foreknowledge narrative then featured vividly as one of the opening scenes in Oliver Stone's 1991 movie "JFK".


Cherryholmes, J. Edward: Pastor and journalist J. Edward Cherryholmes [no convenient biography but see 2013 obituary] was ghost-writer to assassination eyewitness Howard Brennan [q.v.] for his 1987 book "Eyewitness to History".


Chetta, Dr. Nicholas J.: NOLA Coroner and "fine public official" Nicholas Chetta [no convenient biography] performed the autopsies on Robert Perrin and David Ferrie, and in the latter case initially refused an opinion as to the cause of death. He later certified suicide. He also carried out the autopsies on Mary Sherman. Chetta conveniently died of a heart attack on 25th May 1968, aged 50 years. Henry Delaune was one of the pallbearers. His death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".


Chiang, Kai-Shek:  [alternatively transliterated as Jiang Jieshi] Right-wing traditionalist politician-warlord Chiang Kai-Shek [Wikipedia biography] was by one title or another head of state of the Nationalist Chinese government from 10th October 1928 until his death at age 87 years on 5th April 1975. For the first 21 years of this rule (specifically, until 10th December 1949) he presided over an ever-dwindling foothold on mainland China, driven back inexorably by the Communist Party of China (CPC)'s People's Liberation Army commanded by Mao Zedong [see own entry]. For the remaining 25 years of his life he ruled the Nationalist rump from the island of Formosa [modern Taiwan], initially as a U.S.-backed loser in the Chinese Civil War [see 12th March 1925ff] but with effect from 27th June 1950 as a link in the U.S. strategic defence line around the Pacific Rim, under the express protection of the U.S. Seventh Fleet.


***** CAUTION *****




Childers, Robert Erskine: Anglo-Irish lawyer, civil servant, Second Boer War veteran, anti-German spy novelist, pro-Irish activist (1908-1913), anti-British gun runner (1914), pro-British serviceman (1915-1918), Sinn Féin's chief propagandist (1919-1921), Irish Cabinet Minister (1921-1922), and finally Captain in the IRA (1922) Erskine Childers [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for joining the British civil service in 1894 as a House of Commons clerk, where he became good friends with fellow junior Basil Williams [see own entry] (soon to be recruited into Milner's Kindergarten [see own entry]), (b) for learning to sail during the long parliamentary recesses ...


ASIDE #1: His 1897 voyage to the Baltic via the Frisian Islands and the newly opened Kiel Canal would, five years later, form the basis of the novel "The Riddle of the Sands" - see below.


(c) for following Williams when war came in 1900 into the City of London Imperial Volunteers (CIV) [Wikipedia briefing], a volunteer force within the Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) [Wikipedia briefing], wherein he served as a horsed artillery driver, (c) for publishing the personal campaign memoir "In the Ranks of the CIV" [full text online] in 1900, thereby coming to the attention of the HAC's Commander-in-Chief Lord Denbigh [see own entry], (d) for thereby being commissioned as second author between 1903 and 1908 to Basil Williams in producing the HAC's broader memoir "With the HAC in South Africa" [full text online], (e) for working on a second project at the same time, namely his May 1903 novel "The Riddle of the Sands" [Wikipedia synopsis] ...


ASIDE #2: Childers' (1903) "Riddle of the Sands" was typical of the "invasion fantasy" genre of the pre-war years [see 16th March 1906], and was filmed starring Michael York in 1979. It was, Childers confessed, "a story with a purpose".


(f) for socialising/corresponding with Sir George Clarke [later Lord Sydenham] [see own entry], Secretary of the Committee of Imperial Defence [see own entry] on how best to reorganise Britain's armed forces to address deficiencies made apparent in South Africa, (g) for taking a motoring holiday through Ireland in September 1908, and for returning "finally and immutably a convert to home rule"(quoted in Ring, 1996, e2405) ...


ASIDE #3: Suspicious historians such as Macgregor and Docherty (2017) place Childers as a British intelligence asset as of this point in time, and see him as attempting to infiltrate the home rule community. Other authorities, such as Ring (1996), note his Anglo-Irish descent and judge him able to serve both Empire and Irish autonomy simultaneously. We find no problem with this, because similar calls for autonomy were afoot in Australia, Canada, and India. Most Irish, in fact, were not initially anti-Crown, just as most nationalist Americans had not initially been republicans in 1775. But they could be made revolutionaries once their passions had been deliberately rabble-roused. Our personal view is that Childers was - on balance of evidence - more likely than not just such an agent provocateur (although we remain undecided on precisely who his handlers were). The case against Childers would be openly debated  in the Dáil in 1922. More on all this shortly ...


(h) for publishing the technical monographs "War and the Arme Blanche" in 1910 and "The German Influence on British Cavalry" in 1911, jointly addressing the problem of how best to deploy cavalry against modern weapons, (i) for resigning his Westminster clerkship in October 1910, (j) for visiting Ireland again in 1911 to find up-to-date material for his 1911 book "The Framework of Home Rule", and for establishing with Basil Williams the 1912 Home Rule League [see own entry] to pamphlet and lobby for same, (k) for undertaking another Baltic trip in high summer 1913 - this time in the yacht Asgard [the Norse heavenly kingdom wherein lies Valhalla - Ed.] - along with fellow home-ruler, pioneer military aviator, and serving British Army intelligence officer Lieutenant [later Brigadier-General] Gordon Shephard [see own entry] and the Americans Barthold Schlesinger [see below] and Samuel Pierce [nothing known] ...


ASIDE #4: On this occasion Childers' fame had gone before him and he was under constant German surveillance. We are unclear whether Barthold Schlesinger is the same Barthold Schlesinger who had been CEO of armaments firm Vickers and Company's Boston operation until retiring in 1905. If the same, then he would have been too old to do much active crewing. A Sebastian Benson Schlesinger of about the same age and director of the same company had been German Consul in Boston for 17 years - perhaps Barthold's brother? Schlesinger seems to have been dropped off at Stockholm half way through the voyage.


(l) for immediately undertaking yet another fact-finding visit to Ireland in September 1913, during which visit he had talks with nationalist extremist Sir Roger Casement [see own entry] concerning the likelihood of an Ulster-versus-the Rest civil war ...


ASIDE #5: Ireland had been self-governing under the British Crown since 1782, but with a strong identity as a conquered and colonised nation in its own right. It had a non-indigenous British squire-ocracy superimposed upon an indigenous Irish population (less so in the six northern counties of Ulster, where many empire loyalists had been deliberately immigrated). It was thus easy for nationalist fervour to be deliberately inflamed by Britain's enemies, as was attempted by France in 1791 [see ??th October 1791]. Britain and Ireland then passed back-to-back Acts of Union at the turn of the century [see 1st August 1800], and by 1870 nationalist tensions had been domesticated into a peaceful Home Rule political movement [see 19th May 1870, and onward thread]. By 1913, however, the confrontation had grown more visceral. Led by Sir Edward Carson, Ulster's empire loyalists had, in September 1912, just signed the Ulster Covenant [see 28th September 1912], swearing to do whatever it might take to prevent home rule. This was followed in January 1913 by the formation of the paramilitary Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) [see own entry]. The Irish nationalists then responded by setting up the Irish Volunteers [see own entry]. The two forces paraded regularly against each other, but initially lacked the arms to do anything more serious. The UVF were then the first to become armed, thanks to the April 1914 gun-running at Larne [see 24th April 1914], and this set the stage not just for the Volunteers to be armed in their turn, but - should those arms be sourced in Germany - for this to be construed as an act of war on their part!


(m) for disagreeing so vehemently with Asquith's concessions to Carson that he withdrew from The Liberal Party's list of prospective parliamentary candidates, (n) for joining a possibly treasonous conclave, working with Mary Spring Rice [see own entry], his wife Molly, Casement, and others to obtain rifles for the Irish Volunteers, (o) for travelling to Hamburg to make the necessary purchase, (p) for setting off in Asgard 3rd July 1914, crewed by Shephard again (now a pilot in the newly created Royal Flying Corps) and a friend of his Colonel Robert Henry Pipon [nothing known; Ring (1996) is the only source] (who reportedly thought it all a "crackpot" scheme), (q) for making rendezvous 12th July 1914 at the Ruytingen Lightship, south of the Goodwin Sands, and successfully taking on the weapons, (r) for offloading same 26th July 1914 in Howth harbour, Dublin Bay, onto the shoulders of 800 waiting Volunteers, and then sailing blithely off back to England, (s) for then returning to Ireland a fortnight later for further meetings with the Volunteers, only to be interrupted during a 16th August 1914 meeting by the arrival of a telegram from the Director of Naval Intelligence summoning him to the Admiralty ...


LEST IT GO UNNOTICED: So only days after successfully evading Royal Navy patrols (they might have been deliberately looking the wrong way, remember) and arming a battalion of potential German allies, and at a planning meeting with the commanders of said battalion, who count him as a friend - nay, hero - to the cause, he received a telegram from Whitehall [think of it as James Bond getting a text from "M" half way through telling Dr. No that he had nothing to worry about - Ed.]. Not only do the Irish nationalists never totally trust him again, but it is one of the reasons why the Howth Gun-Running [see 26th July 1914] has been portrayed by Docherty and MacGregor (2012 [Amazon]) as nothing less than a deliberately staged Milner Group [see the entry for Cecil Rhodes] pretext for a pre-emptive British declaration of war against Germany, only rendered unnecessary at the last minute by the German invasion of Belgium!


(t) for returning immediately to London for talks with the Fourth Sea Lord, a commission as Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, and deployment aboard the seaplane tender HMS Engadine [Wikipedia shipography], to help ready it for a surprise attack on the German North Sea coast, (u) for taking part (as navigator-observer) in the resulting Cuxhaven Raid [see 25th December 1914] (the first Carrier Raid in history), (v) for transferring in January 1915 to the larger HMS Ben-My-Chree [Wikipedia shipography], arriving for service in the Gallipoli Campaign on 10th June 1915, there to conduct world-first experiments with air-launched torpedoes [see 12th August 1915] ...


ASIDE #6: One of the as-yet-unsolved mysteries of the war is why Childers had a consignment of "wool" addressed to him aboard the Lusitania on her fateful final voyage in May 1915. To line his squadron's flying boots, perhaps?


(w) for being transferred in June 1916 to an experimental fast torpedo boat squadron based at Harwich, now with the rank of Lieutenant-Commander, (x) for being seconded 27th July 1917 to the secretariat to the (in the event abortive) 1917-1918 Irish Convention [Wikipedia briefing] then gathering in Dublin, (y) for moving on, now as RAF intelligence officer, to help plan a strategic bombing offensive against Germany (bad weather cancelled the first raid 10th November 1918, and the Armistice was announced the following day), (z) for being formally demobbed 10th March 1919, quickly drifting back into Irish politics (now bloodier than ever), (aa) for lobbying on behalf of Sinn Féin so well in April 1919 that he was chosen in May to attend the Versailles Peace Conference as part of their delegation, (ab) for taking a directorship in April 1919 with the Irish National Land Bank, (ac) for being appointed in July 1920 to the Standing Executive Committee of the National White Cross [see own entry] to administer the flow of donations coming in from the United States (much of it thanks to Childers' publicity offensive), (ad) for becoming increasingly aggressive with his writings in late 1920, as sectarian violence intensified, (ae) for thereby becoming Sinn Féin's Director of Propaganda in February 1921 (in part because he knew how to get through to the English audience), (af) for becoming T.D. [Irish Gaelic = Member of Parliament] for Kildare and Wicklow in the experimental Irish Parliament in April 1921, and then for being appointed Minister of Publicity, a Cabinet post, under Éamon de Valera and alongside Michael Collins, (ag) for serving as Secretary to the Irish delegation to talks in London between October and early December 1921, at which Britain offered Ireland Dominion status but the Irish held out for full independence as a republic, (ah) for eventually agreeing 6th December 1921 on a treaty of north-south partition, with the six counties of Ulster becoming part of the United Kingdom, and the sixteen southern counties becoming the Irish Free State [Wikipedia briefing], (ai) for taking part in the ensuing deliberations within a deeply divided Dáil Éireann, speaking out personally against the Treaty 18th December 1921 ...


ASIDE #7: The Dáil finally voted 7th January 1922 to accept the Treaty 64:57, and Collins symbolically accepted the keys to Dublin Castle nine days later.


(aj) For losing his parliamentary seat in the ratifying general election 16th June 1922, which returned 94 members supporting the Treaty and 34 opposing it, (ak) for being accused by some in the Dáil of being a British agent provocateur sent to foment anti-Treaty republicanism ...


ASIDE #8: The Dáil transcript for the 8th June 1922 Motion of Censure, in which Childers defends himself against the charge of being "some secret agent of England" makes interesting reading - check it out.


(al) for becoming a Captain under de Valera in the Irish Republican Army (IRA) once the stand-off had descended into a shooting Civil War on 28th June 1922 ...


ASIDE #9: The Free State's armed forces were commanded by Chairman of the Provisional Government Collins, while the less-well-documented IRA were inspired politically by de Valera. Collins was killed in an IRA ambush 22nd August 1922, and replaced by William T. Cosgrave [Wikipedia biography]. It would be under this latter's jurisdiction that Childers would shortly meet his end.


and (am) for being arrested 10th November 1922 under emergency powers allowing armed terrorists to be executed, tried under same, and duly shot at dawn 24th November; the end, according to Winston Churchill, of a "mischief-making murderous renegade". In his final hours he was visited by his 16-year-old son Erskine Hamilton Childers [Wikipedia biography], making the boy promise to shake the hand of all his political enemies as a gesture of national reconciliation. By all accounts Childers Jr did precisely that, and in the fullness of time became President of a republican Ireland in June 1973. [THREAD = WW1 ESPIONAGE AND INTELLIGENCE]

Ring, J. (1996). Erskine Childers. London: Faber and Faber.


Chinese Civil War: The Chinese Civil War, 1927-ongoing [Wikipedia briefing] was/still is the decisive event in the post-Dynastic rebirth of the Chinese nation. It began 1st August 1927 when the Communist Party of China (CPC) split away from the Chinese Nationalist Kuomintang [see own entry and 12th March 1925ff], It then continued under the respective leaders Mao Zedong [see own entry] and Chiang Kai-Shek [see own entry] as one of the 20th Century's hottest and longest wars. Between 1931 and 1945 the situation was complicated firstly by the Japanese Invasion of Manchuria [see 19th September 1931] and then by the Japanese Invasion of China [see 7th July 1937], and in 1941 Chiang started to receive U.S. military assistance from Claire Chennault's American Volunteer Group ("The Flying Tigers") [see own entry]. The hot war ceased with the establishment on 1st October 1949 of the mainland People's Republic of China, and then continued through the Cold War thanks to U.S. insistence that Chiang's Taiwanese Republic of China was part of its Pacific Rim defence perimeter. As of March 2018, no peace treaty has yet been signed.


Christian Identity: Founded in the 1920s as a non-profit proselytising fringe church selling salvation to the Religious Right [q.v.], Christian Identity [Wikipedia briefing] was popular in the early 1960s. In the light of rigorous research by Wilford (2008) concerning "citizen groups" in the "state-private network" we recommend it be regarded as suspect in both membership and motive, at least until the "rogue CIA cell" and "evil right-wingers" assassination theories are fully discounted.


Church Committee: A Senate Select Committee set up in 1976 under Senator Frank Church to look into abuses of power by the CIA, the NSA, the FBI, and the IRS. Robert Maheu and Johnny Roselli testified as to the CIA's connections to the mob during the struggle against Fidel Castro 1960-1963, but they could not be joined by Sam Giancana, "on account of being rubbed out" (apologies to Billy Wilder).


Church, Senator Frank Forrester, III: Idaho Senator Frank Church [Wikipedia biography] chaired the Church Committee, 1975-1976.


CIA Front Organisations: The U.S. government's use of superficially non-partisan citizen groups both at home and abroad as instruments of its foreign policy was chronicled in Hugh Wilford's (2008) book "The Mighty Wurlitzer. Here, following Wilford's chapter headings, are a selection of the most insidious exploitations ...


(1) Refugee Communities: In 1949 the CIA established the National Committee for a Free Europe (NCFE) [q.v.] to appeal to the war-displaced peoples of Europe. The following year it added Radio Free Europe [q.v.] to beam propaganda into the Warsaw Pact countries [think Arab Spring [q.v.], but without the smartphones], and the Free Europe University in Exile [q.v.], based in Strasbourg.


(2) Workers' Organisations: During WW2 Arthur J. Goldberg [q.v.] had acted as OSS's coordinator of workforce operations. This office had been disbanded in 1945, and the CIA thus had to rebuild it more or less from scratch in the late 1940s. They came up with the American Federation of Labor (AFL), directed by George Meany [q.v.], and Jay Lovestone's [q.v.] Free Trade Union Committee (FTUC), the latter significantly funded historically by David Dubinsky's [q.v.] International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU) [Wikipedia briefing]. These organisations operated internally, while one Irving Brown [q.v.] organised workers' events in Europe. The effort was assisted by the creation on 7th December 1949 by the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions [ICFTU] [Wikipedia briefing] as an avowedly non-communist Internationale to which the world's less militant national workers' rights assemblies (such as the U.K.'s Trades Union Congress (TUC)) could more comfortably align themselves. All in all, when the CIA's Frank Wisner [q.v.] took on the trade union special ops portfolio in December 1948, he inherited a healthy national and international activist network. Lovestone was the jewel in his crown, being known to (and presumably hated by) Joseph Stalin himself. The FTUC duly came on the CIA payroll in January 1949.


(3) Students: Under this heading Wilford mentions Harvard University's annual International Summer School (1951 onward) and the National Student Association (1950 onward).


(4) Women: The CIA's drive for women's support began in 1952, led by recently recruited Cord Meyer [q.v.], and the resulting front organisations included the Committee of Correspondence (1952-1967).


(5) Catholics: During the Cold War it became patriotic to be godly against the godless communists, and between 1940 and 1960 adherence to Catholicism doubled (op. cit.). The CIA duly backed carefully selected missionaries in Catholic countries, and conservative missionary societies such as the Family Rosary Crusade [Wikipedia briefing].


(6) African Americans: Under this heading Wilford mentions the American Society of African Culture (AMSAC) [Wikipedia briefing].


(7) Journalists: Under this heading Wilford points out that the CIA itself confessed to having "some three dozen" tame journalists doing their bidding in 1973, with adversarial estimates running as high as four hundred. He specifically mentions Time Magazine, the New York Times, CBS, and the American Newspaper Guild (ANG) [Wikipedia briefing] as providing front-line assets and/or friendly narrative.


Civil Air Patrol: The Civil Air Patrol (CAP) [Wikipedia briefing] was established on 1st December 1941 as a civilian cadet force feeder for the USAF. The NOLA chapter was commanded in the early 1950s by David Ferrie, and Ferrie was most certainly still involved when 15-year-old LHO joined his squadron in 1955.


Civil Air Transport (CAT): [Read firstly the entry for Claire Chennault.] CAT [Wikipedia briefing] was the private freight and passenger airline created in South-East Asia by Chennault after the end of WW2, and then taken over by the CIA on 27th June 1950. It is noteworthy in the present context for its role in supporting U.S. black ops against communist regimes in the area generally, and then specifically for withdrawing elements of the shooting teams from Dallas in the hours following the JFK assassination - see the entry for Robert Vinson. 24 CAT pilots spearheaded the CIA's support for the French in their Vietnam War, 1950-1954, two of whom were killed at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.


Clark, Edward Aubrey: Texas born lawyer Edward Clark [Wikipedia biography] was in LBJ's circle of Texas oilmen throughout the 1950s. He features in Barr McClellan's 2003 book "Blood, Money, and Power" as co-conspirator in an LBJ-initiated conspiracy to assassinate JFK.



Clarke, [Sir]1893 George Sydenham [Baron Sydenham of Combe]1913: British soldier (Royal Engineers, 1868-1885) turned civil servant turned diplomat turned military expert witness [Sir]1893 George Clarke [Lord Sydenham]1913 [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for his technical analysis of the effects of the artillery bombardments at the 1877 Siege of Plevna [see 20th July 1877] and the 1882 Bombardment of Alexandria [see 11th July 1882], and for the resulting 1890 book "Fortification", (b) for serving as Secretary to the Colonial Defence Committee between 1885 and 1893, and then as departmental supervisor at Woolwich Arsenal through until 1901, (c) for holding down diplomatic posts in Australia and India between 1901 and 1913, and for heading the Secretariat of the Committee of Imperial Defence [see own entry] between 1904 and 1907, (d) for gracing the House of Lords with his military wisdom throughout WW1, and (e) for being mentioned in Chapter 5 of Jim Macgregor [see own entry] and Gerry Docherty's [see own entry] 2017 book "Prolonging the Agony" [see own entry]. In this particular chapter the authors are questioning the effectiveness of the Royal Navy's blockade of Germany, especially when it came to shipments of cotton. Lord Sydenham, they note, contributed in detail to a House of Lords debate 20th December 1915 [full transcript online] on the wisdom of trading with neutral Denmark, for the blockade thus far, he said, had been a "joke" ...


"My Lords, the real question which is raised by this Danish Agreement is this, Are we using our splendid Navy in the best possible way to bring this war to an end? [...] We began this war under many disabilities, but with one enormous advantage. Relatively and absolutely our Fleet was far stronger than it had ever been at the commencement of any of the great naval wars of the past [...] What use did we make of it? That is a question which will have to be examined with care by the future historian of this war. Meanwhile we know what we did not do with it. A short conference with men who understood the question would have made clear the fact that cotton was a vital commodity in modern war, and that it had practically replaced sulphur and saltpetre which were vital in the wars of the past. [... statistics given] If ever full investigation is made into this question, I am afraid that some scandals will be revealed. [...] My Lords, it is because of what has happened in the past that the country looks with natural suspicion upon this Danish Agreement. [...] There is no doubt whatever that Denmark has been doing an enormous trade with Germany and Austria during the last seventeen months, [nor] that Denmark has received far, far more of everything than was necessary for her own use. You have helped in this, and your new Agreement will help much more than ever for Germany to be fed, the war prolonged, and your blockade made a joke. This Agreement is very wrong and should be cancelled" (Lord Sydenham, Hansard, 20th December 1915).


Clark, Joshua Reuben, Jnr.: Lawyer-politician turned diplomat Reuben Clark [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having been the author in 1928 of the "Clark Memorandum on the Monroe Doctrine" [Wikipedia briefing], a State Department analysis of the rights of the United States to intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American neighbour states. Its substantive point is that the Monroe Doctrine [see 2nd December 1823] was intended to deter European states from interfering in Latin America, whereas to Clark no third party needed to be at hand, merely a perceived risk to America's right of "self-preservation".


Clark, Max: Long-standing OSI/CIA asset Max Clark [no convenient biography] had taken part in CIA covert operations in the late 1950s, and at the time of the assassination was Director of Security at the Convair Works, Fort Worth.


Clark, Max E.: Indiana born Fort Worth lawyer Max Clark [no convenient biography] was an acquaintance of LHO by virtue of his Russian-speaking wife's position in the Fort Worth White Russian community. Clark's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].


Clark Panel, The: See the entry for Ramsey Clark.


Clark, Wesley Kanne, Snr.: Vietnam veteran General Wesley Clark [Wikipedia biography] joined the Executive Office of the President in 1975 as a fellow in budget management, and rose to become special assistant to Supreme Allied Commander Alexander Haig in 1978. He was then progressively promoted until becoming Supreme Allied Commander in Europe between 1997 and 2000. He published his memoirs in 2007 under the title "For Duty, Honor, and Country", from which the following is taken (he is speaking to "a senior general" in the run-up to the Iraq War) ...


"'Here's the paper from the Office of the Secretary of Defense [=Donald Rumsfeld] outlining the strategy. We're going to take out seven countries in five years!' And he named them, starting with Iraq and Syria and ending with Iran. It was straight out of Paul Wolfowitz's 1991 playbook, dressed up as the search for weapons of mass destruction and the global war on terror" (Clark, 2007, k3606).


ASIDE: "Paul Wolfowitz's 1991 playbook" is the Defense Planning Guidance Report, 1992 [see own entry], which proposed a totally world-pre-eminent America "eager to keep its allies weak" (Mann, 2004, §4393).


Clark, William Kemp: The Chief Neurosurgeon at Parkland Hospital, Dr. William Kemp Clark [no convenient  biography, but see Watts' (2008 [full text online]) obituary] was one of two emergency surgeons (the other being Dr. Malcolm Perry) who spoke at a 1416hr Press Conference [read transcript now]. He was non-committal as to the nature of JFK's head wound as an entry wound or an exit wound. In fact, his subsequent testimony to the Warren Commission made much of a third possibility - that of a "tangential" wound, whereby the skull would behave much like a divot of turf on a golf course and where it would actually be far harder to tell the direction of the impact - because he had noted no associated second head wound. Dr. Clark's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].


Clark, William Ramsey: Dallas born lawyer Ramsey Clark [Spartacus Educational biography] was Assistant Attorney General at the time of the assassination, and was promoted Attorney General in 1967 by LBJ. In this role he appointed a 1968 panel of four medical experts who re-examined the JFK autopsy files and confirmed the original conclusions. Browse the Medical Cover Up Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.


Clay, General Lucius D: Commander of the Berlin Zone during the Berlin Crisis of 1948 General Lucius Clay [Wikipedia biography] was advisor on international strategy to both President Eisenhower and JFK.


Clayton Knight Committee: The Clayton Knight Committee [Wikipedia briefing] was established in November 1940 in New York by Associated Press correspondent Clayton Knight [Wikipedia biography] to liaise with WW1's top fighter ace (now Canadian Air Marshall) William Avery ["Billy"] Bishop [no formal biography, but see Simonsen (1995-2018 [full text online]) in the recruitment of U.S. citizens into the Royal Canadian Air Force to fight against Nazi Germany. Over 10,000 U.S. nationals were recruited in this manner prior to the attack on Pearl Harbour.


Clements, Manning C.: FBI Special Agent Manning Clements [no convenient biography] arrived at DPDHQ to offer FBI assistance at about 1300hr on the day of the assassination. He began by listing the contents of LHO's wallet at 1915hr, having been passed same by Gus Rose. He then undertook one of LHO's interrogations, beginning at about 2200hr and lasting "30 or 35 minutes", but with two interruptions totalling "10 or 15 minutes" for identity parades. During questioning as to the false Selective Service Card LHO declined to comment. Clements' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]. Browse the Oswald's Wallet Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.


Clemons, Acquila: Oak Cliff housekeeper Acquila Clemons [Spartacus Educational biography] was on her porch on 10th Street, when she witnessed the murder of Patrolman J. D. Tippit. Two men were involved, namely a "kind of chunky" gunman and a tall, thin, accomplice. Since two gunmen did not fit with the developing official narrative her report was not followed up. Clemons' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Interview to camera, Mark Lane, 1966 [YouTube it now].


Cleveland, Grover: President[22nd, 1885-1889, and 24th, 1893-1897, Dem.] Grover Cleveland [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for (a) fighting an honourable but futile battle for the independence of the Hawaiian Islands during 1893 [check it out], only to become as Expansionist as the Republican Party when it came to the Venezuelan Dispute [check it out].


Clifton, Major General Chester ("Ted") Victor, Jr: White House Aide General Ted Clifton [Wikipedia biography] was one of several normally close Presidential attendants consigned on this occasion to well back in the Dallas Presidential motorcade.


Clines, Thomas Gregory: Long-standing CIA officer with significant experience in Frankfurt during the Cold War Thomas Clines [Spartacus Educational biography] was JM/WAVE's liaison man into the Nicaraguan Regime. He would be one of the nine persons identified by Bradley Ayers in 1994 as having "intimate operational knowledge" of how the assassination was put together.


Clinton, Hillary Diane Rodham: Previously senatorial and then presidential first lady Hillary Clinton [Wikipedia biography] became noteworthy in the present context when she entered politics in her own right in 2001 as Senator from New York. Two administrations later, having lost the presidential nomination race to Barack Obama in 2008, she was rewarded by being made Secretary of State in 2009. She then leveraged her brand to win the Democratic Party nomination in the run-up to the 2016 presidential election, only to lose to Donald Trump. The British political commentator Craig Murray shed no tears at her defeat, thus ...


"A multi-millionaire, neo-con warmonger with the warmth and empathy of a three week dead haddock and an eye for the interests of Wall Street, who regarded ordinary voters as “deplorables” (a term she used not just once, but frequently, at fund-raisers with the mega-wealthy). Hillary Clinton conspired with the machine that was supposed to be neutrally running the primaries, to fix the primaries against Bernie Sanders. The opinion polls regularly showed that Sanders would beat Trump, and that the only Democratic candidate who Trump could beat was Clinton. Egomania and a massive sense of entitlement nevertheless led her not just to persist to get the candidacy, but persist to rig the candidacy. She then proceeded to ignore major urban working class battleground states in her campaign against Trump and focus on more glamorous places" (Murray, 2018, full text online).


RESEARCH ISSUE: There are uncanny similarities between the ousting of Bernie Sanders and political events in the UK in late summer 2016, where Big Six MSM influencers did their very best to topple British Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn [q.v.] with a mind to resurrecting the by-then-well-decomposed corpse of Blairite "socialism". In Britain, too, the plot backfired massively as three quarters of a million old-school Labour Party supporters - with no script to follow - said "over my dead body" and rallied to the Corbyn flag. The research issue at hand is this: it has yet to be established just how close the U.S. and British MSM offensives actually were, whose hands were pulling the strings, who did their dirty work, and - of course - where and when they will strike next.


Cliveden Set: This is the name given in late 1937 by investigative journalist Claud Cockburn [see own entry] to a 30-year-old friendship circle cum think tank cum political pressure group in pre- and post-WW2 British society headed by Nancy, Lady Astor [see own entry], and including (over the years) [all with their own entry] ...


Lord Robert Brand; Geoffrey Dawson; Philip Kerr, Lord Lothian; William Montagu, Duke of Manchester; Steven Ward [see below], Edward Wood, Lord Halifax


ASIDE: We include the comparatively lowly Stephen Ward [see own entry - RECOMMENDED] in this listing because he gave good massage and could provide spare talent [English=girls] when appropriate.


The set is best regarded as having existed since the Astors' marriage in 1906. Lady Astor was a popular society hostess with a reputation for attracting people of interest to her weekends and then leaving them to get on with whatever took their intellectual fancy. Rose (2000) notes as follows ...


"In this way, a kind of 'Set' emerged at Cliveden in the years leading up to the First World War. Unstructured and unplanned, it just happened. [...] The net was cast wide. It included expatriate American heiresses who had married impecunious English aristocrats [three couples identified]. Perhaps unconsciously, Nancy was making her first move in what later became an avowed aim: the strengthening of Anglo-American understanding. Royalty followed. [...] Leading politicians were also favoured. [...] Literary figures were encouraged ..." (p38).


It was therefore no great surprise that by the 1930s many Cliveden guests - given the natural antipathy of rich folk toward Stalinist Communism - admired Stalin's enemies, the Nazis, and this changed little until the 1937 Cockburn piece (above) and the general drive against Appeasement. For a short but highly informative introduction to the personalities and the issues we recommend Taylor's (1999 [full text online]) paper entitled "A Reevaluation of Cockburn's Cliveden Set". U.S. Ambassador Joseph Kennedy visited Cliveden several times in the period 1938-1940, on one occasion reportedly with the eligible young JFK in tow.

Taylor, J. (1999). A Reevaluation of Cockburn's Cliveden Set. Thesis, San Francisco State University.





Cockburn, Francis Claud: British left wing journalist Claud Cockburn [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having learned his craft as a young man as a foreign correspondent for The Times, (b) for having founded his own newsletter in 1933 under the title The Week, taking a generally pro-Communist stance, (c) for serving as war correspondent in the 1936 Spanish Civil War, (d) for continuing his Establishment baiting by coining the term Cliveden Set [see own entry] in his newsletter of 22nd December 1937, (e) for continuing in like vein all the way through to his column in Private Eye in the 1960s, by which he helped take the political scalp of John Profumo [see own entry].


Cody, Joe: Having been asked in 1960 by Jack Ruby to advise on his personal security as a carrier of cash takings, DPD officer Joe Cody [no convenient biography] took him in person (this being so Ruby could benefit from the police discount) to Ray's Hardware and Sporting Goods and bought him the .38 snub-nosed Colt Cobra revolver which he subsequently used to murder LHO.


Cognitive Infiltration: This is the term used in Sunstein and Vermeule's 2008 paper entitled "Conspiracy Theories: Causes and Cures" to describe the deployment of on-message agents-provocateurs to counter-inform off-message social media discussion groups.


Cohn, Roy Marcus: Lawyer Roy Cohn [Wikipedia biography] acquired something of a reputation as a prosecutor during a number of high profile espionage trials during the Senator Joseph Macarthy witch hunts of the early 1950s, thereby helping in his own small way to deepen the Cold War.


Colby, William Egan: WW2 OSS veteran Bill Colby [Wikipedia biography] had been CIA Chief of Station in Saigon, South Vietnam until 1962, and had recently returned to D.C. as Deputy (later Chief), Far East Division. He would become Director on 4th September 1973. Colby disappeared on a coastal canoeing trip on 27th April 1996, and when his body turned up nine days later the medical examiner blamed a prior heart condition. He was about to appear before the Frank Olson enquiry [q.v.].


Cole, Francis B.: FBI agent Francis Cole [no convenient biography] was introduced in the La Fontaines' 1996 book "Oswald Talked" as one of two FBI men sent to Memphis to interview John Elrod, which see (the other agent being Norman Casey). Their report was substantively ignored by the Warren Commission.


Coleman, Kay Helen: [a.k.a. Kathy Kay; later Kay Helen Olsen] London born divorcee and some time hostess at Jack Ruby's Carousel Club Kay Coleman [no convenient biography] attended the midnight meeting of "Johnny", Jack Ruby, and her fiancé Harry Olsen. Coleman's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony (as "Mrs. Kay Helen Olsen") [read it now].


Coley Jerry: [Read firstly the Don Campbell entry.] [Blood or Cola Thread] At around 0900hr Dallas Morning News advertising salesman Jerry Coley [no convenient biography] left colleague Don Campbell and customer Jack Ruby in the cafeteria and went out to do some unrelated sales calls. When he returned at "some time after" 1100hr he met Jack Ruby again in the office of another colleague, John Newnham.  At around 1130hr he then left the building with one Charlie Mulkey and headed out into Dealey Plaza, looking for a good vantage point from which to watch the motorcade.  They take up a position near the entrance of the old county jail on Houston Street, east side, a short distance from the TSBD. After the shooting, which Coley would later describe as "very echoey", and with "no definite gunshots", he went past the front of the TSBD along the Elm Street service road, heading for the open space behind the picket fence, disregarding (but presumably delayed by) a Sheriff's Deputy's instructions to stay away. Reaching the end of the rear walkway of the John Neely Bryan Pergola he turned to go down the steps, and noted a "huge puddle" of "what I thought was blood". He descended the steps and went back to the office to get assistance. As he entered he observed a weeping Jack Ruby on the telephone to someone. He then rounded up advertising photographer Jim Hood, told him to get his camera, and, at "a little after one", led him back to the steps. The blood was now "all crinkly like it had coagulated a little". Hood dipped a fingertip into it and tasted it, confirming "That's blood". He then took a photograph and went back to the office. When he got to work on Monday morning, 25th November, he found reporter Hugh Aynesworth quizzing Don Campbell about the Ruby conversation three days earlier, because he wanted to do a quick piece on the man. Coley duly contributed his Ruby recollections, and then, turning to the blood, led Aynesworth over to the steps only to find that the site had been very thoroughly cleaned. On Tuesday he learned that Aynesworth had submitted the Ruby piece, describing him as "Coley of the News". Half an hour later his wife rang him in no little distress saying that she had had threatening telephone calls (which could only have been from people who had just read Aynesworth's piece). And later again two FBI men came to interview "Coley of the News" for his Ruby recollections. He told them what he could, and again tagged on the matter of the pool of blood. Hood was called in to the meeting and showed the photograph he had taken, only to have the camera, the negatives, and the print taken from him. The FBI's parting instruction was crystal clear: "Boys," they said, "this conversation never took place, if you know what we mean". Coley duly kept his mouth shut until his story was eventually included in Wallace Chariton's 1990 book "Unsolved Texas Mysteries". The clearest telling of Coley's story is in a 2011 Black Op Radio interview by Len Osanic [YouTube it now - RECOMMENDED].


Colhoun, Jack: Historian Jack Colhoun [no convenient biography] is author of the 2013 book "Gangsterismo", a history of the Cuban exile community in the early 1960s, and of their connections to organised crime.


Collins, Arthur A.: Oklahoma born electronics whizz-kid Arthur A Collins [Wikipedia biography] had founded Collins Radio [Wikipedia briefing] at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, in 1933, and had seen the company grow exponentially during WW2. Development continued after the war, helped in some areas, by Nazi expertise acquired under Operation Paperclip. Collins was also closely associated with General Curtis LeMay during the latter's Project Birdcall - the installation of a standardised communications system for Strategic Air Command. New production sites were added at Burbank, CA, and Richardson, Dallas, during the 1950s, and in 1962 the Callsign-Liberty base station at Cedar Rapids went live with 24/7 communications to Air Force One. Following financial problems the company would eventually be taken over by Rockwell International in 1973. Collins Radio is noteworthy in the present context (a) because, as a major employer in the area, a number of key figures chanced to be employees at the Richardson plant, (b) because of one clearly visible walkie-talkie user - Dark-Complected Man - at work near ground zero in Dealey Plaza, and (c) because of the need for dedicated radiomen in professional sniper teams. As an example of (a) we have Collins employee Carl Mather associated with the scene of the J. D. Tippit murder, and as an example of (c) we have Ruth Ann Martinez. The company's covert involvement with the CIA were revealed on 1st November 1963 in the Rex Incident [q.v.]. Browse the Military-Industrial Complex Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.


Collins Radio: See the entry for Arthur Collins.


Collom, Mark: In 1971, while serving a short sentence for a drug offence in McAlester State Prison, OK, and having been taken ill with hepatitis, 21-year old Mark Collom [no convenient biography] found himself in the next infirmary bed to a fellow-prisoner named Loy Factor. Over the following days the older man gradually came to trust him, and told him that on 22nd November 1963 he had been part of a four-person TSBD6 shooting team. Four years later, after his release, he shared this tale with old friend Glen Sample, and together they tried unsuccessfully to get an investigative journalist interested in the case. And there things would have rested, had it not been for the renewal of interest in the JFK assassination brought about by Oliver Stone's 1991 movie "JFK". Collom duly got in touch with Larry Howard, one of the movie's technical advisors, and Director of the well-respected JFKAIC in Dallas. Howard was highly enthusiastic, and the two men got back in touch with now-hospitalised Loy Factor, the first of several interviews taking place on 11th February 1993. Factor's recollections were eventually published as "The Men on the Sixth Floor" (Sample and Collom, 1995), with a Foreword by Howard.



Comité des Forges: [French= "Foundry Committee"] Founded 15th February 1864 by the leading French ironmasters, and with Eugène Schneider [see own entry] himself as its inaugural President, the Comité des Forges [Wikipedia briefing] stands accused by Jim Macgregor [see own entry] and Gerry Docherty [see own entry] in Chapter 3 of their 2017 book "Prolonging the Agony" [see own entry] of caring more about profits than the lives of the Frenchmen actually doing the fighting. Specifically Macgregor and Docherty claim that the Comité applied behind-the-scenes pressure in 1914-1915 on the French political and military Establishment NOT to bomb their iron and steel works around Briey in the Lorraine Basin, now in occupied territory and in heavy use by the Germans [one of the complainants was the future Prime Minister of France, Pierre-Étienne Flandin - see the separate entry]. Macgregor and Docherty reserve especial criticism for the cynical exploitation of international tensions over the decades by the De Wendel dynasty, ironmasters of Lorraine, and of the present President of the Comité, François de Wendel [Wikipedia biography], who, when eventually accused of profiteering in late 1915, was - wait for it - put in charge of his own investigation! [THREAD = WW1 INSIDER TRADING AND PROFITEERING] [THREAD = BEST KEEP THIS FROM THE COMMON MAN]


Comité Nationale de Secours et d'Alimentation (CNSA): See the entry for 10th October 1914.


Committee for the Relief of Belgium (CRB): See the entry 1st September 1914.


Committee of Imperial Defence (CID): Established by Arthur Balfour in 1902, the Committee of Imperial Defence (CID) [Wikipedia briefing] was an attempt to learn political and technical lessons from the poor British performance in the Second Boer War. The committee was little used during the Campbell-Bannerman administration of 1906-1908, but became more influential during the Asquith administration. Indeed it was a 1909 CID sub-committee which was responsible for the establishment of MI5 and MI6 to handle internal and overseas intelligence gathering, respectively. The Royal Navy's seat was taken from 1908 by Lieutenant-Colonel of Marines Maurice Hankey [see own entry], and he did the job so well that in 1912 he was promoted to Secretary, a position he would hold until the committee was disbanded in 1938. Thus organised, the committee brought together experts from the armed forces, the Foreign Office, and the imperial dominions themselves, to recommend to Cabinet how best the Empire might be defended. It thus did for the British Empire what the National Security Council (NSC) [see own entry] does for the American.


Comstock, The: The Comstock Lode [Wikipedia briefing] was a very productive silver ore mine discovered by prospector Henry Comstock in 1859 in the Virginia Mountains of Nevada. Its exploitation lasted twenty bonanza years, followed by a progressive decline in yields, and there has been only sporadic activity since the 1920s.


Conforto, Janet ["Jada"] Adams: Recently resigned Carousel Club hostess Jada Conforto [no convenient biography] was involved in a road traffic accident in Dallas on the morning of the assassination. She explained that she was on her way to New Orleans and that her employer Jack Ruby would take care of everything. She was herself killed in a road traffic accident on 9th May 1980. Conspiracy theories exist, but we remain to be convinced that they warrant being recorded here.


Connally, John Bowden, Jr:  [no close relationship to Senator Thomas Connally] Elected Governor of Texas on 15th January 1963 Governor John Connally [Wikipedia biography] was riding in limo #1, second row of seats, right side, in front of but set slightly lower than JFK. He was shot once through the chest at Z235, reportedly by Mac Wallace from TSBD6, 3rd window from west. One of his investment interests was apparently the Tryall Resort at Montego Bay, Jamaica. As SECNAV during 1961 he had been LHO's ultimate boss as a Marine, and - his retirement from that post having been overlooked - had received a letter from LHO in early 1962 appealing his "undesirable" discharge rating. He simply forwarded this latter to the new SECNAV and replied to that effect and no more.


Connally, Thomas Terry: [no close relationship to Governor John Connally] Senator from  Texas Thomas Connally [Wikipedia biography] was Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in June 1950 at the time of the North Korean invasion, and was thus "the Democratic Party's foremost congressional spokesman on foreign policy" (Stone, 1952/2014e, §580). He went on record in a 3rd May 1950 interview for U.S. News and World Report as suspecting that both South Korea and Formosa would fall to the Communists (Soviets and Chinese, respectively), but was not overly concerned because the U.S. "chain of defence" ran from the Philippines through Okinawa to Japan. In this he disagreed markedly with Secretary of State Dean Acheson, who insisted the following day that U.S. Far Eastern strategy required that South Korea should be defended.


Conservatism USA (CUSA): Founded by right-wing activist Larrie Schmidt [q.v.] in Munich in 1961 as an armed-forces-oriented non-profit proselytising committee for right of centre political views, CUSA [no convenient briefing] sent a considerable number of members to Dallas in Autumn 1963.



Consett, Rear-Admiral Montagu William Warcop Peter: British naval attaché in Stockholm in the period 1912 to 1919 [then-]Captain Montagu Consett [Dreadnought Project biography] is noteworthy in the present context for being mentioned in Chapter 4 of Jim Macgregor [see own entry] and Gerry Docherty's [see own entry] 2017 book "Prolonging the Agony" [see own entry]. In this particular chapter the authors are questioning the effectiveness of the Royal Navy's blockade of Germany, especially when it came to shipments of cotton. They devote much space to Consett's wartime duties monitoring the flow of goods through neutral Scandinavia into Germany. and they recommend his 1923 memoir entitled "The Triumph of Unarmed Forces". We offer the following heavily abridged extract from this work as a fair indication of the nature and extent of the problem ...


"The oversea supplies that reached Germany came mainly through Scandinavia and Holland, passing through two stages in their journey: one by sea and one by land. [...] The war brought to Scandinavia a period of unprecedented prosperity. During 1915 and 1916 she received supplies in excess of all previous quantities [... and] agreements by which neutrals engaged that Germany should not benefit by our trade were openly and continuously violated. [...] It was only when, from sheer necessity, really effective pressure was brought to bear [...] that the position of Germany - always desperate - became hopeless" (pp ix-xvii; emphasis added).


Macgregor and Docherty then introduce a conspiracy angle to Consett's allegations by pointing out that these shipments of suspected contraband did not just slip by in the fog. Rather they were intercepted by the Royal Navy the hard way and escorted into Prize Court ports (such as Kirkwall, Scotland) for detailed inspection. Then however - more often than not - they were allowed to continue on their way by specific instruction from the Admiralty in London. For a fuller picture of this legalised blockade-running see the separate allegations of Lord Charles Beresford, Bertram Blount, George Bowles, E. Keble Chatterton, George Clark Lord Sydenham, Henry Croft, Sir Henry Dalziel, and Sir Cecil Hurst. [THREAD = BEST KEEP THIS FROM THE COMMON MAN]

Consett, M. (1923 [full text online]). The Triumph of Unarmed Forces. London: Williams and Norgate.


Conspiracy Cafe: Online Blogspot created in 2011 [website] and hosted by "factist" George Freund.


Continental Trailways Bus 5133: This is the bus which on 26th-27th September 1963 took LHO on his Mexican Tourist Card 824085 from the U.S.-Mexico border crossing at Laredo, TX, to Mexico City. It was a 24-hour, 700 mile, ride, and he whiled away the time making sure that plenty of witnesses knew he was a lefty trouble-maker - see the entries for Pamela Mumford and Patricia Winston, and Bryan and Meryl McFarland for the separate tales.


Contras: The Contras [Wikipedia briefing] were a loose association of U.S.-backed Nicaraguan terrorist groups set up in 1979 as a means of destabilising the six-year Junta of National Reconstruction by which the Sandinista party was trying to heal the excesses of President Somoza [Jnr.] [see own entry]. Drawing heavily from the ranks of the by-then-disgraced Nicaraguan National Guard, their terrorism reached a peak in the period 1982-1986, their favourite targets being provincial government officials and economic infrastructure. This Contra-Sandinista civil war was then largely decided by elections in 1984 which resulted in the election of democratic socialist President Ortega [check him out]. The Contras were both Congressionally and covertly funded by the United States throughout the Reagan Administration, and are, of course, best known nowadays for the part they played in the 1985-1987 Iran-Contra Affair (as covered elsewhere [see own entry] [see 20th August 1985]). They were disbanded in December 1989 after the withdrawal of United States funding by President George H. W. Bush [see own entry].


Controlled Demolition Explanations of the WTC Attacks: This is the theory/forensic accusation, first loudly proclaimed by Steven Jones [q.v.] at a Brigham Young University seminar on 22nd September 2005, that the three towers - WTC1, WTC2, and WTC7 - reduced to dust during the 9/11 False Flag Attacks [q.v.] were brought down by commercial and/or military demolition experts, and not (as officially claimed) by aircraft impact or fire. Among the devices alleged to have been used were an advanced form of the century-old welding agent Thermite [q.v.] known as Nanothermite [q.v.], duly militarised in the 1990s as shaped charges for use by trained combat engineers - see one of hundreds of typical U.S. Patents (1996). Repeated chemical analysis by impeccable laboratories of the dust from the collapses show microscopic nanothermite residues in proportions which extrapolate to several hundred tons across the "crime scene" [Ground Zero is not, of course, a crime scene in the conventional sense because the events were immediately declared an "act of war"; the civilians and first responders - not least FDNY's famous 343 - were not legally murdered, therefore, merely factually - Ed.]


Cook, Austin: Dallas restaurateur Austin Cook [no convenient biography] owned the Austin's Bar-B-Cue eatery at Illinois and Hampton, Oak Cliff, and was reputedly a good friend of Jack Ruby. Patrolman J. D. Tippit often moonlighted there as a bouncer when off duty. Cook's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].


Cooper, Roy, Jr: KTVT-TV cinematographer Roy Cooper [no convenient biography] and Don Crook [no convenient biography] filmed in the wake of the Presidential motorcade, including several minutes at Love Field, outside TSBD, and at Parkland Hospital. The footage was not broadcast at the time, and so Cooper privately archived it. The footage was discovered in 1996 and is available to view, with commentary by photoforensic expert Richard Trask, online [YouTube it now]. Cooper's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].


Coote, Sir1962 Colin Reith: WW1 veteran turned peacetime politician turned journalist turned WW2 War Office propagandist Colin Coote [Wikipedia biography] was Editor of the Daily Telegraph between 1950 and 1962. According to Anthony Summers and Stephen Dorril's (1989/2013e) book "The Secret Worlds of Stephen Ward", Coote was used as an intelligence asset in January 1961 to bring together procurer-to-the-rich-and-famous Stephen Ward [q.v.] and Russian Embassy naval attaché Yevgeny Ivanov [q.v.] as the first step in an MI5 honeytrap operation against the latter. In the event, however, the operation was a major fail, because the selected female lure - a certain Christine Keeler [q.v.] - ended up being bedded simultaneously by the British Secretary of State for War John Profumo [q.v.].


Copeland, David Goddard: [a.k.a.?? William Torbitt] Texas lawyer David Copeland [no convenient biography] has been suggested as the writer behind the non-de-plume William Torbitt [q.v.].


***** Maker / Destroyer of Presidents *****

Copeland, Miles Axe, Jr.: Musician (Glenn Miller Orchestra, no less) turned CIA officer Miles Copeland, Jr. [Wikipedia biography] was recruited into the Counterintelligence Corps (CIC) in 1942 and stationed in London in the run-up to Operation Overlord. He then transferred to the nascent CIA and saw duty in the Middle East, where he helped put together the successful pro-U.S. coups in Syria (1949) and Iran (1953). Straight after the Iran coup he joined "government services" contractor Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. [q.v.] as a roving consultant [=field operative], and became close advisor to rising star Egyptian politician Gamal Abdel Nasser [q.v.], assisting him to power as the British withdrew from the newly established Egyptian Republic. Nasser duly became Egypt's second President in 1956. Copeland later also proved adept at dethroning presidents. In his 2015 book "Dallas, '63" Peter Dale Scott [q.v.] quotes an interview given by Copeland to journalist Robert Parry in which he confessed to having masterminded the "October Surprise" which cost President Jimmy Carter his re-election in 1980. Scott also profiles Copeland as "the conceptual father" of the Republican Party's cooperation with Israel (§5919) which took off at about that point in time.


Corbally, Thomas Joseph: Trained in the family's NYC detective agency Thomas Corbally [no formal biography, but see Javers (2017 [full text online])] tried to join the Royal Canadian Air Force through the Clayton Knight Committee [q.v.] in Autumn 1941 only to be discharged as a "deliberate failure" on 20th July 1943.


ASIDE: This makes something of a lie of the common Internet claim that Corbally "flew Spitfires during the Battle of Britain", because that took place in 1940. Readers are also reminded that contrived service discharges are commonly used as part of the intelligence operation known as "sheep-dipping" (which was, of course, Fletcher Prouty's [q.v.] judgement on LHO's discharge from the U.S.M.C. in 1959, just prior to his "defection" to the Soviet Union).


Corbally next turned up in Germany with the Army of Occupation after the war, claiming OSS field experience [so, yes, he had indeed been sheep-dipped in some way by the Clayton Knight Committee in 1943 - Ed.]. His later movements then figure in the 1987/2013e book "The Secret Worlds of Stephen Ward" by Anthony Summers and Stephen Dorril. These authors place him in London in the early 1960s as a playboy with business interests in cinema advertising and contacts in the security services. In 1962 he chanced to get a knee injury and was recommended to society osteopath Stephen Ward [q.v.]. After a miracle cure, and impressed by Ward's retinue of pretty women, Corbally made sure the two kept in touch. Indeed Corbally stayed in close touch with both Ward and his London Embassy during the height of the Profumo Affair [q.v.].


STUDENT EXERCISE: [Three letter answer, 5 marks] Name the U.S. intelligence agency with OSS ancestry who might have kicked Corbally in the knee in order to get him in contact with a man who shortly afterward attended one of his social gatherings in company with a Russian Embassy naval attaché.


Corbett, James: "Independent critical analyst" James Corbett [no convenient biography] hosts the alternative news source The Corbett Report [Website About] and invariably speaks regularly about conspiracy theories. All followers of The Corbett Report are logged, of course, by intelligence monitoring services, and their interests cross-correlated.


Corbett Report, The: [Read firstly the entry for James Corbett.] The following editions of The Corbett Report may help explain the success with which the Mainstream Media (MSM) have been used to cover-up the JFK assassination conspiracy ...


"The Weaponisation of Social Media" (1st March 2018) - YouTube it now, carefully noting the role played by DARPA in keeping public surveillance technology at, or ahead of, need. Note also the concept of the "sock puppet" in spreading counterintelligence, the Zionist editing of Wikipedia, and Cass Sunstein's concept of "cognitive infiltration" in neutralising a target discussion group. Note finally (at 6:12) the shoulder insignia of U.S. Army Cyber Command.


Corn, David: Political journalist and assassination researcher David Corn [Wikipedia biography] was the author of the 1994 book "Blind Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIA Crusades", a re-appraisal of CIA operations during the Cold War, and of the part played by Ted Shackley in aggressively pursuing them.


Cortelyou, George Bruce: Civil servant-politician George Cortelyou [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having held a number of cabinet posts under President Theodore Roosevelt [see own entry] in the early 1900s, including as Secretary of the Treasury during the Panic of 1907 [see 17th October 1907].


Couch, Malcolm O.: WFAA-TV cameraman Malcolm Couch [no convenient biography] was in the "fifth or sixth car back" in the Presidential motorcade, in the middle of three photographers perched up above the rear seat, and at the time of the shooting had just turned north on Houston. He exited the car when it had reached the triple underpass and ran back up toward TSBD, where he spent a moment filming the excitement there. Then, at the west of the building, he "saw blood on the sidewalk", in a pool eight to ten inches in diameter "about 10 to 15 feet from the corner of the Texas Depository Building".


ASIDE: This is NOT the same blood found by Jerry Coley and referenced in the Blood or Cola Thread.


Couch's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].


Counterintelligence: Counterintelligence means knowing what the other fellow is up to in a relationship, and acting accordingly using any means appropriate to the assessed hostility level of the relationship (see the Wikipedia briefing for the types and structures recognised by academics, paying especial attention to false flag operations). Counterintelligence assets can be deployed against either friendly intelligence operations (to make sure they intend staying friendly) or hostile ones (to deny them physical, and/or financial, and/or political success). This latter category of intelligence operation includes most types of "conspiracy theory", making their adherents legitimate targets of a counterintelligence effort. Hager (2017) suggests that "... seizing the centre of gravity on a conspiracy is standard ops for counterintelligence" (p51). Counterintelligence assets can also be deployed against overt aggression, of course, as part of maximising tactical advantage.


County Sheriff's Office: Dallas' County Sheriff's Office was located at 509 Main Street, as one of the county functions sharing the Dallas County Records Building. Oriented north-south, this building occupies the full block between Elm and Main, but the Sheriff's Office had its own stepped entrance - embossed in foot-high lettering as DALLAS COUNTY CRIMINAL COURTS - onto Main, some 30 feet east of the junction with Houston. It was from these steps that many Sheriff's Deputies - including Roger Craig - spectated the motorcade. The west-facing facade, opposite the northernmost of the two water features at the top of Dealey Plaza, had no pedestrian entrances, but was divided by a deep drive in. The Sheriff's Office on the southern corner was then balanced to the north by the County Record Office on the junction with Elm.


Coupland, [Sir]1944 Reginald: British historian and prolific author [Sir]1944 Reginald Coupland [no convenient biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having studied under Alfred Zimmern [see own entry] at Oxford in the mid-1900s, (b) for having thereby been appointed Beit Lecturer in Colonial History in 1913, and then Beit Professor of same in 1920, a position he would retain until stepping down in 1948, (c) for promoting the newly founded Round Table Movement [see own entry] during the 1910s and for then supporting its literary output during the early 1920s, particularly as relates to Britain's shift from Empire to Commonwealth, (d) for leveraging his growing reputation as a scholar-pundit to serve on the 1923 Lee Commission [Wikipedia briefing], studying the ethnic structure of the Indian civil service, (e) likewise for the 1936-1937 Peel Commission to Palestine [see own entry], and (f) likewise for the 1942 Cripps Mission to India, in which he served as chief adviser.


Coward, Sir Noël Peirce: Playwright, composer, actor, Establishment dandy, spy in plain sight, and highly patriotic criminal mastermind Noël Coward [Wikipedia biography] was recruited by British spymaster Robert Vansittart [q.v.] as a celebrity-asset in the late 1930s, and did the job so well that he reputedly ended up on the Gestapo's liquidation list had the Nazis won the war. Only in 1973 was he cleared to reveal that "he had been a spy for England, trained (with his friend Ian Fleming) in covert action" (Koch, 2008 [full text online]). He had "toured three continents singing, being amusing, acting as a courier, filing eyes-only reports on influential people, and probably meeting covert British contacts" (ibid.). He also acted as go-between in early 1940 for talks between President Roosevelt and Winston Churchill.


Coyle, Edward J.: As related in the La Fontaines' 1996 book "Oswald Talked", Dallas-based Intelligence Officer for the 112th Military Intelligence Group, Ed Coyle [no convenient biography] had been one of three agents who met at <venue unknown> on 21st November 1963, the others being FBI Agent James Hosty and DPD Lieutenant Jack Revill. The latter, Hosty would explain in 1996, "made a comment about not wanting to guard that son of a bitch Kennedy tomorrow" (p283). Coyle was also one of three agents who met at the ATF's office on Commerce on the morning of 22nd November 1963 (the others being Hosty again and ATF investigator Frank Ellsworth) to report progress with their common investigations of the Fort Hood Arms Thefts. This meeting broke up at around 1145hr. We surmise that Coyle - in his role as the army's liaison man to the SS security detail that day - then went and mingled with the crowd somewhere. Browse the ATF Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story.


Cox, Alexander B. H.: Film director Alex Cox [Wikipedia biography] was author of the 2013 book "The President and the Provocateur", which is constructed around the wholly dismal [but increasingly blatant] core thesis that the U.S. Deep State, encouraged by getting away with their JFK cover-up, went on to play for even higher stakes.


Crafard, Curtis LaVerne ["Larry"]: Michigan born sometime travelling circus hand and recently resident handyman at Jack Ruby's Carousel Club Larry Crafard [Spartacus Educational biography] met with Ruby and George Senator on 23rd November, and then immediately left town. He then gave copious [three days] evidence to the Warren Commission, helping to identify the various hostesses who came and went. Crafard also stated that one of his duties at the Carousel was to record who had called while Ruby was out, and one of these books - "a blue cover spiral notebook entitled, 'Penway Memo Notebook'" - was discussed in detail on his third day on the stand, in that it was one of only a few indications of who Jack Ruby knew and did business with. Crafard's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it here].


Craig, John R.: Private detective and assassination researcher John Craig [no convenient biography] interviewed Chauncey Holt on 19th October 1991 [read transcript now], and was co-author with Philip Rogers of the 1992 book "The Man on the Grassy Knoll", in which Charles Rogers is proposed not just as the Picket Fence shooter but also as one of the (second set of) Three Tramps.


Craig, Roger Dean: At the time of the shooting Dallas County Sheriff's Deputy Roger Craig [Spartacus Educational biography] was positioned outside the Sheriff's Office at 505 Main Street, Dallas, about half a block from the junction with Houston Street. Hearing the shooting from Elm Street he ran in that direction, and ended up working with a DPD officer for seven or eight minutes atop the grassy knoll, canvassing for witnesses and searching the railway. He then went back to south side of Elm Street to look for bullet strikes, at which time Deputy Buddy Walthers arrived to assist. "Fourteen or fifteen" minutes after the shooting he saw "a white male in his twenties, five nine, five eight, something like that [etc.]" run from the southwest corner of the TSBD down Elm Street toward the underpass, to be picked up at the kerb there by "a light-colored station wagon, driving real slow", driven by a "dark complected man". He immediately reported this to "a secret service officer" at the scene ...


THE TANGLED WEB: Crystalised into this historically momentous instant Craig had inadvertently allowed himself to be blanked by a conspiracy look-out man, and - unsurprisingly - nothing ever came of this in-the-heat-of-the-moment report. And of course if we knew who the mysterious man was working for, then we would understand far more about the nature of the Dealey Plaza operation as a field operation. If it was an SS man then it would have been an SS conspiracy followed by an SS cover-up. If a mobster, then a mob hit followed by a mob cover-up. If a military intelligence man then a military coup followed by a military cover up. If a Castro man, etc. And so on. Or to put it another way: He who owned the fake SS ID owned the conspiracy. Well the Secret Service insist there were no SS agents on the ground in Dealey Plaza: it would have been a great idea but - hangovers aside - they simply lacked the manpower. And Robert Jones tells us that 112th Military Intelligence Group had between eight and twelve agents in plain clothes in the area, who would have produced SS ID if challenged (indeed Summers, 2013e, wonders whether this might not be a real possibility). And any conspiring mobsters would have carried first-class fake SS IDs produced by such assets as Rod Mac Kenzie. It is nothing less than wholly indicative therefore that Craig would later photographically identify this agent as >>CIA<< operative Edgar Bradley [q.v.].


Probably about 30 minutes after the shooting Craig entered TSBD to assist with the ongoing building search. Ascending to the 6th floor he witnessed the spent shells, noting that they were laid neatly together, and not scattered as they would be after rapid reloading in either a bolt-action or automatic rifle. He then witnessed the discovery of "the rifle" by Eugene Booth. It was lying on the floor with the bolt upwards and scope fitted. Captain Will Fritz oversaw the taking of pictures, before picking the rifle up by the strap and asking whether anyone knew what kind of rifle it was. He heard Seymour Weizmann reply that it "looked like a Mauser", and saw stamped on the barrel was the legend "7.65 Mauser". Captain Fritz ejected a live - unfired - round [perhaps Loy Factor's??]. Booth's shells, on the other hand, came from a 6.5mm Italian rifle. At "about 5:30 or something like that" he attended DPDHQ at Captain Fritz's request and identified LHO as the man he had seen getting into the station wagon [thus directly contradicting Mary Bledsoe's statement that she had seen LHO on a bus - |Ed.]. He also reported hearing that a traffic officer had been shot by the picket fence. As such, Craig plays a part in the Blood or Cola Thread, the LHO Movements 22nd November Thread, and the How Many Rifles Thread. It is therefore hardly surprising that there were attempts on his life over the years, followed by a highly convenient suicide on 15th May 1975. His death is not just one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses", but also in our judgement well into the Top Ten most convincing. Officer Craig's evidential profile is as follows: FBI Report, 22nd November 1963 [have been unable to locate]; Sheriff's Office Report 23rd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission Testimony [read it now]; Trial of Clay Shaw Testimony [read it now]; Radio interview by Ted Ganfaldo [YouTube it now]; Interview to camera, Mark Lane [YouTube it now].


Craik, Sir George Lillie [2nd Baronet]1927: British lawyer turned law enforcer Sir George Craik [no convenient biography] is noteworthy in the present context for having been a founding member of the Round Table Movement [see own entry], and a long-standing friend of Philip Kerr [see own entry] during his years in South Africa (Rose, 2000). He would go on to become Chief Constable of London's Metropolitan Police.


Crawford, John: Light aircraft pilot John Crawford [no convenient biography] seems to have worked for Jack Ruby on occasions. He was killed in a plane crash near Huntsville, TX, on 15th April 1969. His death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses". Conspiracy theories exist, but we remain to be convinced that they warrant being recorded here.


Crescent Firearms, Inc.: See the entry for Louis Feldsott.


Crewe House: Nowadays London's Saudi Arabian Embassy, but here used as synecdoche for the Department of Propaganda in Enemy Countries, an offshoot of the War Propaganda Bureau [see own entry] created under Lord Northcliffe in February 1918. Sir Campbell Stuart's 1921 memoir "Secrets of Crewe House: The Story of a Famous Campaign" [full text online] sets the general scene and identifies the main departmental officers.


[Crewe-]1895-Milnes, Robert Offley Ashburton [2nd Baron Houghton]1885 [Earl of Crewe]1895 [1st Marquess of Crewe]1911: British aristocrat-politician Robert Crewe-Milnes [Lord Crewe]1895  [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having lent his home to the government in February 1918 to house Lord Northcliffe's new Department of Propaganda in Enemy Countries, and (b) for being identified as "close to the inner circle" of the Milner Group (Macgregor and Docherty, 2017, p26).


***** JFK Senior Primary Conspirator *****

(remember that the actual killing was a secondary conspiracy)

Crichton, John ["Jack"] Alston: [Invariably Jack] WW2 veteran (OSS) turned Dallas oilman Colonel Jack Crichton [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context (a) for having business ties with fellow oilmen Clint Murchison and George H. W. Bush [see own entry], defence contractor General Dynamics, and Cuban President Fulgencio Batista in the 1950s, and (b) for having been Founder-Commander of the 488th MID [see own entry] between 1956 and 1967. He was profiled by Peter Dale Scott in his 2015 book "Dallas '63" as having been responsible for the deliberate "conspiratorial manipulation of Marina Oswald's testimony in the first hours after the assassination, in order to create the [...] impression that the Soviet Union may have been involved" (§4132). The forethought required to do this with so little notice indicates that it has to have been pre-planned. In 1959 he and Bush reportedly helped raise funds for the CIA's Operation 40. It has also been estimated that at the time of the assassination about half of the 488ths 100-man complement were DPD officers.


Crisis Actors: [Read firstly the entry for Drills and Exercises.] This phrase grew popular in the mid-1990s to describe the (perfectly legitimate) use of hired "victims" - in full moulage [Wikipedia briefing] - in civil defence drills and exercises. The term then started to sink into disrepute when analysis of news reporting from NYC in the hours following the 9/11 atrocity revealed the (not perfectly legitimate) practice of TV news teams having a supply of actors at hand to play-act eye-witnesses to camera when needed [YouTube CNN caught red-handed]. However since about 2012 the term has sunk even further, and is presently used [March 2018] by conspiracy theorists as a heart-of-conspiracy accusation that an atrocity at hand - the 2017 Las Vegas Massacre, say - was (totally malevolently, as someone's Black Op) staged using crisis actors in physical or psychological moulage. As a result, every new atrocity is greeted within seconds by online cries of false flag! and crisis actor! Nothing more to say here because it is all online - check it out.


Crisman, Fred Lee: WW2 veteran (U.S.A.A.C.), long-term associate of Clay Shaw, and jobbing esoterist Fred Crisman [Wikipedia murk-ography] would defeat even Jim Garrison's investigations of him so completely that Garrison officially concluded that he must spend his time in "deep cover" (Garrison's actual term) on work of national security of some sort. So it is then not altogether surprising to find Crisman named in due course in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so outer sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination.



Croft, Henry Page: British businessmangrain turned right-wing politician turned front-line commander in the Battle of the Somme re-turned political avenger of wasted lives Brigadier General Henry Croft [Wikipedia biography] is noteworthy in the present context for being mentioned in Chapter 5 of Jim Macgregor [see own entry] and Gerry Docherty's [see own entry] 2017 book "Prolonging the Agony" [see own entry]. In this particular chapter the authors are questioning the effectiveness of the Royal Navy's blockade of Germany.


ASIDE: Readers are reminded that there is an important cluster of conspiracy theories centred on the blockade running of contraband into Germany during WW1. For the backstory to this, start with the inset to the entry for Maurice Hankey. Croft is just one of those who tried to speak out against the practice.


Croft, they note, mourning no doubt the casualties suffered by his own unit, now spoke out forcefully in Parliament against the sort of profiteering which kept the war going unnecessarily. Here is an indicative extract from one of his speeches ...


"Only the Government in 1915 and 1916 did not grasp the vital necessity of preserving every pound of food we had in this country. No Minister was responsible during this time, and yet we find that millions of tons of produce and raw material left this country—ore for shells to blow our men to bits with in the trenches, cotton to provide explosives for those shells, and food to feed the Germans who fired those shells—and when we remember the way that not only the fighting men, the soldiers and sailors, have borne the burden of this War and of these continual perils, but the way in which the civil population of this country has gone through the discomforts of this War—when we remember all that, I say it is very difficult for us to remain silent while the poor of this country go short of tea and other commodities at the present time, and when we remember the vast exports that went on by the deliberate policy of Ministers in the years 1915 and 1916. Therefore I submit that I have the right to ask, and the country has the right to know, who was the man, or men, who betrayed their country by feeding the Germans in this manner" (Hansard, 21st March 1918; emphasis added).


RECOMMENDED READING: The full text of this speech is online - click here. It covers many other commodities, and makes truly sobering reading.


As usual, this debate, then and since, went totally over the heads of the ordinary British people. The man in the street simply does not routinely read Hansard, and the mainstream media declined to pass it on because they were themselves in the pockets of the profiteers. As a result, the names of the guilty men were never clearly stated, and the men themselves never punished; indeed sometimes - as with Alfred Mond [see own entry] - they were even rewarded. [THREAD = BEST KEEP THIS FROM THE COMMON MAN]


Crook, Don: Mentioned in the Roy Cooper entry, which see.


Crouch, Mark: In June 1981 assassination researcher Mark Crouch [no convenient biography] acquired a duplicate set of autopsy photographs taken by Secret Service duty photographer James Fox [q.v.], on condition they were not published until after his death. Fox died in 1987 and the material was duly incorporated into the 1988 edition of David Lifton's book "Best Evidence".


***** WW1 Junior Primary Conspirator *****

Crowe, Eyre Alexander: British civil servant [