Conspiracy Theory Glossary
Copyright Notice: This material was written and published in Wales by Derek J. Smith (Chartered Engineer). It forms part of a multifile e-learning resource, and subject only to acknowledging Derek J. Smith's rights under international copyright law to be identified as author may be freely downloaded and printed off in single complete copies solely for the purposes of private study and/or review. Commercial exploitation rights are reserved. The remote hyperlinks have been selected for the academic appropriacy of their contents; they were free of offensive and litigious content when selected, and will be periodically checked to have remained so. Copyright © 2018, Derek J. Smith.
First published 09:00 GMT 8th February 2018. This version 3.0 [extend A-P to A-Z] 09:00 GMT 26th February 2018 [BUT UNDER CONSTANT EXTENSION AND CORRECTION, SO CHECK AGAIN SOON]
How to Use this Glossary
(1) Histories have no beginning or end. They like to twist and turn, branch out and double back. So by all means read this glossary from start to end if you insist, but you'll enjoy it more if you keyword search it, or follow the various prepared threads, shown like this. We also sometimes use [q.v.] to indicate that a brief divert to an associated entry might be profitable.
(2) Unless otherwise stated, all ages, occupations and ranks, workplaces, places of residence, etc., are with effect 22nd November 1963, the day of the JFK assassination. Three-element Hispanic names are filed alphabetically using the middle name, the father's family name. The italicised adjective/adverb convenient(ly) indicates that the assertion at hand is to some extent suspicious.
(3) This is a student resource designed to introduce JFK conspiracy theory to the younger audience, that they might hit the ground running and not sink in what is largely a sea of lies. Statements referenced in academic style may safely be interpreted as "scientific"; all other content is merely encyclopaedic - it collates what others have been saying, and those others might be wrong. Research opportunities are highlighted where particular issues are historically pivotal.
(4) Keep an open mind, believe nobody (especially where money or power is involved), remember the fallibilities of human eye-witness testimony, and approach all "facts" as deliberately planted disinformation; in the Kennedy case it is only the gangsters and the Cubans who have ever told the truth (Hager, 2017)! Steer especially clear of internet broadcasting channels and the broader truther-debunker confrontations, for they are all in our judgement part of the problem, not of the solution - the louder the mouth or the darker the glasses, the more suspicious you should be. On the other hand there is much to learn from the established research chatrooms and bulletin boards, although this sort of material is often difficult to cite academically.
(5) Remember that lawyers, although they insist that witnesses swear to tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth, are themselves paid to steer those same witnesses in the direction of a dollar's-worth truth. Worse - all intelligence agents, all lodge-members, and the religiously devout are bound by higher oaths NOT to tell the truth even though they have sworn that they will.
(6) Before you go, feel free to familiarise yourself with some of the noises you will be encountering. Just click and compare ...
Here are three rifles, two bolt-action and one semi-automatic ...
Here are two types of bullet strike, conventional and fragmenting ...
And for another day, perhaps, here is some of the bigger stuff ...
Nanothermite (shaped for military demolition) - CLASSIFIED!
The Glossary Entries (A to Z)
107 Decatur Street, New Orleans: The location of Carlos Bringuier's shop, and therefore (a) the effective base for the New Orleans chapter of the DRE, and (b) one of the two sources, in late afternoon 22nd November 1963, of the pre-scripted This-is-your-Assassin briefing material which shaped the world's headlines on the morning of 23rd November.
112th Military Intelligence Group: For a detailed history see Larry Hancock's 2001 paper "Mysteries of the 112th Intelligence Corp" [full text online].
201 File: A 201 File was/is a U.S. military personnel record file, specifically the Master Personnel Folder [Wikipedia text and images].
214 West Neely Street: About a quarter of a mile SSW of 1026 North Beckley Avenue, this is the property in the upstairs apartment of which LHO, Marina Oswald, and baby June lived between 2nd March 1963 and (although paid up to 2nd May) 24th April 1963 (negligible neighbour-confirmation, however). It was from here, on at least one occasion (2nd April 1963), that Michael Paine collected them to take them to the Paine House for dinner. And it was in the backyard here that, on 31st March 1963, Marina Oswald took the three Backyard Photographs of LHO proudly displaying a Mannlicher-Carcano [UNLESS, OF COURSE, SAID PHOTOGRAPHS WERE SUBSEQUENTLY FAKED]. It is also where, after being cleaned and padlocked by owner Waldo George in May, and quickly re-inspected on the afternoon of 22nd November by same, that Special Agent (FBI) William Brookhart nevertheless managed to find a cheque counterfoil from American Bakeries to one James Jackson.
488th Military Intelligence Detachment: Established in Dallas in 1956 by Jack Crichton as a special duties detachment under the Army Reserve umbrella 488th MID [Spartacus Educational briefing] was effectively big oil's private army. Some 40-50% of the hundred or so members in 1963 had day jobs with the DPD. One of them - Deputy Chief of Police George Lumpkin - even drove the Motorcade's Pilot Car, and another - White Russian Ilya Mamantov - interpreted Marina Oswald's early post-assassination interrogations into conveniently targeted English.
501 Elm Street, Dallas: See the entry for the Dal-Tex Building.
508 Young Street, Dallas: Offices of the Dallas Morning News between 1949 and 2017.
531 Lafayette Place, New Orleans: Guy Banister's office and headquarters. It was contiguous (it being a corner property) with Katz n' Jammer's Bar at 544 Camp Street.
544 Camp Street, New Orleans: Katz n' Jammer's Bar. It was contiguous (it being a corner property) with Guy Banister's office and headquarters at 531 Lafayette Place.
604 Elsbeth Street, Dallas: See the entry for Elsbeth Apartment.
1026 North Beckley Avenue, Dallas: A boarding house owned by Earlene Roberts, where LHO roomed from 14th October 1963 during his working week (while his wife Marina Oswald was staying with Ruth Paine at the Paine House). The address features boldly in the Tippit Murder Thread, and is nowadays on the JFK tourist circuit as a living museum [see brochure]. The house is a difficult two miles SSW of Deeley Plaza, across the Trinity River, and just short of a mile NNW of Patton and 10th, where Patrolman J. D. Tippit was murdered.
1101 Elm Street, Dallas, TX: See Rio Grande Building.
1312½ Commerce Street, Dallas: Demolished in the early 1970s this was the site of The Carousel Club nightclub, one of two such businesses owned by Jack Ruby. Acquired in 1961 it was, though he said it himself, "a fucking classy joint".
1502 North Zangs Boulevard, Dallas, TX: See Gloco Gas Station.
2515 W. 5th Street, Irving: See Paine House, The.
4907 Magazine Street, New Orleans: One of LHO's rooming houses during his stay in NOLA in the summer of 1963. Appears as an LHO address on some of the famous Fair Play for Cuba Committee flyers, and therefore part of the LHO Patsification Thread.
Abrams, Gus: Bona fide innocent tramp Gus Abrams [no convenient biography] was one of the Three Tramps in the Mary la Fontaine documenting of the Three Tramps Thread.
Abrasion Collar: An abrasion collar is a circle (or near-circle) of bruising around a bullet entry wound, caused by the incoming bullet immediately prior to its penetrating the skin. Very importantly, the collar is radially only of equal extent when the bullet strikes perpendicularly to the skin. If the bullet comes in at an angle then the collar is wider on the side facing the shooter. In cases where it is not possible to dissect or probe through a wound to establish the direction of fire, the abrasion collar becomes one of only two available points of evidence (the other being the presence of a clearly associated exit wound). During JFK's autopsy the Secret Service explicitly forbade dissection or probing of the wounds. Taking the abrasion collar indicator in isolation Michael Kurtz points out in his 1982/1993 book "Crime of the Century" that JFK's back wound was - very perversely - on an ascending trajectory.
Abt, John: Without knowing it Chicago born civil libertarian lawyer John Abt [Spartacus Educational biography] entered the assassination story on 23rd November 1963 when LHO gave his name as the lawyer he would like to represent him. There had, however, been no previous contact of any sort between the two men. Abt's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Acheson, Dean Gooderham: WW2 non-combat veteran (Assistant Secretary of State) and Cold War player Dean Acheson [Wikipedia biography] had retired from public service in 1953 but was nevertheless frequently called upon for his advice by JFK during his Presidency.
Adams, Don A.: 32-year-old Korean War veteran FBI Agent Don Adams [no convenient biography] began as a rookie on the FBI's investigations of the assassination. One of his first duties was to study the Zapruder Film, instantly judging that JFK's throat injury came from a frontal shot. He was then able to identify no less than 11 possible shots. Later in life he would become co-author with Harrison Livingstone of the 2012 book "From an Office Building with a High-Powered Rifle", in which the general case is made that the assassination was on balance of probabilities a conspiracy made successful by a security cock-up, and then followed by a long and painful cover-up conspiracy. More specifically he wished in retrospect that more had been done at the time to "crack" the Joseph Milteer case, for in his opinion, much of value would have emerged. YouTube him now.
Adams, Victoria Elizabeth: Employed in the Scott, Foresman Company area of TSBD4, Victoria Adams [no convenient biography] was watching the Presidential motorcade from a window when the shooting took place, in the company of fellow-workers Sandra Styles, Elsie Dorman, and Dorothy Garner. She reported hearing shots "from the right below". She then left the building along with Styles, via the back stairs, sighting only Bill Shelly and Billy Lovelady on the way. She then exited by the north (back) door and made her way leftwise round to the front of the building. Here she milled around for a short time, taking it all in, before re-entering the building by the front entrance. She would go on to feature in Barry Ernest's 2013 book "The Girl on the Stairs", the central thrust of which is that the Warren Commission systematically massaged many minor details in order to fit witnesses into the official narrative. Adams' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Subject of the video documentary "The Girl on the Stairs" [YouTube it now] and similar on-line follow ups to that book.
Aguilar, Gary L.: Assassination researcher Dr. Gary Aguilar [Spartacus Educational biography] was co-author with Josiah Thompson of the public domain paper "The Magic Bullet: Even More Magical Than We Knew?" [full text online], exposing the inadmissability of CE-399 - the famed Magic Bullet [q.v.] - as evidence of anything but an ruthless and far-reaching Establishment cover-up. Browse the Magic Bullet Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Aguilar, Manuel: Cuban exile (but very possibly a double agent) Manuel Aguilar [no convenient biography] pops up only infrequently in the histories, usually as a member of INTERPEN. Reportedly often photographed with Loran Hall.
Alba, Adrian Thomas: New Orleans businessman Adrian Alba [no convenient biography] ran the Crescent City Garage, 618 Magazine Street, in whose waiting room were the gun magazines which a customer named "Lee" spent a lot of time studying. Lee also asked lots of questions about guns, how to mail order them, and whether it was worth joining the National Rifle Association. Many of these magazines were removed by the authorities after the assassination, eventually finding the one from which the order slip for the Mannlicher-Carcano C2766 had been torn (Hurt, 1985).
Albarelli, Hank P.: "Meticulous and cautious researcher" Hank Albarelli [no convenient biography] was author of the 2010 book "A Terrible Mistake: The Murder of Frank Olson and the CIA's Secret Cold War", an investigation of the Frank Olson case - YouTube a 2010 book promo.
Alexander, Ward: Ward Alexander was the false identity of low end JFK conspirator Rod Mac Kenzie during his half century of wise invisibility.
Alexander, William F.: Ex-FBI Agent Assistant District Attorney Bill Alexander [no convenient biography] entered the assassination narrative when he was driven to the scene of the J. D. Tippit shooting by Lieutenant Calvin Owens and Captain Bill Westbrook. He was then at the rear door of the Texas Theater during LHO's arrest, and on the scene again for the search of LHO's room at 1026 North Beckley Avenue. Back at DPDHQ he assisted LHO's interrogations, and prepared the indictment against him that same evening. Reporter Jim Ewell would later remember him as "a squad car prosecutor" - always out where the action was.
Allende, Salvador: Democratically elected Chilean President Salvador Allende [Wikipedia biography] was deposed on 11th September 1973 by a military coup fomented by the CIA. He conveniently committed "suicide" and was replaced by General Augusto Pinochet.
Alpha 66: Alpha 66 [Wikipedia briefing] was a 66-member anti-Castro commando force created and maintained by Antonio Veciana Blanch [q.v.] and responsible in early 1962 for a series of heavy raids on Cuban and Soviet shipping and shore installations (specifically selected as politically sensitive targets by David Atlee Phillips). He then used tame journalist Virginia Prewett to guarantee positive press coverage (Summers, 2013e). Because of the international implications of Soviet casualties JFK ordered a clampdown on Alpha 66 activities in early summer, whereupon the group withdrew to cover and started to organise a second full invasion. They also - very probably - added a second president to their list of targets. [Note that the skills and equipment of a commando force like Alpha 66 are different to the skills and equipment of an assassination force like INTERPEN - Ed.]
Altgens, James William ["Ike"]: AP photojournalist James Altgens [Wikipedia biography] was stood on the south verge of Elm Street level with the John Neely Bryan Pergola, so that any photographs he might take of the approaching limo #1 would automatically have the front of the TSBD in the background. The sixth of his exposures - evidence-coded as Altgens6 - was taken at Z255 [view it now] and shows the two right-side secret service men on limo #2 looking back over their right shoulders, and JFK already holding his throat. Billy Lovelady is in the TSBD doorway, and perhaps Johnny Roselli and David Morales are spectating at the foot of the Dal-Tex Building fire escape. The photograph exists in many variants some, it is believed, tampered with. Altgens' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Interview to camera, CBS 1967 [YouTube it now].
Alyea, Thomas: WFAA-TV cameraman Tom Alyea [no convenient biography] had just got off the train from Fort Worth when the news of the shooting came through and managed the two blocks to Dealey Plaza in time to be one of the first reporters to reach the TSBD. He then entered the building alongside the first search teams, and filmed the progress of the search - including the recovery of the hidden Mannlicher-Carcano. Finding then that the building had been locked down he had to throw his film out of window to stay ahead of the competition - YouTube his footage now.
American Bakeries Pay Stubs: These were the two small pay cheque counterfoils forming part of the official narrative's evidential trail. Both had originally been attached to American Bakeries pay cheques in favour of employee James Jackson. One was found in LHO's back trouser pocket, and the other was discovered by Special Agent (FBI) William Brookhart [q.v.] in the already twice-searched upper apartment at 214 West Nealy Street, Dallas, which LHO had rented after Jackson in Spring 1963.
AMLASH: Codename for Rolando Cubela [Spartacus Educational biography], a wavering member of Fidel Castro's military staff, who was being cultivated by the CIA as the delivery man for a poison-tipped Q-pen.
AMSPELL: CIA codename for Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil (DRE), which see.
AMWORLD: see the entry for Lamar Waldron.
Angleton, James Jesus: The CIA's Chief of Counterintelligence from 1954 to 1975 James Angleton [Wikipedia hagiography; 2013 YouTube documentary - RECOMMENDED] was brought up in Milan, Italy, where his father managed the local NCR tabulating machinery franchise. He then attended Malvern College in England before returning to the U.S. to study at Yale. During WW2 he was an OSS counterintelligence agent in London before being put in charge of Britain's Ultra operations in Italy in late 1944 (during which time he was not averse to calling on Mafia connections against a common enemy, nor, some say, of passing intelligence to the Nazis). In May 1949 he was made Chief of the CIA's Office of Special Operations, being then promoted by Allen Dulles in 1954 to Chief of Counterintelligence. Angleton testified before the Church Committee in 1975.
"Angleton Ops": So effective were James Angleton's type of operation - daring, to-the-point, and ruthlessly pursued - that they became known within the trade as "Angleton Ops".
Arce, Danny Garcia: Before the shooting Dallas-born TSBD order picker Danny Arce [no convenient biography] was standing on Elm Street outside the front door of the building and allowed "a real old man" to use the TSBD lavatories. "He had on an old brown suit and a western type hat". He then saw the man leave the building "and drive off in an old black Buick". It may or may not be relevant that Arce had only been working at TSBD for two months, having previously worked in the kitchens at "this Rubenstein place on Hall [Street]".
ASIDE: Hall Street is two miles east of Dealey Plaza. Researchers have recently largely excluded the possibility that the Sidney Rubenstein and (son) Stanley Rubenstein of Rubenstein and Son Produce Inc, 1111 Hall Street [looks like a parking lot on my Google Streetview - Ed.] have anything to do with Jack Ruby. We note that some sources give the Rubenstein address as 1111 Hall, while others mention Pearl Street. The descendent company - now just a wholesaler - is Rubenstein Seafood Sales Inc - see the website. It lists at 6210 Campbell Road. We also note that a (then) 73-year-old Richard Pavlick in a 1950 black Buick had tried to car-bomb JFK back in 1960, but was (unconfirmed) in a mental institution at the time of the assassination. Recent attempts to conflate Arce with an anti-Castro Cuban named Amado Cantillo seem to have drawn a blank.
Nobody has yet been able to find any substantive association between Danny Arce and the much older INTERPEN operative Remigio Arce. It may or may not therefore also be relevant that Danny Arce has been recently identified as an INTERPEN field operative in his own right - YouTube him in Dealey Plaza now - which, if true, would make you wonder who the "real old man" really was and what he brought in to the TSBD under his coat [MORE CURTAIN RODS, PERHAPS?]! Arce's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit, 22nd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Arce, Remigio ["Cuku"]: Remigio Arce [no convenient biography] pops up only infrequently in the histories, usually as a member of INTERPEN, and sometimes as having identified Herminio Diaz Garcia as a Dealey Plaza shooter. Nobody has yet been able to find any substantive association between Remigio Arce and TSBD employee Danny Arce.
Archacha Smith, Sergio: [Because Hispanic rules apply to this three part name, we have taken the family name Arcacha as the indexing name and Smith - the mother's name - as supplemental. Some authors prefer the hyphenated surname Archaca-Smith, and others refer to him as just Arcacha.] Cuban diplomat Sergio Arcacha Smith [Spartacus Educational biography] sought refuge in New Orleans after the Castro Revolution, and there - in association with David Ferrie - he established the (Cuban) Democratic Liberation Front (FRD). He was expelled from this organisation for embezzlement in January 1962, and in October 1962 relocated to Miami, thence to Tampa, thence to Houston. He would in due course be named in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so inner sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination.
Arnold, Gordon: About to return from leave to Fort Wainwright, AL, 22-year-old Gordon Arnold [Wikipedia biography] was told by a man with CIA Id not to spectate from the triple overpass, and so moved down in front of the picket fence.
ASIDE: One of Rod Mac Kenzie's false Id Cards at work, perhaps??
Arnold was then filming the motorcade at about the same moment that Badgeman (Roscoe White or Charles Rogers) took his shot. His camera was then confiscated by a hatless uniformed officer with a drawn gun. Arnold died in 1997. His evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Interview to camera, 1988 [YouTube it now - RECOMMENDED].
Artime Buesa, Manuel Francesco: Psychiatrist and lapsed Cuban Revolutionary Dr. Manuel Artime [Wikipedia biography] had been captured on 2nd May 1961 during the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, not being released until on 24th December 1962. Five days after that he shared the saluting platform with JFK at the latter's homage to the Brigade 2506 veterans. With CIA support he then helped organise and train new cadres of anti-Castro exiles in preparation, they hoped, for a second invasion.
Arvad, Inga Marie: [Until 1931, Inga Marie Arvad Petersen] Danish journalist and some time beauty queen and film starlet Inga Arvad [Wikipedia biography] had schmoozed her way (a) into being a guest at Hermann Goering's wedding on 10th April 1935, and (b) into conducting two career-shaping interviews with Adolf Hitler ("You immediately like him"). She emigrated to the U.S. in 1940, where in November 1941 she entered into a love affair with the son of a U.S. diplomat. This shameless social posturing led to her being closely monitored by the FBI - wiretaps and all - as a suspected Nazi spy. Now guess the name of the diplomat's son ...
ATF: See the entry for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms.
Atkins, Commander Thomas M., USN: Official White House cinematographer Tom Atkins [no convenient biography] was one of the several press corps old hands consigned to Car #6 in the Dallas Presidential motorcade. He managed to take some footage in Dealey Plaza and then proceeded via a short stop at the Trade Mart to Parkland Hospital, where he filmed, amongst other things, the parked-up limo #1. He then flew back to Washington in the press plane and took further footage of the arrival of the body at the White House. Atkins' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT TAKEN]; 19-minute documentary "The Last Two Days" [YouTube it now].
Atsugi Naval Air Station. American military base in the Kanagawa Prefecture of Japan [Wikipedia briefing, maps, etc.]. It is the largest U.S.N. airbase in the Pacific Theatre, and is noteworthy in the present context for having supported the CIA-led U-2 photoreconnaissance effort from 1957. LHO served at Atsugi as a radar operator between September 1957 and November 1958. Other persons of interest to the present narrative who also served/passed through the station were Gerry Hemming and E. Howard Hunt.
Ayers, Lieutenant (U.S.M.C.) Alexander G.: As recorded in the La Fontaines' 1996 book "Oswald Talked", Lieutenant A. G. Ayers [no convenient biography] was the officer who signed LHO's DD Form 1173, the Buff ID Card found in his wallet at the time of his arrest. Browse the Oswald's Wallet Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Ayers, Bradley E.: JM/WAVE CIA officer turned assassination researcher Bradley Ayers [Spartacus Educational biography] was the source in 1994 of a report naming nine persons as having "intimate operational knowledge" of how the assassination was put together. These were: Grayston Lynch, Theodore Shackley, Felix Rodriguez, Thomas Clines, Gordon Campbell, David Morales, Rip Robertson, Edward Roderick, and Tony Sforza.
Aynesworth, Hugh Grant: West Virginian high flying journalist Hugh Aynesworth [Wikipedia hagiography] was in the offices of the Dallas Morning News at around 1130hr on 22nd December 1963 (even seeing Jack Ruby there placing his weekly advertisement). He was then Ultra-conveniently (for a reporter, that is) at Elm and Houston - within 100 yards of perhaps half a dozen assorted assassins - when the shooting took place (although awkwardly not - it has recently been judged - visible in any of the photographic or cinematographic evidence). He then gathered reports from bystanders outside TSBD, while at the same time eavesdropping a DPD motorcycle radio. He thus heard of the murder of Patrolman J. D. Tippit at the same time as the DPD patrols did themselves, allowing him to get a WFAA-TV vehicle to the site of that incident just as further news came in that a suspect for this latter shooting had been sighted in the Texas Theater. A second mad dash saw him hyper-conveniently in at the arrest of LHO a few minutes later. Aynesworth is also central to the Blood or Cola Thread, having himself visited the top of the John Neely Bryan Pergola steps along with Jerry Coley around midday on Monday 25th November, only to find that the area had been scrubbed clean of the blood Coley had seen on 22nd.
ASIDE: Aynesworth has since consistently dismissed the liquid as "it was soda pop", but since nothing at all was there on 25th November he must either have seen the real stain prior to the cleaning, or seen the Hood photograph after its confiscation, or be simply passing on the hearsay of others as direct testimony.
Aynesworth has recently appeared in a 2013 retrospective with fellow witness Buell Frazier [YouTube it now]. On a visit to Cuba six weeks before the shooting (10th October) he was asked to do a favour of some sort for the CIA, but nothing came of it and he received no payment. Aynesworth's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; HSCA [NOT CALLED]; Much to browse online.
Ayres, Joseph: Chief Steward on Air Force One Joseph Ayres [no convenient biography] might have been able to throw light on the Medical Cover Up Thread, but died in a convenient hunting accident in August 1977. His death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".
Babushka Lady: Known only from other photographs and films the still-unidentified [January 2018] eyewitness known semi-officially as the Babushka Lady [Wikipedia briefing] was filming the event from the median lawn of Dealey Plaza just south of Elm Street, level with the John Neely Bryan Pergola. After the shooting she seems to have calmly finished her film, before disappearing unhurriedly into the crowd. One Beverly Oliver claimed she was the person in question, and that her film had been confiscated by law officers on the day, but this story has not been fully corroborated. We shall therefore leave both person and - far more importantly - her film on the Unsolved Riddles Thread.
Backyard Photographs: These things ...
The Backyard Photographs are some of the most hotly debated pieces of evidence in the entire assassination story. According to the official narrative they were taken in the backyard of 214 West Nealy Street, Dallas, on 31st March 1963, confessedly by Marina Oswald using her husband's Imperial Reflex camera, and two prints (CE-133-A and CE-133-B) and one negative (CE-749) were discovered in the garage at the Paine House on 23rd November by Officers Gus Rose and Richard Stovall. Alternative theories began perhaps an hour later at DPDHQ when LHO was shown the photographs, only to reply that they were his head superimposed onto somebody else's body. The debate has swung back and forth between the two extremes of opinion ever since, supported by a test-tubes-at-20-paces battle of photoforensic experts. YouTube here for some of the doubts. In 1978, the School of Photographic Arts and Sciences gave three of their experts the task of briefing the HSCA as to the validity of the exhibits [full text online]. The report testified, amongst many other things, as follows ...
(1) Fine markings on CE-749 matched those on fresh negatives exposed in LHO's camera, and CE-749 produced CE-133-B when printed.
(2) None of the scratchmarks were abruptly discontinuous as they would be if photocomposited.
(3) No evidence of head substitution was seen.
Then, in 1975 a third slightly variant positive came to light, CE-133-C, previously in the possession of Geneva White [by then Dees]. Again, on 1st April 1977 a signed copy of CE-133-A was found after his suicide in the effects of George de Mohrenschildt. And finally, in 1992, a photographic matte came out of the woodwork, prepared on or about 29th November 1963 by DPD crime scene photographer Bobby Brown, in which any properly posed figure might be inserted into a positive of the rest of CE-133-C; an artifice found in every major fairground on earth.
Badgeman: A uniformed shooter revealed on the western end of the John Neely Bryan Pergola during the 1980s in the Mary Moorman #5 photograph by optical enlargement and more recently by digital enhancement by researchers such as Gary Mack and Jack White [Wikipedia entry], and since tentatively identified as either Roscoe White or Charles Rogers depending on whose theory you follow.
Baker, Judyth Anne Vary: Indiana born laboratory scientist Judyth Baker [Spartacus Educational biography] was a high school biomedical sciences prodigy who was rewarded just after her 18th birthday with a short internship at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY. She moved on scholarship to the University of Florida in February 1962, but left a year later after a miscarriage. She then moved to New Orleans with her boyfriend Robert Alston Baker, III, and there fell in with LHO, who was - she says - trying to infiltrate New Orleans right-wing -Castro network. As such she soon met mob boss Carlos Marcello, Clay Shaw, Guy Banister, and David Ferrie. She married Bobby Baker on 2nd May 1963, but the next day he left for a three week work away. During this first absence she and LHO found work at the William Reily Coffee Company, with part-time involvement as an outstation to Dr. Alton Ochsner's Ochsner Clinic on a hush-hush government project looking at transmittable cancer led in house by Mary Sherman in "the Bone Lab". Ochsner explained that Fidel Castro was trying to kill JFK, which would likely trigger WW3, and that if - as a cigar smoker - he could be infected with a cancer extract of some sort it could save mankind. She and LHO spent the rest of the summer raising cancer-infected mice and submitting recovered cancer tissues to the main lab. That and falling in love into the bargain. On 9th August, LHO, as a potential mule for the delivery of the material into Cuba, started to cultivate the necessary pro-Castro persona by distributing leaflets on behalf of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Somehow Baker avoided the accidents and murders which disposed of most of the conspirators already mentioned, and kept her story to herself until 1999. Her own book, entitled "Me and Lee", came out in 2010. She has appeared also on numerous YouTube lectures and promotions, but they are generally too poorly constructed to do her story proper justice.
***** Two Bobby Bakers follow - do not mix them up *****
Baker, Robert Alston, III: [Background not known - Ed.] Bobby Baker [no convenient biography] was the Florida University student who married Judith Vary, thereafter Judith Vary Baker, 2nd May 1963 in Mobile, AL, and who then rather conveniently worked away two or three weeks at a time while his new wife fell for, and then conducted a double extramarital affair with LHO.
Baker, Robert Gene: Washington aide Bobby Baker [Wikipedia biography] had been closely associated with LBJ since the latter's election to the Senate in 1948, and had common business interests with him until 1960. Baker resigned as Secretary to the House Majority Leader on 7th October 1963, during an investigation for bribery, and he was eventually sentenced to 18 months in prison for tax evasion.
Baker, Russell Warren: Investigative journalist Russ Baker [Wikipedia biography] joined our story with his 2008 book "Family of Secrets", the first work to make a detailed case that George H. W. Bush had been an active CIA officer at the time of the JFK assassination and the Watergate Conspiracy. For this impudence he has been largely disowned by the mainstream media, although his WHO-WHAT-WHY social media presence is still holding out under fire [check it out].
Banfield, Bill: NPIC employee. Features in the entry for Dino Brugioni. Browse the Zapruder Film Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Banister, William Guy: One-time FBI agent, retired Assistant Superintendent of the New Orleans Police Department, and "first-class prick" (Mac Kenzie (and Hooke), Chap 2) Guy Banister [Wikipedia biography] was one of the leading lights in New Orleans' right-wing activist community, with links to Permindex, Clay Shaw, David Ferrie, and Carlos Marcello. He would in due course be named in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so inner sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination.
Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI): [Not to be confused with International Credit Bank of Geneva] The Luxembourg registered bank BCCI [Wikipedia briefing] was forced into liquidation in 1991 and placed under investigation for money laundering, the funding of covert operations (incl terrorism), and fraud. Links with the CIA have also been mentioned in a number of alternative histories of the collapse.
Bannerman, Robert L.: CIA officer since 1947 and experienced Cold War warrior Robert Bannerman [no convenient biography] was presently the CIA's Director of Security.
Barclay, Michael James: Dallas lawyer Mike Barclay [no convenient biography] was at the corner of Main Street and Houston when the motorcade passed by, and personally heard the shooting from the direction of the TSBD. Later that weekend, after LHO had himself been shot, and with Jack Ruby in custody, he had a chance meeting with Ruby's flatshare George Senator, whom he reassured that he should expect no public reprisals against the shared residence.
Barker, Bernard Leon: Havana born Cuban-American, WW2 (USAF) veteran, one-time member of Fulgencio Batista's secret police, sometime FBI undercover agent, sometime CIA operative, and participant in the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Bernard Barker [Wikipedia biography] is now widely suspected as having been on the assassination team representing Team Santo Trafficante, as a fake SS agent at the top of the Grassy Knoll, whose job it was to turn away genuine law officers while the actual shooters made their get-away [as happened, for example, to Mo Mabra]. His story only started to emerge after he was convicted 1st January 1975 for taking part in the 1972 Watergate Affair.
Barnes, Tracy: Following the King Memorandum to the National Security Council and the consequent authorisation of Operation 40, WW2 veteran OSS agent and long time CIA luminary Tracy Barnes [Spartacus Educational biography] was made Chief of the CIA's Cuban Task Force. On 18th June 1960 he reportedly met with E. Howard Hunt, David Atlee Phillips, and others to plan specific anti-Castro operations, not least the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Oilmen George H. W. Bush and Jack Crichton would provide funding.
Barnes, Sergeant W. E.: Having been despatched to the J. D. Tippit Officer-Down call in Oak Cliff. Sergeant W. E. Barnes was the DPD officer who then processed the murder scene, finding the discarded jacket in the nearby parking lot. He then attended the arrest site at the Texas Theater.
Barrett, Robert M.: FBI agent Bob Barrett [no convenient biography] was the FBI's first responder at the J. D. Tippit crime scene, and witnessed LHO's wallet - having been picked up by Officer Kenneth Croy moments earlier - being checked out by Captain Bill Westbrook [q.v.] - YouTube his recollections now. Barrett's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]. Browse the Oswald's Wallet Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story.
Batista, Fulgencio: Cuban politician Fulgencio Batista [Wikipedia biography] was U.S.-backed President of Cuba until - after a decade in bed with American mobsters such as Meyer Lansky and Lucky Luciano - deposed by the Castro Revolution on 1st January 1959.
Beers, Ira Jefferson ["Jack"], Jr.: Dallas Morning News photographer Jack Beers [no convenient biography] was in his lab developing footage taken earlier in the day at Love Field. About 20 minutes after the shooting his editor sent him to the TSBD where he filmed both external and internal scenes (including on TSBD6). On 23rd November he covered City Hall, and on 24th he was in the basement at the time of the Jack Ruby shooting. Beers died 1975 of a heart attack, aged 51 years. His evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Behn, Gerald A.: Although Jerry Behn [no convenient biography] was SAIC [=Special Agent in Charge] of the SS White House Detail, whose job it was to ride the President's coat tails at all times, he was being deputised for on 22nd November 1963 by Roy Kellerman.
Belin, David W.: Washington born lawyer David Belin [Wikipedia biography] was Assistant Counsel for the Warren Commission, and conducted many of the questionings referenced in the present resource. He subscribed so strongly to the official lone-nut narrative that his family reportedly read conspiracy works to him during his terminal coma in January 1999 as a test of his consciousness level☻☻☻ He defended the official view in a very informative 10th September 1981 televised head-to-head with G. Robert Blakey - YouTube it now.
Bell, Audrey D.: Nurse Audrey Bell [no convenient biography] was a senior nurse attending firstly JFK and subsequently John Connally during their emergency treatment at Parkland Hospital. She is noteworthy in the present context for the part she played in the chain of custody arguments over the Magic Bullet - YouTube her now, and then browse the Magic Bullet Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Bell, Mark: Dealey Plaza spectator Mark Bell [no convenient biography] took home movie footage of the motorcade from the west sidewalk of Houston just after the turn off Main. The film began with a tracking shot along Houston, complete with a sweep of the onlookers on the east sidewalk outside the Criminal Courts and County Records Building. There was then a break at the moment of the shooting (out of sight on Elm) while Bell made his way round the southern end of the water feature onto the grassed median. The film then showed with the limos accelerating away under the triple Underpass, before panning back to show the quite impressive crowd converging on the Grassy Knoll. YouTube it all now - GREAT STUFF [the final quarter of this clip is taken from several floors up and includes an uncropped frontal shot of the TSBD, showing which windows were open - we have not yet established the new camera location for this, nor the time shift involved].
Benavides, Domingo: 26-year-old Dallas motor mechanic Domingo Benavides [Spartacus Educational biography] was walking the zig-zag back alleys between his place of employment at Patton and Jefferson, and a motor factors at 10th and Marsalis to buy spare parts for the job he was on. He was on 10th Avenue heading west when he saw Patrolman J. D. Tippit's patrol car ahead of him. <He then provides a close-hand account of Tippit's shooting as per his Warren Commission testimony below, which see>. The shooter then made off southward along Patton, reloading his gun as he went and throwing down the spent shells [indicating that it was a revolver not an automatic - Ed.]. Benavides and another passer-by then used the patrol car's radio to alert DPD, after which he went and successfully recovered two spent shells into an empty cigarette packet, noting that they were chromed. Over the coming weeks Benavides was to receive a number of threatening phone calls, but in the event it was his brother Eddy Benavides who got killed. Domingo Benavides' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now - RECOMMENDED]; Interview to camera, CBS documentary [YouTube it now].
Benavides, Edward H.: 27-year-old Eddy Benavides [no convenient biography] was brother to Tippit witness Domingo Benavides. He was killed bystanding a bar fight in February 1965. Eddy Benavides accordingly has no evidential profile.
Bennett, Glen A.: Secret Service Agent Glen Bennett [no convenient biography] was in limo #2 of the motorcade, sat right-side rear. His handwritten notes later that day [hyperlinked below] give early and unprompted details of two bullet injuries, and also mention George Hickey's AR-15. Bennett's evidential profile is as follows: Handwritten notes, 22nd November 1963 [read it now]; Report, 23rd November 1963 [read it now].
Bentley, Paul: DPD detective Paul Bentley [no convenient biography] was Code 3'd to the scene of the J. D. Tippit shooting. He then moved on to the Texas Theater, where, following time in the balcony, he was right alongside Maurice McDonald in the final tussle for LHO's pistol (during which he sprained his ankle).
Having safely negotiated LHO through the crowds outside the cinema, Bentley then sat left-alongside the suspect in the rear of the patrol car on the return to DPDHQ, with Charles Walker right-alongside. Officers Bob Carroll (driving), Gerald Hill, and Kenneth Lyons were left-to-right in the front seat. During the drive, watched by detective Gerald Hill from the front seat, he removed Oswald's Wallet [q.v.] from LHO's hip pocket.
(note early mention of wallet contents)
Only very recently (2014) will it emerge that in at least one FBI agent's opinion the Hill-Bentley wallet story was "hogwash". Bentley's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]. Browse the Oswald's Wallet Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story.
Bergere, Leon F.: Shipping magnate Leon Bergere [no convenient biography] was a contact in Jack Ruby's address book.
Bertram, Clay: Sometime alias of Clay Shaw.
Bethesda: [a.k.a. Bethesda Hospital; in full (1963) National Naval Medical Center; in full (2018) Walter Reed National Military Medical Center] In the present context, "Bethesda" is the colloquial name for what is nowadays [January 2018] the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center [Wikipedia briefing]. It is where, between its arrival on 22nd November 1963 and its interment on 25th, JFK's body was subject to medical examination and mortuary preparation. Browse the Medical Cover Up Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Billings, Richard N.: Long time Life Magazine staffer, CIA operative in 1963 during Operation Tilt, and on the House Select Committee on Assassinations as Editorial Director, Dick Billings [Spartacus Educational biography] was on the Life team in Dallas which negotiated the purchase of the Zapruder Film. After his HSCA experience he was co-author with G. Robert Blakey of the 1981 book "Fatal Hour", thereby helping to establish the part played by organised crime in the assassination conspiracy [there is, or course, still five years to go before the Iran-Contra Affair [Wikipedia briefing] demonstrated that the CIA were themselves part of organised crime - Ed.]. Browse the Zapruder Film Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Bissell, Richard Mervin, Jr.: Senior CIA spymaster since 1954 and veteran of the U-2 programme Richard Bissell [Wikipedia biography] was appointed CIA Director of Plans in 1958 by Allen Dulles. According to Douglas Horne's 2013 book "JFK's War With The National Security Establishment" the Bay of Pigs Invasion was thus essentially Bissell's project. After its catastrophic failure JFK explained that because he could not be fired Bissell was going to be and he duly left to become a defence consultant.
Black Op Radio: Online broadcasting station fronted by Len Osanic as "the voice of political conspiracy research". The website maintains an archive of past broadcasts, and has posted several good JFK titles to YouTube, not least a 2011 interview with Blood or Cola Thread man Jerry Coley [YouTube it now - RECOMMENDED].
Blakey, G. Robert: Lawyer, diligent servant of the House Select Committee on Assassinations, and academic G. Robert Blakey [Wikipedia biography] was co-author with Richard Billings of the 1981 book "Fatal Hour".
Bledsoe, Mary E.: One time LHO's rooming landlady and with significant right-wing associations Mary Bledsoe [no convenient biography] was on a bus travelling west along Elm Street when a person she knew "was Lee Oswald because he lived in my home from October 7, 1963 to October 14, 1963" got on, looking like "a maniac" and with a "distorted" face. Because of the congestion ahead in Dealey Plaza progress was very slow, and "after three or four blocks" LHO got off again. They did not speak, and the Warren Commission did not pursue why. Indeed, it has been suggested that her testimony was just too heavily supported by written notes and too tightly stage-managed by her lawyer Melody Douthitt. Rather spookily, Mrs. Bledsoe's husband J. E. Bledsoe had been a friend of George Dealey, developer of Dealey Plaza in 1940. Bledsoe's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit 23rd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now - RECOMMENDED FOR THE FINE DETAIL OF BOTH ENCOUNTER PERIODS - NOTE THE LENGTH AND THE UNNECESSARY (PRE-SCRIPTED??) TRIVIA]. [See next Porter Bledsoe.]
Bledsoe, Porter: Son of key Warren Commission witness Mary Bledsoe and perhaps with past Civil Air Patrol associations Porter Bledsoe [no convenient biography but some Internet chatter] began to appear in conspiracy literature after being mentioned in Penn Jones' 1969 obituary for his mother. The poorly supported suspicion has since been that he was the conduit through which the FBI pre-scripted his mother's highly convenient testimony.
Blevins, Leroy, Sr: Kentucky-based JFK researcher Leroy Blevins [LinkedIn Homepage] is the author of (2014) "The JFK Assassination Report" and (2017) "Evidence of a Conspiracy".
Bloomfield, Louis Mortimer: Canadian-born lawyer, SOE operative for the British, FBI Division Five operative for the Americans, and - in what remained of his time - legitimate businessman Louis Bloomfield [Wikipedia biography; Spartacus Educational biography] was a contact in Jack Ruby's address book. He is noteworthy in the present context for being a major shareholder in the CIA front company Permindex. He would in due course be named in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so inner sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination.
Boggs, Hale: Lawyer, politician, and WW2 veteran Hale Boggs [Wikipedia biography] was appointed to the Warren Commission on 29th November 1963.
Bolden, Abraham W.: Secret Service agent Abraham Bolden [Wikipedia biography] was appointed to JFK's Protection Division in 1961, but was not on front line duty in Dallas. He was charged in 1964 with accepting a bribe, convicted, and dismissed the Secret Service. While serving his sentence he got in touch with assassination researcher Mark Lane and told of a plot to assassinate the President on a visit to Chicago planned for 2nd November 1963. The visit had duly been cancelled under a covering pretext at the last moment. The possibility has since quite strongly emerged that the source of the information in the first place had been LHO wearing his FBI informer's hat. For the fuller telling of this story see James Douglass' 2008 book "JFK and the Unspeakable".
Bookhout, James Willingham: FBI Special Agent Jim Bookhout [no convenient biography, but several 2009 online obituaries] had not been on duty on 22nd November 1963, but proceeded to DPDHQ when he heard of the shooting, arriving there before both Will Fritz and the newly-arrested LHO. He then witnessed LHO's arrival, but was not invited into Fritz's initial interrogation of him. He then called his boss, Dallas FBI Chief, Gordon Shanklin, who told him that he and fellow Agent James Hosty were to sit in as soon as possible. This was arranged at 1515hr, no more than "five to ten" minutes after the interrogation had begun. Bookhout contributed questions now and then, and took notes (although by the date of his Warren Commission testimony he had destroyed them). In all he was second only to Fritz in time spent interrogating LHO. When the interrogation continued on 23rd November the observers included two Secret Service men. Bookhout's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Boone, Eugene: Dallas County Sheriff's Deputy Eugene Boone [Abilene Reporter-News obituary, 2017] was the law officer who, having spent some minutes searching the Railway Area, entered the TSBD found the Mannlicher-Carcano C2766 behind some boxes on the west side of TSBD6. Boone's evidential profile is as follows: Sheriff's Office Notes #1, 22nd September 1963 [?]; Sheriff's Office Notes #2, 22nd September 1963 [?]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Dramatised Mock Trial testimony, 1992 [YouTube it now]; Interview to camera, 2014 [YouTube it now].
Boone, Ron: Dallas County Sheriff's Deputy Ron Boone [no convenient biography] was in the general gathering of deputies outside the Sheriff's Office as the motorcade went by. When the shooting started he headed across Elm Street, and up the Grassy Knoll to the Railway Area, where several people had been pointing. Boone's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Bosch, Orlando: [a.k.a. Dark Complected Man - TENTATIVE] 37-year-old physician turned CIA field operative Orlando Bosch [Wikipedia biography] . He would later be convincingly identified as a member of the CIA's Operation 40 team and 73-death airliner terrorist, and has recently been tentatively identified by researcher Larry Rivera as Ground Zero's Dark Complected Man.
Boswell, Commander (U.S.N.) J. Thornton, MD: Military pathologist Commander Thornton Boswell [Spartacus Educational biography] was one of the three military medics who contributed to the JFK autopsy at the Bethesda Hospital between 2000hr on 23rd September 1963 and <time unrecorded> on <date unrecorded>. Browse the Medical Cover Up Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story. Boswell's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Assassination Records Review Board testimony [read it now].
Bowers, Lee Edward: 38-year-old Union Terminal Company railyard controller Lee Bowers [Wikipedia biography] was in the railyard's North Tower at the time of the shooting. At 1155hr he noted "a dirty [later specified as "red sandy"] 1959 Oldsmobile Station Wagon" enter the parking area, cruise around, and then leave again. Twenty minutes later "a 1957 Ford, Black, 2 door" entered and left. Its driver seemed to be speaking on a radio of some sort. Five minutes later still a "1961 Chevrolet, Impala, 4 door", dirty up to its windows and with the same out of state plates as the Oldsmobile, did the same.
ASIDE: Sample and Collom (1995) remark that the Oldsmobile might have been the vehicle Ruth Martinez had used to collect Loy Factor from his home in Oklahama two days previously, its dirt streaking being compatible with the rough dirt tracks in that vicinity.
There were also two men standing "within 10 or 15 feet of each other" against the picket fence, and two policemen and a number of railway workers on the tracks over the underpass. At the moment of the shooting he noted a "commotion", a "flash of light or smoke or something", "something out of the ordinary, a sort of milling around, [...] which attracted my eye for some reason, which I could not identify" in the area of the picket fence. Bowers then proceeded to play a largely unrecognised part in the police sweep of the railyard, by deliberately red-lighting at least one outbound freight so that it might be searched, and generally liaising closely with DPD despatchers. Bowers died 9th August 1966 from injuries sustained when his car either left or was forced off the road. Later second-hand evidence from (friend) Walter Rischel and (researcher) Al Navis will insist that Bowers, fearing for his life, withheld the pivotally important testimony (a) that the two figures had both fired rifles, and (b) that both wore DPD uniforms. Bowers evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit, undated [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Interview to camera, Mark Lane, 31st March 1966 [YouTube it now].
Bowley, Temple Ford: Oak Cliff resident Temple Bowley [no convenient biography] was a witness to the shooting of Patrolman J. D. Tippit at 10th and Patton, and used the patrol car radio to alert DPDHQ. Bowley's evidential profile is as follows: DPD Despatch audio, 22nd November 1963 [YouTube it now]; Affidavit 2nd December 1963 [read it now].
Brading, Eugene Hale ["Jim"]: [a.k.a James Lee and Jim Braden] Rod Mac Kenzie (and Hooke)'s 2016 analysis of the assassination places California-based mobster Jim Brading [Spartacus Educational biography] in the County Records Office acting as spotter for CIA-man George H. W. Bush's shooter Chuck Nicoletti. He was unlucky enough to be arrested in that very location for "acting suspiciously", but was soon released. Brading would in due course be named in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so outer sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination. Brading is also suspected of having played a part in the RFK assassination in 1968. Brading's evidential profile is as follows: Deposition, 22nd November 1963 explaining his arrest [read it now].
Bradley, Edgar Eugene: Right-winger and long standing CIA operative Gene Bradley [no convenient biography] pops up only infrequently in the histories, and only then due to his indictment by Jim Garrison for complicity in the broader Clay Shaw conspiracy (Garrison's sources noted that he was "constantly harping on the fact that someone should kill Kennedy"). Some authors have placed him in Dallas on the day of the assassination, perhaps as official photographer; others note with interest that he had experience using storm drains as snipers' nests. Roger Craig [q.v.] tentatively identified him in 1967 as the "secret service officer" who had blanked his initial report of getaway vehicle and suspect at the foot of the Grassy Knoll.
Brand, Ed.: Dallas insurance salesman Ed. Brand [no convenient biography], who had offices across from LHO's rooming house at 1026 North Beckley Avenue, reported after the assassination that LHO had been in for a car insurance quotation in early November 1963. He had seen a driving licence in the name "O. H. Lee", and been told to expect a cash sale in the not too distant future.
Brehm, Charles ["Chuck"]: D-Day and Korean War veteran Chuck Brehm [Wikipedia biography] was spectating with his five-year-old son from the median lawn of Dealey Plaza just south of Elm Street, level with the John Neely Bryan Pergola, and close to Babushka Lady. He saw the effects of the headshot and then fell to the ground to protect his son from any firefight, should one break out. Brehm's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Interview to camera, 1993 [YouTube it now].
Brennan, Howard Leslie: 45-year-old steam fitter Howard Brennan [Wikipedia biography] was spectating during his lunch break at Houston and Elm, and his account of activity on TSBD6 will lead to his being described by Michael Kurtz in his 1982/1993 book "Crime of the Century" as the "most important" of the eyewitnesses (p27). Most notably he reported having a full facial view of the shooter in the Sniper's Nest, and contributed much of the description of the suspect subsequently BOLA'd. However not all researchers have been as impressed as Kurtz over the years, so avoid over-reliance. Brennan died in 1983, and his memoirs appeared posthumously in 1987 under the title "Eyewitness to History". Brennan's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit, 22nd November 1963 [read it now]; Affidavit, 7th May 1964 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [Part #1; Part #2].
Brewer, Johnny Calvin: Dallas shop assistant Johnny Brewer [no convenient biography] was at work in Hardy's Shoe Store, 213 West Jefferson (just down the block from the Texas Theater), when he saw a man - presumably LHO - behaving suspiciously outside. He followed the man to the Texas Theater and watched him go in. He and the cinema staff then rang the sighting in and waited until the police showed up to make the eventual arrest. Brewer's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit 6th December 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Interview to camera, 196? [YouTube it now]. Browse the Texas Theater Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Brigade 2506: Recruited mainly from the anti-Castro Cuban exile community in the Miami area Assault Brigade 2506 [Wikipedia briefing] was in effect the CIA's private army for the Bay of Pigs Invasion. It lost heavily on the invasion beaches, and among its survivors were many who held JFK responsible for the loss of friends and homeland. JFK did his best to settle the resentment by addressing the survivors in the Orange Bowl Stadium, Miami, on 29th December 1962, and by promising that their battle flag would one day be returned to a "free Havana" [YouTube the audio now]; he clearly failed to convince everyone present.
Brinegar, John: Dallas gun-dealer Johnny Brinegar [no convenient biography] was one of only two arms dealers in the Dallas-Irving area which stocked the rather obscure 6.5mm ammunition (the other being John Masen). He was mentioned by Dick Russell in his 2008 book "On the Trail of the JFK Assassins", as having sold about ten boxes of 6.5mm Mannlicher-Carcano ammunition to Masen in early 1963.
Bringuier, Carlos Jose: 29-year-old Cuban lawyer Carlos Bronguier [Wikipedia biography] fled Cuba after the Castro Revolution and opened a clothing store named Casa Roca at 107 Decatur Street. He soon became the New Orleans organiser for the DRE. On 5th August 1963 LHO visited Casa Roca to offer Bringuier help in his fight against Castro; only to appear further along the street handing out pro-Castro leaflets on behalf of the FPCC on 9th August. On 21st August he took part in a radio debate with LHO chaired by CIA associate Bill Stuckey. Along with Jose Lanuza in Miami, Bringuier helped disseminate LHO's PRO-Castro credentials to the mainstream media in the late afternoon of 22nd November 1963, hitting the national headlines the following morning. This places him firmly on the LHO Patsification Thread.
Bronfman, Samuel: Having emigrated from Bessarabia to Canada as a child to escape the Tzarist Russian anti-Jewish pogroms, Samuel Bronfman [Wikipedia biography] settled in Montreal and gradually built up Distillers Corporation Limited, owners of the Seagrams whiskey brand. John Hughes-Wilson perhaps uncharitably described Bronfman in his 2013 book "JFK - An American Coup" as an "ex-Mafia bootlegger" and Zionist, and asserted strong but secretive links to Permindex.
Bronson, Charles: 45-year-old Dallas engineer Charles Bronson [no convenient biography] took 8mm footage at around 1223hr on Houston Street, of a by-stander suffering a seizure. This footage occasionally includes the upper stories of the TSBD [YouTube it now] and might well be showing a number of unclear figures on the 6th Floor. Bronson's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Brookhart, William G.: Special Agent (FBI) William G. Brookhart [no convenient biography] would, on 24th November, conduct the search of the apartment LHO had rented earlier in the year at 214 West Neely Street [q.v.] locating one of the two American Bakeries Pay Stubs in the name of former tenant James Jackson. They are evidentially important because, taken together, these pay stubs [TO THE EXTENT THAT THEY HAD NOT BEEN PLANTED] incontrovertibly link LHO to the premises where the Backyard Photographs [TO THE EXTENT THAT THEY HAD NOT BEEN FAKED] had been found. On 8th January 1964 Brookhart interviewed Jackson, who could only surmise that he had lost it during his tenancy there. Brookhart's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Brown, Earle Vincent: DPD Officer Earle Brown [no convenient biography] was securing the railway tracks area on top of the Triple Overpass, that is to say, he had no vantage over the three roadway tunnels or the two flanking pedestrian walkthroughs which passed under said overpass. He was positioned, with his patrol partner James Lomax close at hand, and Joe Murphy a little further off, as follows (from his Warren Commission testimony) [Aerial back-up needed?] ...
"Mr. BALL. On November , 1964, were you assigned to a certain post on duty? Mr. BROWN. Yes, sir. Mr. BALL. Where? Mr. BROWN. That would be the railroad overpass over Stemmons Expressway service road. Mr. BALL. Is that the one that leads of Elm? Mr. BROWN. You mean that crosses Elm? Mr. BALL. That crosses Elm, yes; the overpass across Elm. Mr. BROWN. No, sir. Mr. BALL. What does it cross? Mr. BROWN. It's over Stemmons Expressway; in other words, they make that turn of Elm and go up. Mr. BALL. You know where Elm, the corner of Elm and Houston is? Mr. BROWN. Yes, sir. Mr. BALL. Then there Is a road, the highway continues on to the west, a little south, is that what you call the Stemmons Expressway? Mr. BROWN. There's one there, too, but that overpass is actually a road. Where I was was the railroad overpass. Mr. BALL. The railroad overpass Itself? Mr. BROWN. Yes, sir. Mr. BALL. How far were you from the place where the continuation of Elm goes under the overpass? Mr. BROWN. Oh, approximately 100 yards. Mr. BALL. Let me see if we can get something In the record that will be your position. You were appointed to this particular spot? Mr. BROWN. Yes, sir. Mr. BALL. Was there another patrolman on the overpass also? Mr. BROWN. Yes, sir; James Lomax. Mr. BALL. Now, this Is the place where the railroad yards run over the highway? Mr. BROWN. Yes. Mr. BALL. And you are on the Stemmons Freeway end of It? Mr. BROWN. That's right; In other words, Stemmons Freeway and the service road both go under the underpass.
Mr. BROWN. From where I was standing they would be about half way between - no, they would be up more toward that other overpass, whet they call the triple underpass. Mr. BALL. The triple underpass? Mr. BROWN. Yea. Mr. BALL. You were about 100 yards from the triple underpass? Mr. BROWN. Approximately; yes. Mr. BALL. Was there anybody standing on the triple underpass? Mr. BROWN. On the triple underpass? Mr. BALL. Yes. Mr. BROWN. Yes, sir; they had at least two officers. Mr. BALL. Anybody but police officers? Mr. BROWN. Not that I know of. I didn't recall anyone.
Mr. BALL. Mr. Brown, I have had a map made here which I would like to have you inspect here. The railroad overpass is shown - that runs in a north and south direction? Mr. BROWN. Yes. Mr. BALL. And Stemmons Freeway overpass is shown - that runs north and south, doesn't it? Mr. BROWN. Right. Mr. BALL. Were you on either one of those overpasses? Mr. BROWN. Either one of those two there? Mr. BALL. Yes. Mr. BROWN. No, sir. Mr. BALL. Where were you? Mr. BROWN. On this overpass here - this TP Railroad overpass. Mr. BALL. The overpass that runs in an east and west direction? [THERE IS NO EAST-WEST OVERPASS, SO WE PRESUME AN EAST-WEST SIGNAL GANTRY ACROSS SOME NORTH-SOUTH TRACKS] Mr. BROWN. Right - yes, sir. Mr. BALL. Now, will you take this pen and draw on there your position on the overpass? Mr. BROWN. Well, you see, on this overpass, of course, there are the tracks and then there is a railing and then there is a catwalk on each side and we walked the catwalk, and we would come around on each end and we would walk the tracks and come around there. Mr. BALL. Where were you when you saw the President's car turn on Houston and Elm Street? Mr. BROWN. I was on the catwalk."
Now that that is established, we note that Brown personally saw smoke from the Grassy Knoll and smelled gunpowder a few moments later. That particular piece of testimony has been hotly debated ever since ...
ASIDE: The wind at 1230hr 22nd November 1963 was from the WSW, and brisk enough (officially 15 to 20mph) to flare out spectators' coats on the median south of Elm. How then, did Brown smell smoke from downwind!
DOUBLE ASIDE: Because wind can often be locally antidromic in the vicinity of man-made obstacles due to the eddy effect, we have to allow that the fumes from a Picket Fence [or South Knoll!] shooter might have come to Brown in a circular fashion. TSBD6, on the other hand, was more than twice as far away, and much higher in the wind, and may therefore - we feel - be safely discounted. We must also allow that fumes from an accidental George Hickey [q.v.] shot from on board limo #2 would have been released upwind of Brown once that vehicle had passed under the overpass!
One of the reasons that Brown's story remains controversial is that the Warren Commission - either wilfully or out of sheer incompetence [as in the extract above] - failed to ask either of his two fellow officers about either the smoke or the smell. They also did not pursue eight of the nine railway men present and told the ninth - Skinny Holland - what he saw rather than asking him (McLaren, 2013)! Officer Murphy, by contrast, gives a much clearer statement and is worth a quick divert.
When formally questioned Brown asserted that apart from two policemen there was nobody on the overpass. This is demonstrably inaccurate because a dozen or so figures can clearly been seen at the overpass parapet in many movies and still photographs. We guess that these are - mainly or exclusively - Skinny Holland's crew of railwaymen. Brown's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Brown, Madeleine Duncan: LBJ's mistress between 1948 and 1969 Madeleine Brown [Wikipedia biography] entered the spotlight of publicity in 1988 when she began releasing provocative interviews. Perhaps her most significant allegation was that a meeting of senior conspirators had taken place on the evening of 21st November 1963 at the home of Clint Murchison, Sr. Amongst those who had attended were, she said, J. Edgar Hoover, Richard M. Nixon, H. L. Hunt, George Brown, and John McCloy. Brown's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Assertions in "The Men on the Sixth Floor" (1995); 80-minute interview to camera, Robert Gaylon Ross, Sr, [YouTube it now].
Brown, Robert G.: DPD Crime Search Division detective Bobby Brown [no convenient biography] had in April 1963 been one of the investigating officers in the attempted murder of General Edwin Walker [q.v.] on 10th April 1963, being responsible for the photographs taken of the scene. These darkroom skills would subsequently earn Brown an interview with researcher Alex Cox in 1993, during which it emerged that he had on or about 29th November 1963 created a photofakery "matte" [Wikipedia technical briefing] of one of perhaps the single most visually memorable public consciousness pieces of evidence in the entire case, namely the famous Backyard Photographs [q.v.]. This, in turn, got him several pages' discussion in the La Fontaines' 1996 book "Oswald Talked", who were far from impressed by the explanation Brown offered. Brown's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Brown, Walt: Assassination researcher Walt Brown [Spartacus Educational biography] is a leading second generation JFK researcher, whose books include "The People vs Lee Harvey Oswald" (1992) and the cleverly titled "The Warren Omission" (1996). He recently promoted his work in a 2015 radio interview with Len Osanic [YouTube it now].
Brugioni, Dino Antonio: WW2 veteran (U.S.A.F.) and long-standing expert in U-2 and conventional photoreconnaissance interpretation at "Lundahl's Palace" (the CIA's NPIC Lab in Washington, DC), Dino Brugioni [Wikipedia biography] would later contribute to the mainstream literature on photofakery in his 1999 book "Photofakery: The History and Techniques of Photographic Deception and Manipulation". This work includes a 10-page discussion of the validity of the Oswald-with-Rifle photographs, the final judgement on which is that "the three photos of him were true and not tampered with" (p91). He was then interviewed in 2009 by researcher Peter Janney concerning his department's involvement with the Zapruder film on the weekend of 23rd-24th November 1963. He was called mid-afternoon on Saturday 23rd by his boss Art Lundahl, and asked to get a team into the lab in short order because SS couriers were bringing a rush job in. He duly rounded up Bill Banfield and Ralph Pearce, and the three men went in to work. At about 2200hr they were delivered an 8mm "slit" positive of the Zapruder film [presumably one of the four "true" copies known to have been developed at the Kodak Lab in Dallas].
TECHNICAL ASIDE: The then popular "Super 8" range of home movie cameras actually contained a 25-foot spool of 16mm film, only one 8mm track of which was exposed at a time. The spool was then turned over at end, and the return 8mm track exposed. The development process was thus (a) to fix a 16mm negative, (b) to produce a 16mm positive, (c) to split the 16mm into two 8mm longitudinal halves, and (d) to splice those two halves together end-to-end giving a 50-foot spool of 8mm film for projection.
Unfortunately NPIC had no 8mm projector and so Banfield had to ring round Washington's photographic shops until he found one. The team were therefore unable to start work in earnest until around midnight. They viewed the film together, being duly shocked by the contents. The SS agents then helped them select which frames to blow up and the team spent the next three or four hours producing enough unmounted prints to send the SS men away, and then continuing with producing two identical Briefing Boards. These last were collected at around dawn by Lundahl, who then had a different team produce a further set of boards from a different master later that day - see the entry for Homer McMahon for the continuation of this story. Brugioni would not learn of the second set of boards and the different master reel until interviewed in 2009 ...
ASIDE: It is reasonable to conclude from all this that the later master had been tinkered with at Hawkeye. And of course it is one of this later set of boards which today graces the National Archives, for Brugioni has neither seen nor heard of either of his sets of boards since handing them over.
Sadly, nobody seems to have asked Brugioni in 2009 whether the system's ability to fool even its closest and most trusted servants was going to change his 1999 views as to the genuineness of the Oswald stills. Brugioni's evidential profile is as follows: Interview to camera, Peter Janney, 2009 [YouTube it now (the Brugioni footage starts 38mins in) - ESSENTIAL VIEWING]. Browse the Zapruder Film Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Bruton, Admiral Henry Chester: WW2 submariner, Korean War battleship captain, and Director of Naval Communications until his retirement in 1960 Henry C. Bruton [Wikipedia biography] was vice-president of Collins Radio's Dallas factory. Browse the Collins Radio Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Buckley, William Frank, Jr: WW2 veteran, CIA veteran, and Skull and Bones member William F. Buckley [Spartacus Educational biography] was, at the time of the assassination, an established author/right wing politician. Following his lack of election success his interests then shifted in 1966 to hosting the TV current affairs discussion programme Firing Line [Wikipedia briefing]. Running for some 30 years, alongside the Ramsay Clark Panel (1968), the Rockefeller Commission (1975), and the House Select Committee on Assassinations (1979) these shows could not help but touch occasionally (and that is all it was) upon the JFK assassination, wheeling out the official line as and when necessary (Allen Dulles in 1967, David Belin in 1975, and Cord Meyer in 1981). Only twice did the alternatives get a decent airing, as follows ...
Mark Lane (1st December 1966) - YouTube it now [ESSENTIAL VIEWING]
Robert Blakey (10th September 1981) - YouTube it now
For the full series list, click here.
***** CAUTION: MUCH IN THIS NEXT ENTRY *****
***** HAS YET TO BE CROSS-VALIDATED, SO IT'S ****
***** EITHER VERY TRUE OR VERY FALSE ****
Bucknell, David ["Bucky Beaver"]: [a.k.a. Dave Bennett] Marine David Bucknell [no convenient biography] was a Marine Air Control Squadron 9 (MACS-9) messmate of LHO upon his return from Atsugi (as was a third Marine named Kerry Thornley). When interviewed by Mark Lane in 1978 he told the tale of the Queen Bee Incident [see separate entry]. When interviewed by Jim Keith in 1997 he told the tale of "Mister B" [again see separate entry], explaining that he had been too frightened for his life to mention this earlier.
Bundy, McGeorge: WW2 veteran (U.S. Army Intelligence) McGeorge Bundy [Wikipedia biography] was National Security Advisor between 20th January 1961 (the day JFK was inaugurated) and 28th February 1966.
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF): The ATF [Wikipedia briefing] had been established in 1886 as the enforcement arm of the Department of the Treasury, and is part of the assassination story because it was part of an on-going crack-down on gun-runners like Jack Ruby. Browse the ATF Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story.
Burke, Admiral Arleigh Albert, USN: WW2 and Korean War veteran Admiral Arleigh Burke [Wikipedia biography] was Chief of Naval Operations at the time of the Bay of Pigs Invasion. He reportedly had a fierce confrontation with JFK on 18th April 1964 over whether the carrier USS Essex should be allowed to launch aircraft to support the failing beachhead, but was overruled. He subsequently supported the use of nuclear weapons in the defence of Laos.
Burkley, Rear-Admiral George Gregory: Admiral George Burkley [no convenient biography] was JFK's personal physician, and subsequently signed off the Death Certificate, stating the cause of death as "Gunshot wound, skull".
Burris, Colonel Howard L., USAF: LBJ's Vice Presidential military aide Colonel Howard Burris [Washington Post obituary] attended the 20th July 1961 meeting of the National Security Council and prepared what has become known as the "Burris Memorandum" as a briefing for his boss.
Burris Memorandum, The: On 20th July 1961 LBJ's military aide Colonel Howard Burris summarised the proceedings of the meeting of the National Security Council at which prominent ultra-right-wingers such as General Lyman Lemnitzer and Allen Dulles argued for the legitimacy, indeed wisdom, of plan for a full-scale pre-emptive nuclear strike against the Soviet Union "in late 1963". No doubt remembering the dubious military thinking which had brought about the Bay of Pigs fiasco, JFK upped and walked out. The document remained classified until 1993, and is now [click here] reproduced as part of Purcell and Galbraith's (1994) paper "Did the U.S. Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?".
FOOD FOR THOUGHT: "First strike" had long been the recommendation of General Curtis LeMay. What JFK did next cost him his life, but saved the world. Indeed the 20th July 1961 is an historically pivotal moment in a truly apocalyptic sense, because no POTUS since that date has so much as lifted a finger to put the military-industrial complex in its place. They merely caper and prance and read their scripts. It has even been suggested that LeMay was behind the "You Yellow S.O.B.!" symbolism of Dealey Plaza's "Umbrella Man" Louie Witt; and the question then arises, of course, as to who instructed Witt to be where he was when he was, so that his umbrella would be one of the last things JFK would ever see.
Burroughs, Warren ["Butch"]: Cinema manager Warren Burroughs [Spartacus Educational biography] was on duty at the Texas Theater when at around 1315hr he served popcorn from his sales counter to a person he later identified as LHO (who had gone into the downstairs auditorium as much as 15 minutes earlier [and who therefore could not have shot J. D. Tippit a mile away at 1314hr - Ed.]). A short time later, John Brewer [therefore just after 1330hr] came in from the shoe shop down the block and informed him that the last person [whom we shall tag as LHO Look-Alike - Ed.] ...
Pivotal Occurrence: The scenario which has been suggested to explain Burrough's testimony is that the person reported by Brewer was play-acting suspicious and deliberately and ostentatiously heading to the Texas Theater as part of a pre-scripted Patsification plot against LHO. It is then usually suggested that the intention was for the real LHO to be shot in the heat of the moment once the police turned up.
... who had entered the cinema had been behaving very suspiciously, and that the police ought to be told. Burroughs checked with pay kiosk clerk Julia Postal, who - possibly distracted by passing sirens - had not actually seen anyone go in without paying; but if they had not passed Burroughs either that meant they must have gone upstairs to the balcony. Not wishing to risk a confrontation, Postal directed Burroughs and Brewer to watch the front and back exits while she rang the police [just before 1345hr]. DPD despatchers then log the all units call at 1345hr, and the cars start to arrive to front and rear of the premises a couple of minutes later. [For an account of the moments of the arrest, see the entry for Maurice McDonald.] After the arrest and removal of LHO from the lower auditorium, Burroughs then witnessed a second arrest, this time of the LHO Look Alike from the balcony, who was duly bundled out of the back of the theatre; and there, according to Bernard Haire, driven off in a police car. Burroughs' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it here]. YouTube it all now. Browse the Balcony Arrest Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story (or if in a hurry go directly to the entry for T. F. White).
Bush, George Herbert Walker ["Poppy"]: According to Rod Mac Kenzie(and Hooke)'s 2016 book "The Men That Don't Fit In", WW2 veteran, Texas oilman, and long time CIA operative George H. W. Bush [Wikipedia biography] was on the 2nd Floor of the Dal-Tex Building at the time of the assassination, directing shooter Chuck Nicoletti and spotter Jim Brading. Bush was subsequently elected to Congress on 3rd January 1967, made Director of the CIA on 30th January 1976, became Vice President to Ronald Reagan on 20th January 1981, and elected President in his own right on 20th January 1989.
Butler, Clayton: Ambulance driver Clayton Butler [no convenient biography] was one of the two crew of the Dudley M. Hughes Funeral Home ambulance (the other being Eddie Kinsley) used to recover the body of J. D. Tippit from the 10th Street scene of his murder.
Butler, Edward Scannell: With a long history of right-wing activism in general and presently Director of the anti-Castro Information Council of the Americas (INCA), Ed Butler [Spartacus Educational biography] was a natural choice when New Orleans radio show host Bill Stuckey was looking for panellists for a head-to-head radio debate with (apparently) pro-Castro pamphleteer LHO. The interview was aired 21st August 1963, was fronted by Bill Slatter, and allowed Butler to put direct questions such as "Are you a Marxist?" - YouTube it Now [second of two items @ 36 mins in].
***** Possible accessory to the Jack Ruby shooting *****
Butler, George E.: DPD Criminal Intelligence Lieutenant George Butler [Spartacus Educational biography] had first met Jack Ruby back in 1947 as part of his specialist anti-mob duties. Ironically, he was then in charge on Sunday 24th November of security for the LHO transfer from DPDHQ to the County Jail..
CONSPIRACY ALERT: In this latter respect researcher Anthony Summers (2013e) suspects that Butler had conspired with Ruby and two other basement cops, Patrick Dean and William Harrison, to get him into the basement! Harrison, Dean, and Butler were long-term frequenters of the Carousel Club. For our own part we are less than convinced.
Butler's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Byrd, David Harold ("Dry Hole"): David Harold Byrd [Wikipedia biography] was the Texas oilman who, amongst other things, co-founded the Civil Air Patrol on 1st December 1941, bought the Texas School Book Depository in 1939, and in 1961 helped set up the conglomerate aerospace firm Ling-Temco-Vought.
Cabell, General Charles Pearce: WW2 and Pentagon veteran General Charles Cabell [Wikipedia biography] was responsible for Project Blue Book in 1952 and Deputy Director of the CIA from 1953 until forced to resign 31st January 1962 in the wake of the Bay of Pigs disaster. He has since been regularly named in "rogue CIA" theories of the assassination. He was the brother of Dallas Mayor Earle Cabell.
Cabell, Earle: Dallas businessman Earl Cabell [Wikipedia biography] was Mayor of Dallas at the time of the assassination, and because he had personally overseen the entirely unnecessary Main-Houston-Elm dogleg in the motorcade route often appears in conspiracy theories of the assassination.
Cabell, Elizabeth Holder: Traditionally referred to by the histories as "Mrs. Earle Cabell" and not by her given name Elizabeth Cabell [no convenient biography] was in the "third or fourth" (depending whether you count the pilot car) car of the Presidential motorcade. This car was turning left onto Elm at the time of the shooting, giving her direct sight of the windows of TSBD6, at which point she noted a rifle at "the first" of these. Her evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Caifano, Marshall Joseph: [born Marcello Guiseppe Caifano; a.k.a. John Marshall] 52-year-old Chicago-trained Las Vegas-based mobster Marshall Caifano [Wikipedia biography] appears in some histories as a member of the Charles Nicoletti shooting team, along with Johnny Roselli and James Files. Files himself more or less confirms this theory.
Cain, Richard Scully: [a.k.a. Richard Scalzetti] "Notoriously corrupt" Chicago police officer" Richard Cain [Wikipedia biography] was a close associate of mob boss Sam Giancana. He is noteworthy in the present context for having spent much of 1961 organising the training of anti-Castro Cubans for the Bay of Pigs invasion. He was professionally whacked on 20th December 1973.
Califano, Joseph Anthony, Jr: New York born lawyer Joseph Califano [Wikipedia biography] had been made Special Assistant to the Secretary of the Army, Cyrus Vance, in July 1962, in which role he had deputised at meetings of the Interdepartmental Coordinating Committee on Cuban Affairs (ICCCA). His notes from these meetings would emerge in 1997 as the "Califano Papers", and clearly indicate that U.S. policy toward the Castro Regime after the failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion was to rely on diplomatic, economic, and psychological attacks, using the Cuban exiles where possible, while at the same time recognising that a "contingency" might yet serve as the pretext for a second invasion attempt.
Callaway, Ted: Dallas used car salesman Ted Callaway [no convenient biography] was standing outside his car lot in Oak Cliff at around 1315hr when he heard five shots from the direction of 10th Street one block north. He then saw a man with a pistol run on past him down Patton, and then turn right (westward) onto Jefferson. Heading for the site of the shooting he saw Patrolman J. D. Tippit lying dead and used the patrol car radio to report the incident to DPD control. He then stopped a passing cab and tried unsuccessfully to catch the fugitive. Later that day he identified LHO at a DPDHQ line-up. Callaway's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit 22nd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Interview to camera, CBS, 1964 [YouTube it now].
Campbell, Donald: Some time before 0900hr on 22nd November Dallas Morning News advertising salesman Don Campbell [no convenient biography] was drinking coffee with regular Friday advertiser Jack Ruby in the company cafeteria. They were then joined at around 0900hr by Campbell's colleague Jerry Coley and the three spent some minutes chatting. [For what happened next in the Blood or Cola Thread, see the Jerry Coley entry.]
Campbell, Gordon Sutherland: Long-standing CIA officer and "maritime advisor" Gordon Campbell [Spartacus Educational biography] worked for JM/WAVE until his death in September 1962. He would be one of the nine persons identified by Bradley Ayers in 1994 as having "intimate operational knowledge" of how the assassination was put together.
Campbell, Ochus Virgil: TSBD Vice-President Ochus Campbell [no convenient biography] was spectating from the front entrance steps of the TSBD. Campbell's evidential profile is as follows: Statement to FBI, 24th November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Campisi, Joseph: Dallas restaurateur Joe Campisi [no convenient biography] testified to knowing Jack Ruby and his sister Eva Grant since 1947. His evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; House Select Committee on Assassinations [read it now].
Cantillo, Amado: Cuban exile Amado Cantillo [no convenient biography] pops up only infrequently in the histories, usually as a Grayston Lynch specialist frogman with Brigade 2506.
Carousel Club: See 1312½ Commerce Street.
Carter, Clifton Crawford: Veteran of OSS operations in Italy during WW2, peacetime political agent, and sometime U.S. Marshall Clifton Carter [Spartacus Educational biography] was a LBJ political aide during 1948 and from 1957. Several authors allege his involvement with JFK-assassin Mac Wallace in the commissioned silencing of AAA investigator Henry Marshall. Rod Mac Kenzie( and Hooke)'s 2016 analysis of the assassination places him in a forward command post on TSBD2, along with Carlos Marcello and fellow-Texan George Reese, from where they maintained radio contact with Jack Grimm's hit team on the Grassy Knoll.
Carr, Richard Randolph: WW2 veteran construction worker Richard Carr [Spartacus Educational biography] witnessed the shooting from the 7th Floor of the then-under-construction New Courthouse Building at the junction of Houston and Commerce. He had a direct view across Dealey Plaza to the TSBD facade, and specifically noted a figure at Window #3, TSBD6, whom he initially judged to be "a Secret Agent man or an FBI man", who made off after the shooting "on Commerce [Street]". Carr described this man as wearing "a hat, a felt hat, a light hat, he had on heavy-rimmed glasses, dark, the glasses were heavy-rimmed, and heavy ear pieces on his glasses"; and this is nowadays thought to be senior assassin Mac Wallace. Equally specifically Carr testified to three rifle shots coming from "behind this picket fence".
ASIDE: In court in 1969 NOLA DA Jim Garrison carefully established Carr's bona fides as a WW2 combat rifleman and experienced peacetime rifle shooter, and described him as about as expert in rifle fire as anyone could be and still be standing. The court duly accepted his judgement on rifle fire as expert testimony.
Carr also explicitly noted a "Rambler Station Wagon" with "a rack on the back" parked next to the TSBD, pointing north, whereupon (in his own words) ...
"... immediately after the shooting there was three men that emerged from behind the School Book Depository, there was a Latin, I can't say whether he was Spanish, Cuban, but he was real dark-complected, stepped out and opened the door, there was two men entered that station wagon, and the Latin drove it north on Houston. The car was in motion before the rear door was closed, "
Commerce Street runs parallel to, but south of Main Street. A fourth escapee - the man in the "heavy-rimmed glasses" - walked toward the witness for two blocks along Houston, and then turned left to proceed eastward along Commerce. Carr tailed him at a distance, and saw him get into another (unlikely same??) Rambler station wagon waiting for him a block further east. Carr was instructed in the early days by his FBI interrogators to keep quiet about all this, and survived despite repeated murder attempts to die of natural causes in 1996. Carr's evidential profile is as follows: FBI Statement, 4th January 1964 [NOT AVAILABLE, but alluded to by the House Select Committee on Assassinations in March 1979 - read that later source - RECOMMENDED]; Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Clay Shaw Trial testimony, 19th February 1969 [read it now - RECOMMENDED]. Note that along with other perfectly credible witnesses to multiple TSBD shooters - not least Carolyn Walther - Carr was, for whatever reason, not called by the Warren Commission.
Carr, Vincent Waggoner: Texan-born lawyer-politician and WW2 veteran Waggoner Carr [Wikipedia biography] was Texas Attorney General at the time of the shooting, and had breakfasted with the Presidential couple that morning in Fort Worth. He subsequently ensured that investigations within Texas properly dovetailed with those of the Warren Commission generally. His official papers are preserved as a major research archive at Texas Tech University, Lubbock - see the entry for Waggoner Carr Papers for details.
Cartwright, Gary: Sportswriter for the Dallas Morning News Gary Cartwright [no convenient biography] became an assassination researcher on the side, and is noteworthy in the present context for his 1990 paper entitled "I Was Mandarin" [full text online] in which DPD Patrolman Roscoe White's wife Geneva White alleged that she had overheard her husband plotting the assassination with Jack Ruby.
Casas Saez, Miguel: [a.k.a. Angel Dominguez Martinez] Suspected Cuban intelligence agent and saboteur Miguel Casas Saez [no convenient biography] is placed in Dallas in some histories. Moreover, in his 1985 book "Reasonable Doubt", Henry C. Hurt, Jr. tells how the 1730hr flight from Mexico City to Havana on 22nd November 1963 was expressly delayed by five hours to allow Casas to catch it.
Casey, Norman L.: FBI agent Norman Casey [no convenient biography] was introduced in the La Fontaines' 1996 book "Oswald Talked" as one of two FBI men sent to Memphis to interview John Elrod, which see (the other agent being Francis Cole). Their report was substantively ignored by the Warren Commission.
Castorr, Colonel L. Robert: Veteran of the WW2 Burma Campaign, Robert Castorr [Washington Post obituary, 2005] was allegedly involved in a 1962 attempt to have Robert Perrin run guns to anti-Castro forces in Cuba. With such right-wing military credentials one might reasonably expect him to be associated with General Edwin Walker.
Castro, Fidel Alejandro: Cuban politician Fidel Castro [Wikipedia biography] deposed U. S. backed President Fulgencio Batista on 1st January 1959, ushering a period of confrontation which saw the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis, and which, according to Gary Wean's 1987 book "There's a Fish in the Courthouse", culminated in the bungled CIA-false flag operation which allowed the assassination of JFK.
CE-299: See the entry for Magic Bullet.
Centro Mondiale Commerciale (CMC): This now defunct? corporation is part of the Permindex Thread. It is sometimes theorised as having owned Clay Shaw's International Trade Mart. The name translates as "World Trade Centre".
Chariton, Wallace O.: Texas historian Wallace Chariton [no convenient biography] interviewed Dealey Plaza witness Jerry Coley, featuring it in his 1990 book "Unsolved Texas Mysteries". This was the origin of the Blood or Cola Thread.
Chaney, Patrolman James M.: DPD motorcycle outrider James Chaney [no convenient biography] was riding inside-right of the four DPD motorcycles attached to limo #1. Chaney's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Interview to camera [YouTube it now].
Cheek, Bertha: Dallas businesswoman Bertha Cheek [no convenient biography] owned a number of rooming houses, as did her sister Earlene Roberts, often putting up suspicious transients. Cheek's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Cherami, Rose: Sometime Carousel Club stripper, drug mule, and addict Rose Cherami [Spartacus Educational biography] was found by the roadside 20th November 1963 near Eunice, LA, claiming to have been thrown from a car by two men on a mission for Jack Ruby. As her drug intoxication wore off she began to experience withdrawal symptoms, and so was relocated to the East Louisiana State Hospital at Jackson, LA. During the two hour drive she told her escorting officer Francis Frugé that Ruby was involved in a plot to kill JFK during his impending visit to Dallas. She also repeated this story to her attending psychiatrist Dr. Victor Weiss. Neither authority gave her story any credence, until after the news of the killing came through! Cherami died in a convenient automobile accident on 4th September 1965. Her death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".
ASIDE: Unsurprisingly, there are many theories of Cherami's death, but they have been very professionally countered. On the other hand, being able to confound a conspiracy theory is what the very best conspirators are capable of, so who knows! Our verdict [January 2018] - foul play. Just.
Cherami's foreknowledge narrative then featured vividly as one of the opening scenes in Oliver Stone's 1991 movie "JFK".
Chetta, Dr. Nicholas J.: NOLA Coroner and "fine public official" Nicholas Chetta [no convenient biography] performed the autopsies on Robert Perrin and David Ferrie, and in the latter case initially refused an opinion as to the cause of death. He later certified suicide. He also carried out the autopsies on Mary Sherman. Chetta conveniently died of a heart attack on 25th May 1968, aged 50 years. Henry Delaune was one of the pallbearers. His death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".
Church Committee: A Senate Select Committee set up in 1976 under Senator Frank Church to look into abuses of power by the CIA, the NSA, the FBI, and the IRS. Robert Maheu and Johnny Roselli testified as to the CIA's connections to the mob during the struggle against Fidel Castro 1960-1963, but they could not be joined by Sam Giancana, "on account of being rubbed out" (apologies to Billy Wilder).
Church, Senator Frank Forrester, III: Idaho Senator Frank Church [Wikipedia biography] chaired the Church Committee, 1975-1976.
Civil Air Patrol: The Civil Air Patrol (CAP) [Wikipedia briefing] was established on 1st December 1941 as a civilian cadet force feeder for the USAF. The NOLA chapter was commanded in the early 1950s by David Ferrie, and Ferrie was most certainly still involved when 15-year-old LHO joined his squadron in 1955.
Clark, Edward Aubrey: Texas born lawyer Edward Clark [Wikipedia biography] was in LBJ's circle of Texas oilmen throughout the 1950s. He features in Barr McClellan's 2003 book "Blood, Money, and Power" as co-conspirator in an LBJ-initiated conspiracy to assassinate JFK.
Clark, Max E.: Indiana born Fort Worth lawyer Max Clark [no convenient biography] was an acquaintance of LHO by virtue of his Russian-speaking wife's position in the Fort Worth White Russian community. Clark's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Clark Panel, The: See the entry for Ramsey Clark.
Clark, William Ramsey: Dallas born lawyer Ramsey Clark [Spartacus Educational biography] was Assistant Attorney General at the time of the assassination, and was promoted Attorney General in 1967 by LBJ. In this role he appointed a 1968 panel of four medical experts who re-examined the JFK autopsy files and confirmed the original conclusions. Browse the Medical Cover Up Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Clark, Dr. William Kemp: The Chief Neurosurgeon at Parkland Hospital, Dr. William Kemp Clark [no convenient biography, but see Watts' (2008 [full text online]) obituary] was one of two emergency surgeons (the other being Dr. Malcolm Perry) who spoke at a 1416hr Press Conference [read transcript now]. He was non-committal as to the nature of JFK's head wound as an entry wound or an exit wound. In fact, his subsequent testimony to the Warren Commission made much of a third possibility - that of a "tangential" wound, whereby the skull would behave much like a divot of turf on a golf course and where it would actually be far harder to tell the direction of the impact - because he had noted no associated second head wound. Dr. Clark's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Clay, General Lucius D: Commander of the Berlin Zone during the Berlin Crisis of 1948 General Lucius Clay [Wikipedia biography] was advisor on international strategy to both President Eisenhower and JFK.
Clements, Manning C.: FBI Special Agent Manning Clements [no convenient biography] arrived at DPDHQ to offer FBI assistance at about 1300hr on the day of the assassination. He began by listing the contents of LHO's wallet at 1915hr, having been passed same by Gus Rose. He then undertook one of LHO's interrogations, beginning at about 2200hr and lasting "30 or 35 minutes", but with two interruptions totalling "10 or 15 minutes" for identity parades. During questioning as to the false Selective Service Card LHO declined to comment. Clements' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]. Browse the Oswald's Wallet Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Clemons, Acquila: Oak Cliff housekeeper Acquila Clemons [Spartacus Educational biography] was on her porch on 10th Street, when she witnessed the murder of Patrolman J. D. Tippit. Two men were involved, namely a "kind of chunky" gunman and a tall, thin, accomplice. Since two gunmen did not fit with the developing official narrative her report was not followed up. Clemons' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Interview to camera, Mark Lane, 1966 [YouTube it now].
Clifton, Major General Chester ("Ted") Victor, Jr: White House Aide General Ted Clifton [Wikipedia biography] was one of several normally close Presidential attendants consigned on this occasion to well back in the Dallas Presidential motorcade.
Clines, Thomas Gregory: Long-standing CIA officer with significant experience in Frankfurt during the Cold War Thomas Clines [Spartacus Educational biography] was JM/WAVE's liaison man into the Nicaraguan Regime. He would be one of the nine persons identified by Bradley Ayers in 1994 as having "intimate operational knowledge" of how the assassination was put together.
Cody, Joe: Having been asked in 1960 by Jack Ruby to advise on his personal security as a carrier of cash takings, DPD officer Joe Cody [no convenient biography] took him in person (this being so Ruby could benefit from the police discount) to Ray's Hardware and Sporting Goods and bought him the .38 snub-nosed Colt Cobra revolver which he subsequently used to murder LHO.
Cohn, Roy Marcus: Lawyer Roy Cohn [Wikipedia biography] acquired something of a reputation as a prosecutor during a number of high profile espionage trials during the Senator Joseph Macarthy witch hunts of the early 1950s, thereby helping in his own small way to deepen the Cold War.
Colby, William Egan: WW2 OSS veteran Bill Colby [Wikipedia biography] had been CIA Chief of Station in Saigon, South Vietnam until 1962, and had recently returned to D.C. as Deputy (later Chief), Far East Division. He would become Director on 4th September 1973. Colby disappeared on a coastal canoeing trip on 27th April 1996, and when his body turned up nine days later the medical examiner blamed a prior heart condition. He was about to appear before the Frank Olson enquiry [q.v.].
Cole, Francis B.: FBI agent Francis Cole [no convenient biography] was introduced in the La Fontaines' 1996 book "Oswald Talked" as one of two FBI men sent to Memphis to interview John Elrod, which see (the other agent being Norman Casey). Their report was substantively ignored by the Warren Commission.
Coleman, Kay Helen: [a.k.a. Kathy Kay; later Kay Helen Olsen] London born divorcee and some time hostess at Jack Ruby's Carousel Club Kay Coleman [no convenient biography] attended the midnight meeting of "Johnny", Jack Ruby, and her fiancé Harry Olsen. Coleman's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony (as "Mrs. Kay Helen Olsen") [read it now].
Coley Jerry: [Read firstly the Don Campbell entry.] [Blood or Cola Thread] At around 0900hr Dallas Morning News advertising salesman Jerry Coley [no convenient biography] left colleague Don Campbell and customer Jack Ruby in the cafeteria and went out to do some unrelated sales calls. When he returned at "some time after" 1100hr he met Jack Ruby again in the office of another colleague, John Newnham. At around 1130hr he then left the building with one Charlie Mulkey and headed out into Dealey Plaza, looking for a good vantage point from which to watch the motorcade. They take up a position near the entrance of the old county jail on Houston Street, east side, a short distance from the TSBD. After the shooting, which Coley would later describe as "very echoey", and with "no definite gunshots", he went past the front of the TSBD along the Elm Street service road, heading for the open space behind the picket fence, disregarding (but presumably delayed by) a Sheriff's Deputy's instructions to stay away. Reaching the end of the rear walkway of the John Neely Bryan Pergola he turned to go down the steps, and noted a "huge puddle" of "what I thought was blood". He descended the steps and went back to the office to get assistance. As he entered he observed a weeping Jack Ruby on the telephone to someone. He then rounded up advertising photographer Jim Hood, told him to get his camera, and, at "a little after one", led him back to the steps. The blood was now "all crinkly like it had coagulated a little". Hood dipped a fingertip into it and tasted it, confirming "That's blood". He then took a photograph and went back to the office. When he got to work on Monday morning, 25th November, he found reporter Hugh Aynesworth quizzing Don Campbell about the Ruby conversation three days earlier, because he wanted to do a quick piece on the man. Coley duly contributed his Ruby recollections, and then, turning to the blood, led Aynesworth over to the steps only to find that the site had been very thoroughly cleaned. On Tuesday he learned that Aynesworth had submitted the Ruby piece, describing him as "Coley of the News". Half an hour later his wife rang him in no little distress saying that she had had threatening telephone calls (which could only have been from people who had just read Aynesworth's piece). And later again two FBI men came to interview "Coley of the News" for his Ruby recollections. He told them what he could, and again tagged on the matter of the pool of blood. Hood was called in to the meeting and showed the photograph he had taken, only to have the camera, the negatives, and the print taken from him. The FBI's parting instruction was crystal clear: "Boys," they said, "this conversation never took place, if you know what we mean". Coley duly kept his mouth shut until his story was eventually included in Wallace Chariton's 1990 book "Unsolved Texas Mysteries". The clearest telling of Coley's story is in a 2011 Black Op Radio interview by Len Osanic [YouTube it now - RECOMMENDED].
Colhoun, Jack: Historian Jack Colhoun [no convenient biography] is author of the 2013 book "Gangsterismo", a history of the Cuban exile community in the early 1960s, and of their connections to organised crime.
Collins, Arthur A.: Oklahoma born electronics whizz-kid Arthur A Collins [Wikipedia biography] had founded Collins Radio [Wikipedia briefing] at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, in 1933, and had seen the company grow exponentially during WW2. Development continued after the war, helped in some areas, by Nazi expertise acquired under Operation Paperclip. Collins was also closely associated with General Curtis LeMay during the latter's Project Birdcall - the installation of a standardised communications system for Strategic Air Command. New production sites were added at Burbank, CA, and Richardson, Dallas, during the 1950s, and in 1962 the Callsign-Liberty base station at Cedar Rapids went live with 24/7 communications to Air Force One. Following financial problems the company would eventually be taken over by Rockwell International in 1973. Collins Radio is noteworthy in the present context (a) because, as a major employer in the area, a number of key figures chanced to be employees at the Richardson plant, (b) because of one clearly visible walkie-talkie user - Dark-Complected Man - at work near ground zero in Dealey Plaza, and (c) because of the need for dedicated radiomen in professional sniper teams. As an example of (a) we have Collins employee Carl Mather associated with the scene of the J. D. Tippit murder, and as an example of (c) we have Ruth Ann Martinez. The company's covert involvement with the CIA were revealed on 1st November 1963 in the Rex Incident [q.v.]. Browse the Military-Industrial Complex Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Collins Radio: See the entry for Arthur Collins.
Collom, Mark: In 1971, while serving a short sentence for a drug offence in McAlester State Prison, OK, and having been taken ill with hepatitis, 21-year old Mark Collom [no convenient biography] found himself in the next infirmary bed to a fellow-prisoner named Loy Factor. Over the following days the older man gradually came to trust him, and told him that on 22nd November 1963 he had been part of a four-person TSBD6 shooting team. Four years later, after his release, he shared this tale with old friend Glen Sample, and together they tried unsuccessfully to get an investigative journalist interested in the case. And there things would have rested, had it not been for the renewal of interest in the JFK assassination brought about by Oliver Stone's 1991 movie "JFK". Collom duly got in touch with Larry Howard, one of the movie's technical advisors, and Director of the well-respected JFKAIC in Dallas. Howard was highly enthusiastic, and the two men got back in touch with now-hospitalised Loy Factor, the first of several interviews taking place on 11th February 1993. Factor's recollections were eventually published as "The Men on the Sixth Floor" (Sample and Collom, 1995), with a Foreword by Howard.
Conforto, Janet ["Jada"] Adams: Recently resigned Carousel Club hostess Jada Conforto [no convenient biography] was involved in a road traffic accident in Dallas on the morning of the assassination. She explained that she was on her way to New Orleans and that her employer Jack Ruby would take care of everything. She was herself killed in a road traffic accident on 9th May 1980. Conspiracy theories exist, but we remain to be convinced that they warrant being recorded here.
Connally, John Bowden, Jr: Elected Governor of Texas on 15th January 1963 Governor John Connally [Wikipedia biography] was riding in limo #1, second row of seats, right side, in front of but set slightly lower than JFK. He was shot once through the chest at Z235, reportedly by Mac Wallace from TSBD6, 3rd window from west. One of his investment interests was apparently the Tryall Resort at Montego Bay, Jamaica.
Conspiracy Cafe: Online Blogspot created in 2011 [website] and hosted by "factist" George Freund.
Continental Trailways Bus 5133: This is the bus which on 26th-27th September 1963 took LHO on his Mexican Tourist Card 824085 from the U.S.-Mexico border crossing at Laredo, TX, to Mexico City. It was a 24-hour, 700 mile, ride, and he whiled away the time making sure that plenty of witnesses knew he was a lefty trouble-maker - see the entries for Pamela Mumford and Patricia Winston, and Bryan and Meryl McFarland for the separate tales.
Cook, Austin: Dallas restaurateur Austin Cook [no convenient biography] owned the Austin's Bar-B-Cue eatery at Illinois and Hampton, Oak Cliff, and was reputedly a good friend of Jack Ruby. Patrolman J. D. Tippit often moonlighted there as a bouncer when off duty. Cook's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Cooper, Roy, Jr: KTVT-TV cinematographer Roy Cooper [no convenient biography] and Don Crook [no convenient biography] filmed in the wake of the Presidential motorcade, including several minutes at Love Field, outside TSBD, and at Parkland Hospital. The footage was not broadcast at the time, and so Cooper privately archived it. The footage was discovered in 1996 and is available to view, with commentary by photoforensic expert Richard Trask, online [YouTube it now]. Cooper's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Copeland, David Goddard: [a.k.a.?? William Torbitt] Texas lawyer David Copeland [no convenient biography] has been suggested as the writer behind the non-de-plume William Torbitt [q.v.].
Corbett, James: "Independent critical analyst" James Corbett [no convenient biography] hosts the alternative news source The Corbett Report [Website About] and invariably speaks regularly about conspiracy theories. All followers of The Corbett Report are logged, of course, by intelligence monitoring services, and their interests cross-correlated.
Corbett Report, The: See the entry for James Corbett.
Corn, David: Political journalist and assassination researcher David Corn [Wikipedia biography] was the author of the 1994 book "Blind Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIA Crusades", a re-appraisal of CIA operations during the Cold War, and of the part played by Ted Shackley in aggressively pursuing them.
Couch, Malcolm O.: WFAA-TV cameraman Malcolm Couch [no convenient biography] was in the "fifth or sixth car back" in the Presidential motorcade, in the middle of three photographers perched up above the rear seat, and at the time of the shooting had just turned north on Houston. He exited the car when it had reached the triple underpass and ran back up toward TSBD, where he spent a moment filming the excitement there. Then, at the west of the building, he "saw blood on the sidewalk", in a pool eight to ten inches in diameter "about 10 to 15 feet from the corner of the Texas Depository Building".
ASIDE: This is NOT the same blood found by Jerry Coley and referenced in the Blood or Cola Thread.
Couch's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Counterintelligence: Counterintelligence means knowing what the other fellow is up to in a relationship, and acting accordingly using any means appropriate to the assessed hostility level of the relationship (see the Wikipedia briefing for the types and structures recognised by academics, paying especial attention to false flag operations). Counterintelligence assets can be deployed against either friendly intelligence operations (to make sure they intend staying friendly) or hostile ones (to deny them physical, and/or financial, and/or political success). This latter category of intelligence operation includes most types of "conspiracy theory", making their adherents legitimate targets of a counterintelligence effort. Hager (2017) suggests that "... seizing the centre of gravity on a conspiracy is standard ops for counterintelligence" (p51). Counterintelligence assets can also be deployed against overt aggression, of course, as part of maximising tactical advantage.
County Sheriff's Office: Dallas' County Sheriff's Office was located at 509 Main Street, as one of the county functions sharing the Dallas County Records Building. Oriented north-south, this building occupies the full block between Elm and Main, but the Sheriff's Office had its own stepped entrance - embossed in foot-high lettering as DALLAS COUNTY CRIMINAL COURTS - onto Main, some 30 feet east of the junction with Houston. It was from these steps that many Sheriff's Deputies - including Roger Craig - spectated the motorcade. The west-facing facade, opposite the northernmost of the two water features at the top of Dealey Plaza, had no pedestrian entrances, but was divided by a deep drive in. The Sheriff's Office on the southern corner was then balanced to the north by the County Record Office on the junction with Elm.
Coyle, Edward J.: As related in the La Fontaines' 1996 book "Oswald Talked", Dallas-based Intelligence Officer for the 112th Military Intelligence Group, Ed Coyle [no convenient biography] had been one of three agents who met at <venue unknown> on 21st November 1963, the others being FBI Agent James Hosty and DPD Lieutenant Jack Revill. The latter, Hosty would explain in 1996, "made a comment about not wanting to guard that son of a bitch Kennedy tomorrow" (p283). Coyle was also one of three agents who met at the ATF's office on Commerce on the morning of 22nd November 1963 (the others being Hosty again and ATF investigator Frank Ellsworth) to report progress with their common investigations of the Fort Hood Arms Thefts. This meeting broke up at around 1145hr. We surmise that Coyle - in his role as the army's liaison man to the SS security detail that day - then went and mingled with the crowd somewhere. Browse the ATF Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story.
Cox, Alexander B. H.: Film director Alex Cox [Wikipedia biography] was author of the 2013 book "The President and the Provocateur", which is constructed around the wholly dismal [but increasingly blatant] core thesis that the U.S. Deep State, encouraged by getting away with their JFK cover-up, went on to play for even higher stakes.
Crafard, Curtis LaVerne ["Larry"]: Michigan born sometime travelling circus hand and recently resident handyman at Jack Ruby's Carousel Club Larry Crafard [Spartacus Educational biography] met with Ruby and George Senator on 23rd November, and then immediately left town. He then gave copious [three days] evidence to the Warren Commission, helping to identify the various hostesses who came and went. Crafard also stated that one of his duties at the Carousel was to record who had called while Ruby was out, and one of these books - "a blue cover spiral notebook entitled, 'Penway Memo Notebook'" - was discussed in detail on his third day on the stand, in that it was one of only a few indications of who Jack Ruby knew and did business with. Crafard's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it here].
Craig, John R.: Private detective and assassination researcher John Craig [no convenient biography] interviewed Chauncey Holt on 19th October 1991 [read transcript now], and was co-author with Philip Rogers of the 1992 book "The Man on the Grassy Knoll", in which Charles Rogers is proposed not just as the Picket Fence shooter but also as one of the (second set of) Three Tramps.
Craig, Roger Dean: At the time of the shooting Dallas County Sheriff's Deputy Roger Craig [Spartacus Educational biography] was positioned outside the Sheriff's Office at 505 Main Street, Dallas, about half a block from the junction with Houston Street. Hearing the shooting from Elm Street he ran in that direction, and ended up working with a DPD officer for seven or eight minutes atop the grassy knoll, canvassing for witnesses and searching the railway. He then went back to south side of Elm Street to look for bullet strikes, at which time Deputy Buddy Walthers arrived to assist. "Fourteen or fifteen" minutes after the shooting he saw "a white male in his twenties, five nine, five eight, something like that [etc.]" run from the southwest corner of the TSBD down Elm Street toward the underpass, to be picked up at the kerb there by "a light-colored station wagon, driving real slow", driven by a "dark complected man". He immediately reported this to "a secret service officer" at the scene ...
THE TANGLED WEB: Crystalised into this historically momentous instant Craig had inadvertently allowed himself to be blanked by a conspiracy look-out man, and - unsurprisingly - nothing ever came of this in-the-heat-of-the-moment report. And of course if we knew who the mysterious man was working for, then we would understand far more about the nature of the Dealey Plaza operation as a field operation. If it was an SS man then it would have been an SS conspiracy followed by an SS cover-up. If a mobster, then a mob hit followed by a mob cover-up. If a military intelligence man then a military coup followed by a military cover up. If a Castro man, etc. And so on. Or to put it another way: He who owned the fake SS ID owned the conspiracy. Well the Secret Service insist there were no SS agents on the ground in Dealey Plaza: it would have been a great idea but - hangovers aside - they simply lacked the manpower. And Robert Jones tells us that 112th Military Intelligence Group had between eight and twelve agents in plain clothes in the area, who would have produced SS ID if challenged (indeed Summers, 2013e, wonders whether this might not be a real possibility). And any conspiring mobsters would have carried first-class fake SS IDs produced by such assets as Rod Mac Kenzie. It is nothing less than wholly indicative therefore that Craig would later photographically identify this agent as >>CIA<< operative Edgar Bradley [q.v.].
Probably about 30 minutes after the shooting Craig entered TSBD to assist with the ongoing building search. Ascending to the 6th floor he witnessed the spent shells, noting that they were laid neatly together, and not scattered as they would be after rapid reloading in either a bolt-action or automatic rifle. He then witnessed the discovery of "the rifle" by Eugene Booth. It was lying on the floor with the bolt upwards and scope fitted. Captain Will Fritz oversaw the taking of pictures, before picking the rifle up by the strap and asking whether anyone knew what kind of rifle it was. He heard Seymour Weizmann reply that it "looked like a Mauser", and saw stamped on the barrel was the legend "7.65 Mauser". Captain Fritz ejected a live - unfired - round [perhaps Loy Factor's??]. Booth's shells, on the other hand, came from a 6.5mm Italian rifle. At "about 5:30 or something like that" he attended DPDHQ at Captain Fritz's request and identified LHO as the man he had seen getting into the station wagon [thus directly contradicting Mary Bledsoe's statement that she had seen LHO on a bus - |Ed.]. He also reported hearing that a traffic officer had been shot by the picket fence. As such, Craig plays a part in the Blood or Cola Thread, the LHO Movements 22nd November Thread, and the How Many Rifles Thread. It is therefore hardly surprising that there were attempts on his life over the years, followed by a highly convenient suicide on 15th May 1975. His death is not just one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses", but also in our judgement well into the Top Ten most convincing. Officer Craig's evidential profile is as follows: FBI Report, 22nd November 1963 [have been unable to locate]; Sheriff's Office Report 23rd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission Testimony [read it now]; Trial of Clay Shaw Testimony [read it now]; Radio interview by Ted Ganfaldo [YouTube it now]; Interview to camera, Mark Lane [YouTube it now].
Crawford, John: Light aircraft pilot John Crawford [no convenient biography] seems to have worked for Jack Ruby on occasions. He was killed in a plane crash near Huntsville, TX, on 15th April 1969. His death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses". Conspiracy theories exist, but we remain to be convinced that they warrant being recorded here.
Crescent Firearms, Inc.: See the entry for Louis Feldsott.
Crighton, Jack Alston: Louisiana born oilman and OSS veteran Jack Crighton [Spartacus Educational biography] developed business ties with fellow oilmen Clint Murchison and George H. W. Bush, defence contractor General Dynamics, and Cuban President Fulgencio Batista in the 1950s. In 1956 he founded the 488th Military Intelligence Detachment. In 1959 he and Bush helped raise funds for the CIA's Operation 40. It has been reported that at the time of the assassination about half of the 488ths 100-man complement were DPD officers. After the assassination he paid White Russian Ilya Mamantov to act as Marina Oswald's interpreter during her interrogation, in which respect he - Mamantov - has been accused of systematically bending the translation here and there toward the required lone nut shooter narrative.
Crisman, Fred Lee: WW2 veteran (U.S.A.A.C.), long-term associate of Clay Shaw, and jobbing esoterist Fred Crisman [Wikipedia murk-ography] would defeat even Jim Garrison's investigations of him so completely that Garrison officially concluded that he must spend his time in "deep cover" (Garrison's actual term) on work of national security of some sort. So it is then not altogether surprising to find Crisman named in due course in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so outer sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination.
Crook, Don: Mentioned in the Roy Cooper entry, which see.
Crouch, Mark: In June 1981 assassination researcher Mark Crouch [no convenient biography] acquired a duplicate set of autopsy photographs taken by Secret Service duty photographer James Fox [q.v.], on condition they were not published until after his death. Fox died in 1987 and the material was duly incorporated into the 1988 edition of David Lifton's book "Best Evidence".
Croy, Kenneth Hudson: Well-known to Jack Ruby, businessman, "professional cowboy" in rodeos, and DPD reservist Kenneth Croy [no convenient biography] had been on stand-by at Main and Griffin when the JFK shooting came over the radio. Hampered by traffic he offered assistance at Dealey Plaza some 20 minutes later but was not called upon. He then "proceeded on home" and was on Zangs when the J. D. Tippit call came through. He then duly proceeded to the 400 block of East Tenth Street to give assistance (making him the first uniformed officer on the scene, just as the ambulance crew were loading him into their vehicle). He then began questioning the witnesses until help arrived, being handed a wallet found on the scene by an unidentified bystander [HERE BEGINS A VERY FLAWED CHAIN OF CUSTODY]. Shortly afterward he passed the wallet to Lieutenant Calvin Owens, who had also brought Captain Bill Westbrook and Assistant District Attorney Bill Alexander. Croy was then officially on duty in the basement carpark of City Hall on the morning of 24th November 1963 when Jack Ruby gained unauthorised entry and shot the person named in the wallet to death. Croy's evidential profile is as follows: Statement, 26th November 1963; Affidavit, 1st December 1963; Warren Commission testimony [read it now]. Browse the LHO Wallet Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story.
BLUE VEIN OF CORRUPTION: By any theory of jurisprudence Croy is about as suspicious as you can get, having been (1) connected to a possible Mr. Big, (2) first on the scene, and (3) the point where perhaps the single most important piece of evidence - the wallet containing the Oswald-Hidell link - entered the story, and (4) ideally placed two days later to allow Mr. Big to get close enough to the person named in the wallet to silence him. Moreover, if Croy planted the wallet, then we must immediately also suspect the DPD officer to whom he passed it next, and who immediately ensured that it was clearly visible on newsreel, namely Captain Bill Westbook. As to where this particular vein of corruption takes us next, see Westbrook's separate entry.
Cuban Missile Crisis: The Cuban Missile Crisis was a DEFCON-21 military Cold War confrontation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union occasioned by the arrival of Soviet troops and missiles on Cuba in late summer 1962. The crisis famously lasted "Thirteen Days" from 16th to 28th, took the world to DEFCON-2 [Wikipedia briefing], and was resolved by diplomatic means, much to the chagrin of JFK's Chiefs of Staff, who henceforth regarded him as an appeaser who had to go.
1ASIDE: You do not get any closer to a shooting war than DEFCON-2. As explained by Douglas Horne in his 2013 book "JFK's War with the National Security Establishment", the order to go to this alert level was taken neither by JFK nor by the Joint Chiefs of Staff through proper channels but by General Thomas Power, Head of Strategic Air Command, on his own authority.
Cuban Revolutionary Council (CRC): The CRC was a CIA commissioned anti-Castro recruiting and fundraising front set up by Sergio Arcacha Smith in winter 1961-1962 in 544 Camp Street, next door to Guy Banister's detective agency at 531 Lafayette. He was asked to testify as to the relationship between the exile community and indigenous right-wingers by Jim Garrison in 1967, but thanks to clever legal work he avoided extradition. As related by the La Fontaines in their 1996 book "Oswald Talked", the roving Newsweek reporter Hugh Aynesworth played an important part in this obstruction of justice. They quote firstly from the Rodgers Report of 3rd March 1967 ...
"'Aynesworth reported that he has informants in the office of James Garrison and that he had a number of names of witnesses interviewed...'" (p344).
They then continue in their own words ...
"In the guise of a journalist Aynesworth covered the Garrison investigation for one of the premier print-news organisations in America. His uniformly vitriolic accounts appeared over a period of years, and there is little question they helped shape the national view of Garrison as a corrupt, out-of-control, public official. Behind the scenes, however, Aynesworth was interfering with the D.A.'s investigation - tampering with a witness [...]" (p345).
Cubela, Rolando: See AM/LASH.
Cuesta, Antonio: Miami-based Cuban exile Tony Cuesta [Spartacus Educational biography] had been a CIA asset in a number of their anti-Castro operations. Following a period of imprisonment after a failed raid in 1966 he would confess to Castro's spy-chief Fabian Escalante that he had been part of a three-man shooting team in Dallas, along with Herminio Diaz Garcia and Eladio del Valle. Escalante did not make this confession public until 1995, after Cuesta's death.
Cummings, Raymond C.: Sometime DPD patrolman/wrestler/cab driver Ray Cummings [no convenient biography, but check out the video sources below] became an important witness to the JFK case when it emerged that as taxi driver serving the Carousel Club he had driven LHO and David Ferrie there in early 1963. This point was taken up by NOLA District Attorney Jim Garrison as indications that LHO had not been a "lone nut" gunman on 22nd November. Cummings' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Interview to camera, 1967 [YouTube it now].
Cunningham, Cortlandt C.: FBI Special Agent Cortlandt Cunningham [no convenient biography] was one of the three-man FBI Lab ballistics team (the others being Robert Frazier and Charles Killion) who examined limo #1 after it had been flown back to DC.
Curry, Chief Jesse Edward: Chief of Police Jesse Curry [Wikipedia biography] was in the pilot car of the presidential motorcade at the time of the assassination. His evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [Part #1; Part #2; Part #3]; Affidavit 10th August 1964 [read it now].
Cutler, Robert: Assassination researcher Robert Cutler [no convenient biography] worked with Richard Sprague in promulgating the famous Umbrella Dart Theory [q.v.], the in-our-opinion-preposterous notion that Umbrella Man's umbrella was some sort of cross between a set of bagpipes and a poison-dart blowpipe.
Dale, Alan: Jazz musician, band leader, and assassination researcher-archivist Alan Dale [no convenient biography] maintains a useful online archive of podcasts [check it out now].
Dale, Robert Joseph: DPD motorcyclist Bobby Jo Dale [no convenient biography] was one of two "rear mid" motorcycles in the motorcade, and was too far back to take any great part in the searching of Dealey Plaza. He was friends with fellow officer Harry Olsen; indeed the latter was in fact lodging with him at the time. Researchers have recently implicated both men in the protection of an illegal gambling den at 425?? East 8th Street.
Dalitz, Morris ["Moe"] Barney: Forgetting his prewar associations with mobsters such as Meyer Lansky and Al Capone, Las Vegas Businessman Moe Dalitz [Wikipedia biography] trailblazed that city's development into an in-your-face casino resort during the 1950s.
Dallas Morning News: Founded in 1885 as an offshoot of Alfred Belo's Galveston News and managed from 1895 until his death in 1946 by Dealey Plaza's eponymous George Dealey, the Dallas Morning News [Wikipedia briefing] had been in its offices at 508 Young Street, three blocks south of Dealey Plaza, since 1949 [only moving out in 2017 - Ed.]. You entered beneath a forty-foot-high stele embossed with an exhortation by Dealey himself to his staff. It begins: "BUILD THE NEWS UPON THE ROCK OF TRUTH". It was here that Jack Ruby spent much of the morning of 22nd November 1963, and where, on 25th November Jerry Coley met Hugh Aynesworth.
Dal-Tex Building: Seven-storey office building at postal 501 Elm Street [Wikipedia briefing], occupying the NE corner half-block at Elm and Houston. Occupied at the time of the assassination by (4th Floor) Abraham Zapruder and (3rd Floor) H. L. Hunt's Dallas Uranium Company. The building, its external fire-escape, and the third floor windows will all eventually be mentioned in variously ominous tones - see the entries for George H. W. Bush, Larry Florer, Virgilio Gonzalez, and Eugenio Martinez.
Dankbaar, Wim: Dutch assassination researcher Wim Dankbaar [no convenient biography] hit the JFK headlines in 1994 with his interview of self-confessed shooter James Files (incorporated into his 2008 book "Files on JFK"), and then again with a 1997 interview with Chauncey Holt. The fact that he has recently been under heavy attack online, both professional and personal, simply increases the noteworthiness of his research and earns him a place on the WW3 Online Now Thread.
Dark Complected Man: This long-to-remain-unidentified man was right there at Ground Zero, clearly reporting fall of shot by hand signals and - moments later - by walkie-talkie - YouTube him now. Now see the entry for Orlando Bosch.
Dark Journalist: "Independent investigative reporter" Dark Journalist [no biography until we learn his name] fronts the Dark Journalist [Homepage] alternative current affairs station, and is committed to exploring topics "the mainstream media refuses to touch".
Darnell, James: WBAP cinematographer Jimmy Darnell [no convenient biography or 2017 obituary] took film of the motorcade as it rounded Houston and Elm, but then had that footage confiscated for evidence by Newton Fisher. When it was finally released it had lost the moments of the shooting but clearly shows crowds rushing to the picket fence and the subsequent search of the railyard beyond, possibly also a bloodstain - YouTube it now. Darnell's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
David, Christian: French mobster Christian David [no convenient biography] was the source in 1981 of the Corsican Hit Team Thread. In jail in Leavenworth, KS, for drugs offences he contacted journalist Stephen Rivele and offered to exchange information about the assassination for help in blocking an extradition request from France, where he was wanted for the murder of a policeman. The thrust of the resulting information was that Marseilles crime boss Antoine Guerini had been contracted in mid-1963 by the American Mafia to supply three good hitmen to help take out "the highest vegetable". David was offered one of these contracts, but declined. He then named the team as Lucien Sarti, Sauveur Pironti, and Roger Bocognani. The latter two of these, however, turned out to have alibis.
Davis, Floyd Guy: 32-year-old rifle range superintendent Floyd Davis [no convenient biography] is noteworthy as a witness in that he ran the Sports Drome Rifle Range where, on 9th, 10th, and 17th November 1963 LHO or an LHO Look Alike had, according to two of his customers, made a nuisance of himself, mouthing off and shooting across lanes, and such. One of those customers, Garland Slack, would be at Dealey Plaza later in the month when the art of shooting out of lane came into its own. Davis' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Davis, Jack: 18-year-old cinema-goer Jack Davis [no convenient biography] was in the lower auditorium of the Texas Theater at shortly after 1300hr 22nd November 1963 when LHO came in and sat down next right to him. In a nearly empty afternoon screening Davis found this a distinctly discomforting experience; so he was relieved when LHO moved off to sit alongside another person, then go out for popcorn, then come back and sit alongside another, as if searching for a promised pick-up contact. It was then uneventful for some 20 minutes until the police arrived. Burroughs' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]. YouTube it all now. Browse the Balcony Arrest Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story.
Davis, Thomas Eli, III: Deep sea diver, sometime CIA mercenary, gun-runner, and convicted bank robber Thomas Davis [Spartacus Educational biography] was in jail in Algiers, Algeria, at the time of the assassination, although he may well have been in New Orleans in the period 8th-10th August 1963. His subsequent release was apparently organised by CIA asset QJ/WIN, believed by some to have been Jean Soutre, by others Michael Mertz. Davis died September 1973, and his death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".
Day, Lt. John Carl Day: Head of the DPD's crime lab Lieutenant Carl Day [no convenient biography] arrived at the TSBD shortly after the shooting and, accompanied by Special Agent (FBI, Dallas) Bardwell Odum, gave crime lab support to the officers searching TSBD6. The two men then returned with the accumulated physical evidence to DPDHQ, and there, at 1816hr 22nd November 1963 in the Homicide Bureau's Room 317, he held the rifle high before a Press Conference and described it as "a six point five apparently made in Italy 1940", allowing each newsman to fill in the rest of the incriminating details from a pre-circulated statement - YouTube one of those newsreels now. Later, at around 2000hr, having dropped the wooden stock of the weapon, he recovered an "old" and "dry" palm print from the underside of the barrel. Day's evidential profile is as follows: Two 1964 affidavits [read them now - IMPORTANT]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Dean, Harold: 36-year-old pro-Castro activist turned CIA/FBI informer Harold Dean [Spartacus Educational biography] appeared right out of nowhere in the histories to be named in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so outer sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination. On the other hand, he might just have been playing along with the conspirators in order to gain inside information on the doings of the John Birch Society in the Southern States, in which case Sprague was doing him an accidental disservice. On the other hand, that might be what he wanted you to think ...
***** Possible accessory to the Jack Ruby shooting *****
Dean, Patrick Trevore: DPD Patrol Sergeant Patrick Dean [no convenient biography] was not on duty on 22nd or 23rd November 1963, but arrived shortly before 0700hr on 24th November and talked with Patrol Captain Cecil Talbert shortly before the regular "be careful out there" 0700hr patrolmen's briefing. The main topic of discussion was an earlier telephone threat on LHO's life during the transfer. Dean therefore organised a thorough search of the basement lot shortly after 0900hr, and then another after the press corps had been allowed in to set up. The main disruption to security in this time was actually the arrival of the armoured car due to make the transfer. He was then on station at the armoured car at the moment of the Jack Ruby shooting, whereupon he helped subdue him.
CONSPIRACY ALERT: In this latter respect researcher Anthony Summers (2013e) suspects that this was only after conspiring with Ruby and two other basement cops, William Harrison and George Butler, to get him into the basement in the first place! Harrison, Dean, and Butler were long-term frequenters of the Carousel Club. For our part we are less than convinced.
Dean's evidential profile is as follows: YouTube his Press Statement just after the shooting COMPULSORY VIEWING; Warren Commission testimony [Part #1; Part #2].
ASIDE: Dean's formal account is complex and difficult to interpret, however, because the first half concerns violent (in legal terms) disagreement over an earlier unrecorded exchange, which we shall go into on a future date. The primary statement of events is in Part #2, which see.
Decker, James Eric ["Bill"]: Hero of a much earlier ambush-assassination [TREF 23rd May 1934] Dallas County Sheriff Bill Decker [Spartacus Educational biography] was in the pilot car of the presidential motorcade at the time of the assassination, along with Chief Jesse Curry. The assassination literature has regularly associated him with Texas right-wing politics, and his story has been featured recently in Harrison E. Livingstone's 2006 book "The Radical Right and the Murder of John F. Kennedy". He also featured, along with movie star Audie Murphy, in Gary Wean's 1987 book "There's a Fish in the Courthouse", wherein the assassination is seen as a bungled CIA-false flag operation. Decker's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission Testimony [read it now].
Defense Industrial Security Command (DISC): This shadowy sub-department of (perhaps) the FBI's Division Five was first mentioned in lawyer William Torbitt's (1970) book "Nomenclature of an Assassination Cabal". Amongst those submitting their expenses sheets via DISC were Clay Shaw, Guy Banister, David Ferrie, LHO, and Jack Ruby. DISC also features in Rod Mac Kenzie (and Hooke), wherein Mac Kenzie claims to be DISC's false Id forger.
Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA): Operational from 1st October 1961 the DIA [Wikipedia briefing] was/is an intelligence gathering service answering directly to the Secretary of Defense. It operates alongside the CIA, but with subtly different terms of reference.
de Goicochea Sanchez, Fermin: [a.k.a. George Perrel] Dallas-based Cuban exile and veteran of the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, Fermin de Goicochea Sanchez [no convenient biography] was equipment man for the DRE, and as such appears to have been under investigation by James Hosty throughout November 1963, suspected of receiving the large amounts of arms and explosives going missing from the armoury at Fort Hood in readiness - so it has regularly been suggested - for a second invasion attempt.
Delaune, Henry M.: NOLA-based English teacher Henry Delaune [Times-Picayune obituary] was a colleague of the Ochsner Clinic's Mary Sherman and had a brother who worked for Coroner Nicholas Chetta. He was murdered 26th January 1969, and his death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".
Delaune, Jules E.: Seems to be the brother of Henry M. Delaune. He was clerk to Coroner Nicholas Chetta, and himself died young in 1971.
Del Pinto, Oscar: Cuban exile Oscar Del Pinto [no convenient biography] pops up only infrequently in the histories, usually as a member of INTERPEN.
Del Valle, Eladio: Anti-Castro activist and contact of David Ferrie, Eladio del Valle [Spartacus Educational biography] would be one of the two colleagues identified by Tony Cuesta as having been a three-man shooting team in Dallas (the third being Herminio Diaz Garcia).
Democratic Revolutionary Front (FRD): The FRD [=Frente Revolucionario Democrático; Wikipedia briefing] was an umbrella organisation coordinating the activities of a number of lesser Cuban exile pressure and direct action groups, It was founded in May 1960 and its New Orleans chapter was headed by Sergio Arcacha Smith. Its military presence - Brigade 2506 - provided most of the muscle for the ill-fated Bay of Pigs Invasion in April 1961.
de Mohrenschildt, George Sergius: White Russian emigré George de Mohrenschildt [Wikipedia biography] arrived in the U.S. from Poland in 1938 and was granted U.S. citizenship in 1949. During the 1950s he cultivated contacts with Texas oil barons and settled in Fort Worth. He then entered the assassination story in 1962 when (following clearance by CIA officer J. Walton Moore) he befriended the Oswalds, helping LHO with his job hunting and Marina with her English. He committed suicide on 29th March 1977, within hours of receiving a summons to appear before the House Select Committee on Assassinations. Two days later Jeanne de Mohrenschildt gave said Committee a previously unknown print of one of the Backyard Photographs, CE-133A, with two handwritten dedications on the reverse. De Mohrenschildt's death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses". De Mohrenschildt's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Interview to camera (with wife) [YouTube it now].
de Mohrenschildt, Jeanne: One time (1953) business partner of dressmaker Abraham Zapruder, wife of White Russian emigré George de Mohrenschildt since 1959 Jeanne de Mohrenschildt [Spartacus Educational biography] was one of the few people to see the Mannlicher-Carcano before the assassination, placing her firmly on the Mannlicher-Carcano Thread. The sighting took place on 14th April 1963 when she and her husband dropped in on their apartment late one evening. While being shown around by Marina she saw a rifle in a closet, which she later more or less recognised as the alleged assassination weapon. Jeanne De Mohrenschildt's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Interview to camera (with husband) [YouTube it now].
DePugh, Robert: [Read firstly the entry for Discarding Sabot] A few days after the assassination a friend of right wing activist Robert DePugh [no convenient biography] sent him a used sabot said to have been found in Dealey Plaza. DePugh would later have this trophy impounded as evidence by the FBI, and never returned. He told his story on the Stan Major radio show.
de Torres, Bernardo: [a.k.a. Leopoldo] Cuba-born Miami-based anti-Castro militant and CIA operative Bernado de Torres [Spartacus Educational biography] was Brigade 2506's Chief of Intelligence for the Bay of Pigs Invasion. He was captured and held until ransomed by the U.S. government in late 1962, whereupon he became a member of INTERPEN. In his 2017 book "Killing Kennedy" Steven Hager placed him as a "photographer" in Dealey Plaza, although on precisely whose behalf was not stated. De Torres would later work with Jim Garrison during his 1967 conspiracy investigation, at a time that witnesses such as David Ferrie and Eladio del Valle were being silenced and fruitless dead-ends abounded. Garrison eventually concluded that de Torres was part of a CIA operation to disrupt the investigation.
Deveraux, Johnny Mitchell: An obscure player named Johnny Deveraux [no convenient biography] may have been involved in the patsification of LHO in Mexico City. He will also be named in due course in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so outer sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination.
Devine, Thomas J.: CIA officer Thomas Devine [Spartacus Educational biography] had been involved with George H. W. Bush in 1953 during the setting up of Bush's Zapata Oil.
Diaz Garcia, Herminio: Bodyguard/assassin from the Santo Trafficante stable Herminio Diaz Garcia [Spartacus Educational biography] would be one of the two colleagues identified by Tony Cuesta as having been a three-man shooting team in Dallas (the third being Eladio del Valle). He was named again in 2007 by Reinaldo Martinez Gomez.
Diem, Ngo Dinh: South Vietnamese politician Ngo Dinh Diem [Wikipedia biography] was U.S.-backed President of South Vietnam until assassinated during CIA-backed Duong Van Minh's coup d'état on 2nd November 1963. One of the CIA men close to the action (overseeing his first Presidential assassination that month, and himself protégé of the National Security Council's Walt Rostow) was Dealey Plaza's Edward Lansdale.
DiEugenio, James: Assassination researcher Jim DiEugenio [Spartacus Educational biography] first hit the bookshelves with his 1992 book "Destiny Betrayed: JFK, Cuba, and the Garrison Case", now available in a much-updated 2012 Second Edition. DiEugenio is also responsible for the 2013 book "Reclaiming Parkland" which appears to be a counter-counterintelligence attack on the debunking efforts of the shallow and apologetic 2013 movie "Parkland" [see separate entry].
Dillard, Thomas C.: Photographer Tom Dillard [no convenient biography] was in Camera #3, front seat, right. took two photographs at the time of the assassination, one of which, upon subsequent enhancement, appear to show a man's face at the west window of TSBD6. However in the commonly available online reproductions of this image this area of the facade has been cropped, so - since it has been suggested elsewhere that this is Loy Factor's window - there is still a lot of work to be done on this story. Dillard's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Dinkin, Eugene B.: The story goes that U.S. Army signals operator Eugene Dinkin [no convenient biography] had been on duty at Metz, France, on 2nd November 1963 when he intercepted a message from a CIA officer to a mob contact in Marseilles offering a contract for their ace hitman, referred to be the codename QJ/WIN [q.v.], and stating the target as JFK later in the month. Dinkin duly reported the intercept to his superiors, and the next thing he knew was that they were taking steps to declare him mentally ill. He managed to get off a letter to Attorney General RFK warning him of the threat to his brother before being arrested on 13th November and transferred to Bethesda for treatment. [Our verdict - genuine core incident followed by major disinfo follow-up with re-education of the witness.]
Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil (DRE): [Codename AMSPELL] Founded in Cuba in the mid-1950s the DRE [Wikipedia briefing] was moved to Miami, FL, after the Castro revolution and taken over by the CIA as an anti-Castro front organisation run by George Joannides. In the present context its allocated role was to publicise LHO's pro-Castro links as early as possible after the assassination, as explained in the entry for Carlos Bringuier. Browse the LHO Patsification Thread for the integrated story.
DISC: See Defense Industrial Security Command.
Discarding Sabot: [French word for "wooden clog", pronounced "sab-oh"] In the world of ballistics, a sabot is usually a cylindrical outer casing which allows an undersized projectile to be fired from a given gun barrel. See one here ...
The term is noteworthy in the present context because if you encased a spent 6.5mm bullet in a .30-06 sabot you could use a common-or-garden American rifle to fire one of the much rarer Mannlicher-Carcano bullets; and if that 6.5mm bullet had already been fired you would preserve its prior markings. Sabots, in short, are ideal for framing someone.
ASIDE: Sabots have been under discussion in the histories since the notion was first raised in Jim Marrs' 1987 book "Crossfire". Other names for this trick of firing undersized bullets are "husking" or "wildcatting".
Disinfo: "False information spread deliberately to deceive" (Wikipedia). Hager (2017) likens disinfo to anti-missile chaff [Wikipedia briefing], because it interferes with the figure-ground processing so vital to visual perception (that is to say, it stops a target emerging clearly from its background).
Division Five: Purportedly a clandestine division of the FBI responsible for "special assignments and assassinations", including counterespionage and intelligence gathering. Fronted by William Sullivan and with such as Major Louis Bloomfield on its payroll, it may or may not have officially included an assassinations function, but operations to that end would have been easy to arrange unofficially even if it had not. The work of Division Five is alluded to in many histories.
"Doctor Strangelove": [Read firstly the entry for Burris Memorandum] "Arguably the best political satire of the century", this movie [Wikipedia filmography] by Stanley Kubrick (Director/Screenplay) and Terry Southern (Screenplay) depicts a U.S. first strike nuclear attack on the Soviet Union "in late 1963" (the movie was to have gone on release 22nd November 1963, but this was put back to 29th January 1964 for obvious reasons following the assassination). Curtis LeMay has been critically identified in the movie as both Jack Ripper and Buck Turgidson. For further study see Schlosser's (2014 [FULL TEXT ONLINE]) fifty year retrospective entitled "Almost Everything in 'Dr. Strangelove' Was True", and then play yourself to sleep.
Dodd Hearings: Yale-trained lawyer, one-time FBI Special Agent, and Nuremberg Trials prosecutor Senator Thomas Dodd's hearings concerning the law on the interstate sales of firearms began taking evidence on 29th January 1963. According to the La Fontaines in their 1996 book "Oswald Talked", the suppliers of LHO's revolver and rifle, Seaport Traders and Klein's Sporting Goods, respectively, both came under scrutiny during the year.
Dodd, Thomas J.: Senator Thomas Dodd [Wikipedia biography] chaired the Dodd Hearings [q.v.], one of the important antecedents to the Gun Control Act, 1968.
Dominguez Martinez, Angel: See the entry for Miguel Casas Saez.
Donovan, William ["Wild Bill"] Joseph: Decorated WW1 veteran and head of the OSS during WW2 William Donovan [Wikipedia biography] worked closely with Allen Dulles in the late 1940s and became Ambassador to Thailand in 1953. He retired a year later and died in 1959. He is noteworthy in the present context as a possible associate of Dr. Alton Ochsner during WW2, at which time Ochsner was setting up his Ochsner Clinic in New Orleans.
Dorman, Elsie: Employed in the Scott, Foresman Company area of TSBD4, Elsie Dorman [no convenient biography] was filming the Presidential motorcade from a window when the shooting took place, in the company of fellow-workers Sandra Styles, Elsie Dorman, and Victoria Adams. She took 24 seconds of film - the only film on the day taken from inside the TSBD - and then took it home and hid it in a cupboard. After her death her son donated it to the Sixth Floor Museum in 1995, but as it turned out she was no Cecil B. de Mille - YouTube it now (it was her husband's camera and it was her first time at the eyepiece). Dormans' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED];
Douglas, Daniel Wayne: According to the La Fontaines' 1996 book "Oswald Talked", car thief Daniel Douglas [no convenient biography] was coincidentally on his way onto DPDHQ to confess to a car theft. With more important things to worry about, DPD duly placed Douglas in a triplex holding cell, specifically F-1, where he would shortly be joined by John Elrod (Cell F-3) and LHO (Cell F-2). To save duplication, the conclusion of this story is told in the entry for Elrod.
Douglass, James W.: Assassination researcher James Douglass [no convenient biography] took a world-historic perspective on JFK's incomplete term as POTUS for his 2008 book "JFK and the Unspeakable", arguing that WHY things happened as they did was just as important as HOW. This required him to re-shake the evidence box, and this, in turn threw new emphasis on a number of hitherto overlooked incidents. See, for example, the story of Abraham Bolden. The story is well trailed in an accompanying video promotion [YouTube it now].
Douthitt, Melody Jane: Lawyer Melody Douthitt [no convenient biography] represented Mary Bledsoe during her testimony to the Warren Commission, and is suspected by some of conveniently organising what her client had to say.
Downey, William T.: Dallas resident Bill Downey [no convenient biography] was at the corner of Main Street and Houston when the motorcade passed by, and personally heard the shooting from the direction of the TSBD. Later that weekend, BEFORE LHO had himself been shot, he had a phone call from his friend, and Ruby's flatshare, George Senator, offering to cook breakfast. He declined the offer, but as soon as he heard the news of Jack Ruby's shooting tried to ring Senator back. Senator, however, was already on his way to DPDHQ.
Doyle, Harold: Bona fide innocent tramp Harold Doyle [YouTube denial] was one of the Three Tramps in the Mary la Fontaine documenting of the Three Tramps Thread.
Doyle, James: Apparently no more than an innocent 16-year-old tourist James Doyle [no convenient biography] conveniently chanced to take home movie footage 9th August 1963 of LHO distributing Fair Play for Cuba flyers in New Orleans - YouTube it now (clip #540540_1_1) [not bad for a beginner!!], thus earning himself a place on the LHO Patsification Thread.
DPDHQ: Our abbreviation for Dallas Police Department Headquarters in 1963, namely the Municipal Building Annex, formally at 2014 Main Street, and about a mile east of Dealey Plaza. This 1956 Annex was/is next door to and connected internally with the rear of the older Municipal Building [colloquially, "City Hall"], formally at 106 South Harwood. The main facade of City Hall faces West onto a park. The Annex straddles the full block to its rear (east), and possesses near-identical 1950s facades facing north onto Main and south onto Commerce. The car park likewise straddles the full block to the rear (east) of that, and it is across this car park that Jack Ruby strolled at 1116hr 24th November 1963 from the Western Union office to the unguarded doorway into the Annex which allowed him unauthorised access to the garage basement where at 1121hr he murdered LHO - YouTube the Tom Meros reconstruction now.
Droby, Costine A.: According to researcher Bill Sloan in his 1993 book "Breaking the Silence", after the 24th November 1963 arrest of Jack Ruby a reporter for the Long Beach Press Telegram named Bill Hunter, together with another newsman named Jim Koethe, visited Jack Ruby's flat along with Ruby's flatshare George Senator in the presence of three of Ruby's lawyers, Jim Martin, Tom Howard, and C. A. Droby [no convenient biography], ostensibly to find a photograph of Ruby which the newsmen could use. Senator had been at DPD all afternoon and was no doubt feeling under some strain, but it is not apparent that anything deeply sinister happened on that occasion. Nevertheless within two years the two reporters and one of the lawyers had either been murdered or else died very conveniently. We may safely presume that these three continued to probe just a little too deeply. Droby died of natural causes in 1991.
Dudley M. Hughes Funeral Home: Crewed by Clayton Butler and Eddie Kinsley the ambulance which had Patrolman J. D. Tippit's body en route to Parkland Hospital before the first police arrived was provided by the nearby Dudley M. Hughes Funeral Home.
Dudman, Richard Beebe: Iowa born columnist for the St. Louis Post-Dispatch Richard Dudman [Wikipedia biography] was an early doubter of the official JFK narrative. In a 1st December 1963 article entitled "Confession of an Eyewitness" he reported personally seeing a bullet hole in the windshield of limo #1 while he was waiting outside Parkland Hospital. He also passed on convincing early hearsay reports that JFK's throat wound was an entry wound.
Dugan, Joseph P.: In Rod Mac Kenzie( and Hooke)'s 2016 analysis of the assassination Chicago-based wet-team clean-up specialist Joe Dugan [no convenient biography] was back-up man for Jack Grimm, and responsible for sanitising the Holland Road Safehouse.
Dugard, Martin: Journalist and author Martin Dugard [Wikipedia biography] was second author (to Bill O'Reilly) of the 2012 JFK best-seller "Killing Kennedy: The End of Camelot".
Dulles, Allen: OSS agent turned political aide Allen Dulles [Wikipedia biography] became the first civilian Director of the CIA on 26th February 1953. He then played a major role on the international stage throughout the 1950s, culminating in the failed Bay of Pigs invasion in April 1961. He then played his part in support of the military-industrial complex in the plots to kill Fidel Castro and the blundered operation against JFK - see the JFK False Flag Thread. He then had himself included on the Warren Commission so that he could declare himself innocent.
Duran, Alfredo Joaquin Gonzalez: 27-year-old fugitive from the Castro Revolution Alfredo Gonzalez Duran [Wikipedia biography] had been a Brigade 2506 member and had been captured in the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion. He would then be placed in Dealey Plaza at the time of the assassination - YouTube him?? in Dealey Plaza now. However since 1993 he has campaigned for a peaceful resolution to the Cuba issue.
***** "Silvia Duran is a key to the JFK assassination" *****
Duran, Silvia: 26-year-old receptionist at the Cuban Consulate, Mexico City, Silvia Duran [Spartacus Educational biography] entered the assassination narrative at 1100hr on 27th September 1963 when either LHO or an LHO Look Alike applied at her desk for a transit visa so that he could stay in Cuba for a short period and then fly out to the Soviet Union. This would only be possible, she told him, if the onward flight was itself guaranteed, which meant that the applicant would need a prior visa from the Soviet Embassy. So the applicant went to the Soviet Embassy, who explained that Soviet visas needed to be approved by their embassy in DC, and that that could take months. The applicant went back to the Consulate and told Duran things would be sorted straight away. Duran rang the Embassy who told her the applicant was perfectly aware of the situation. Duran and the applicant then argued, and he left. All these comings and goings were, of course, photo-recorded, and all calls tapped. As for what happened next, browse the Mexico City Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story.
Easterling, Robert Wilfred: Mississippi born lifelong criminal Robert Easterling [Spartacus Educational biography] was not in Dallas at the time of the assassination, but - if the later stories about him are to be believed - might well have been. After a further 12 years in and out of prison and mental institutions, and drifting here and there in the southern states and Central America, he contacted the FBI in 1975 because, he said, he knew something about the JFK assassination. The FBI came and took note of what he had to say, but nothing came of it. Easterling then contacted Edward Epstein's researcher Henry C. Hurt, Jr. [q.v.], telling the following tale ...
THE EASTERLING CONFESSION: Easterling claimed that he was approached in February 1963 by one "Manuel Rivera", a sometimes anti- sometimes pro-Castro activist who was at that moment part of a broader Texas oil conspiracy being set up David Ferrie, Clay Shaw, and Jack Ruby to assassinate JFK. The man had claimed involvement in an early CIA bomb plot against Castro, only to warn him off at the last moment. He had also given Castro advance warning of the Bay of Pigs Invasion. "Rivera" then showed off "a magnificent Czech-made [semi-]automatic rifle" (Hurt, 1985, p356) and a Mannlicher-Carcano. They spent time the next afternoon shooting the latter weapon into water and harvesting the largely undamaged slugs. "Rivera" then practised three-shot riffs against a line of coconut "heads" using the semi-automatic, scoring three hits in "a little over five seconds". A few weeks later "Rivera" enlisted him into the assassination proper, showing him how the 7.00mm rounds for the semi-automatic rifle had been made frangible by having slits cut into their metal jacket [WOULD A PREMATURE FRAGMENTING HAVE SOUNDED LIKE THE OFT-REPORTED "FIRECRACKER"?]. "Rivera", using the semi-automatic, would be a/the shooter, he explained, but he needed a back-up person, and that was where he - Easterling - would come in. The conspiracy also needed a driver to get the proposed patsy - a certain LHO - out of Dallas after the event, so that he could be permanently silenced. See also the entry for ZH-29.
Echevarria, Homer S: Homer Echevarria [no convenient biography] was the Cuban exile who claimed foreknowledge of an assassination during the Thomas Moseley [q.v.] sting operation.
Egerter, Ann: Long term CIA/Special Investigations Group (SIG) administrator Ann Egerter [no convenient biography] reported to James Angleton and confirmed to the 1976-1978 House Select Committee on Assassinations that she had personally opened a 201/SIG file on LHO on 9th December 1960, the purpose of which file could only be the monitoring of a CIA operative who had come under suspicion. Browse the LHO as CIA Man Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Eisenhower, President Dwight David: WW2 veteran Dwight D. Eisenhower [Wikipedia biography] was POTUS 1953-1961, and in March 1960 instructed the CIA to destroy Cuba's Castro Regime, in which enterprise they should feel free to buy in Mafia assets and/or use covert paramilitary intervention. He is noteworthy for his farewell address on 17th January 1961 in which he warned in the clearest of terms of having "an immense military establishment and a large arms industry" - a "military-industrial complex" - seeking "unwarranted influence". Well that military-industrial complex did for JFK, sure enough, and RFK after him, so we guess he was probably right.
Elkins, Harold E.: Dallas County Sheriff's Deputy Harold Elkins [no convenient biography] was with other officers outside the Main Street entrance to the Sheriff's Office when the shooting took place, and immediately made his way to the railway yard and parking lots beyond the Grassy Knoll. He helped secure the area, and took the descriptions of two recently departed suspicious vehicles from Lee Bowers in the Railyard Tower. He then helped manage the crowd of witnesses outside the TSBD, before, "a while later", helping to escort "three prisoners" [now known as the Three Tramps] to Captain Will Fritz. Elkins' evidential profile is as follows: Initial Report, 26th November 1963 [read it here]; Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Ellis, Sergeant Stavis ["Steve"]: DPD motorcycle outrider Stavis Ellis [Dallas Morning News obituary, 2005] was left-most of the vee of five "lead" motorcycles, in front of limo #1. He visually witnessed the first of three shots from his outrider position, seeing it strike the south kerb of Elm Street. He only heard the next two shots. Ellis' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Ellsworth, Frank: [Read firstly the entries for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms and Fort Hood Arms Thefts] ATD investigator Frank Ellsworth [no convenient biography] had just emerged from a meeting with Ed Coyle and James Hosty at around 1145hr on the morning of the assassination. He would eventually be cited in the La Fontaines' 1996 book "Oswald Talked" as having learned during the afternoon searches of the TSBD on 22nd November 1963 that the Mannlicher-Carcano had been found one or two floors below TSBD6, not on it.
Elrod, John Franklin: [Sometimes "The Fourth Tramp"] As recorded by the La Fontaines in their 1996 book "Oswald Talked", John Elrod [no convenient biography] was a 30-year-old unemployed cook arrested during the immediate post-assassination sweep of the Dallas railyards, and then detained in the DPDHQ holding cells for some hours in the afternoon of Friday 22nd November 1963 along with LHO and Daniel Douglas. Douglas had cell #1 in the triplex, LHO had #2, and Elrod had #3. The three prisoners were free to talk to each other through the dividing bars. The most significant event was then the arrival of a man now known as Lawrence Miller, but then best identified by the serious facial injuries suffered in the Thunderbird Crash, who passed by in the corridor. LHO later confided to Elrod that he had seen the man before, in a motel room, where he had received cash from a certain Jack Ruby to drive a blue Ford Thunderbird loaded with stolen guns. And as the La Fontaines point out with no little gravity: "If Oswald knew Ruby [on the afternoon of 22nd November] a conspiracy [...] is a virtual certainty" (p. 397). Elrod kept LHO's confidence to himself for a year, but then on 11th August 1964, troubled by hostile feelings toward his estranged wife, he presented himself as a "domestic" case at the Shelby County Sheriff's Office, Memphis, for help. However, once talking he told his Dallas story as well, and when he got to the bit about Jack Ruby, whose ongoing trial was daily in the news, Shelby County were on to the FBI like a shot. To cut a long story short, neither the FBI nor the Warren Commission wanted to know, because an assassination conspiracy was not the theory of the day; DPDHQ even conveniently lost Elrod's arrest record. Unbelieved, but now fearing for his life, Elrod went dark until researchers caught up with him in 1996. This 1996 video finishes the story.
Elsbeth Apartment: The accommodation at 604 Elsbeth Street, Dallas, where LHO and Marina Oswald lived between 3rd November 1962 and 3rd March 1963. The building would be demolished for redevelopment in January 2013, after failed attempts to have it declared a museum.
English, Joseph M.: Described in Marrs and Schuster's (2002, full text online) listing of possibly maliciously hastened demises as the "Former head of FBI Forensic Sciences Laboratory" Joseph English [Washington Post obituary], who had overseen the testing of the Sniper's Nest Mannlicher-Carcano and LHO's .38" Smith and Wesson revolver, died from a heart attack on 29th October 1977, aged 61. Donald Jeffries, in his 2014 book "Hidden History" notes that this was shortly before he was to testify before the House Select Committee on Assassinations.
Epstein, Edward J.: Early assassination researcher Edward J. Epstein [Spartacus Educational biography] published "Inquest: The Warren Commission and the Establishment of Truth" in 1966, in which he is one of the first to suggest in print that more than one shooter was involved. Then, on 29th March 1977, as he was interviewing George de Mohrenschild, the latter received summons to appear before the House Select Committee on Assassinations and promptly committed suicide. Epstein reportedly used one Henry C. Hurt, Jr. [q.v.] as researcher.
Ernest, Barry: Assassination researcher Barry Ernest [no convenient biography] re-interviewed Victoria Adams and other TSBD employees for his 2013 book "The Girl on the Stairs". His well-argued conclusion is that Adams' evidence was deliberately belittled by the FBI because it did not fit the official narrative. The story is well trailed in an accompanying radio promotion [YouTube it now].
Ernst, ["Crooked John"] John: In Rod Mac Kenzie( and Hooke)'s 2016 analysis of the assassination El Paso-based some-time hitman John Ernst [no convenient biography, but some delightful background detail in Francis (2013)] was, with Clyde Foust and Charles Harrelson, part of a three-man shooting team paid for by H. L. Hunt and assigned to the western end of the John Neely Bryan Pergola. Reported to have left Dallas by Greyhound bus.
Escalante, Fabian: Fabian Escalante [Spartacus Educational biography] was head of Fidel Castro's G-2 Counterintelligence Service, and features in the entry for Antonio Cuesta.
Estes, Billy Sol: Texas bentrepreneur Billy Sol Estes [Spartacus Educational biography] began to allege in 1980 that the assassination had been funded by a consortium of Texas oilmen, including LBJ.
Euins, Amos Lee: [sometimes incorrectly as Eunis or Eunice] 15-year-old schoolboy Amos Euins [no convenient biography] not only got a wave from JFK near the turn onto Elm Street but, looking up, saw "some kind of pipe" poking out of the Sniper's Nest window on TSBD6. He described the first shot as a "backfire", and then looking at the weapon when the second shot was fired. Euins' evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit, 22nd November 1963; Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Interviews to camera [YouTube them now].
Ewell, Jim: Having just covered the motorcade's departure from Love Field, Dallas Morning News crime beat reporter Jim Ewell [no convenient biography] was returning to the pressroom at DPDHQ to telephone through his copy. To avoid congestion he had skirted Downtown and was coming into Dealey Plaza from the west, past the Trade Mart. He first saw the lead vehicles of the motorcade a few hundred yards west of the Triple Underpass, at speed now, and strung out. As he passed under the Underpass on Commerce he saw "people running in every direction". He then drove the remaining mile to DPDHQ, arriving in the car park just as Sergeant Gerald Hill [q.v.] was leaving. He immediately swapped cars and was back outside the TSBD shortly afterward. While Hill was inside he observed from Houston and Elm, soon witnessing him brandishing the chicken box out of the window [SO MUCH FOR HIS LATER-MUCH-VAUNTED INTEREST IN THE PRESERVATION OF A CRIME SCENE]. Then the call came through announcing officer down in Oak Cliff and he was able to hitch a second ride, this time with Captain Bill Westbrook; and after ten minutes at that scene he was able to hitch a third ride to the Texas Theater, where he managed to be looking down from the balcony when Maurice McDonald detained LHO. Here is the scene in his own words ...
"Then I saw the fight that broke out. First, Nick was shouting, and then there was just a swarm of officers that came in. What I’m describing is what appeared to be a football play from above. John Toney remembered that some officer screamed out that they were breaking his arm. Another officer, Paul Bentley, the Chief Polygraph Examiner for the Dallas Police Department, who was well known to us all, came out of there with a broken ankle. What I saw rather astounded me. Someone was trying to hold the barrel of a shotgun, or train the barrel of a shotgun down among the heads of these officers. I thought, “What’s he going to do with the shotgun?” [TRYING TO SAVE JACK RUBY THE JOB?] I didn’t know what was going on, but this person was holding a shotgun; I did see that. And it all happened in a matter of seconds!" (Ewell, 1998 [full text online]).
Exhibit 2064 (Warren Commission): The Warren Commission's Exhibit 2064 [read it now ABSOLUTELY RIVETING] contains eight pages of closely typed notes prepared by Dallas postal inspector Harry Holmes as part of a four-person interrogation of LHO between 0925hr and 1110hr on Sunday 24th November 1963. The other three members of the interrogating team were Captain Will Fritz (DPD), Special Agent Forrest Sorrels (FBI Chief, Dallas), and Inspector Thomas Kelley (Secret Service, Head of the Presidential bodyguard). LHO was shot to death by Jack Ruby eleven minutes after the interrogation finished.
Exner, Judith: In one of his less cerebral moments JFK bedded looker Judith Exner [Wikipedia biography], girlfriend of mob boss Sam Giancana. The FBI, of course, quietly spectated. In their 1981 book "Fatal Hour" G. Robert Blakey and Richard Billings go on record as follows: "White House telephone records indicated seventy instances of contact" (p62). J. Edgar Hoover met with the President on 22nd March 1962 and explained the security risks in all this and the phone contacts ceased forthwith; but politically at least JFK henceforth owed him one.
Factism: A recent phenomenon within the world of social media (but of course far older in the positively ancient art of propaganda), by which the truth of even the simplest black-and-white proposition gets argued about, but only because those arguing are being goaded into arguing by this or that dark sponsor behind the scenes. Without in any way accusing him of factism, we have derived this term - by extension - from Conspiracy Theorist George Freund 's proud description of himself as a "Factist". Well and truly on the WW3 Online Now Thread.
*************** PROBABLE FRONT-LINE SHOOTER ****************
Factor, Lawrence Lloyd ["Loy"]: Oklahoma-born WW2 veteran (brain-injured) handy man and one of life's serial blunderers Loy Factor [Spartacus Educational biography] entered the JFK story on 18th November 1961 when he and his wife attended the state funeral of Sam Rayburn at Bonham, TX. In the crowd that day a stranger named Mac Wallace engaged him in conversation and seemed very interested in the fact that he considered himself something of a marksman. When Wallace then mentioned that he might have a "job" for him one day Factor gave him his address, and they left it at that. A year or so later Wallace visited him at his home and tested his marksmanship very thoroughly by having him shoot at rocks: and, to cut a long story short, by the end of the day Factor had allowed himself to be talked into taking a $2000 down-payment as a long-range hitman for an as-yet-unspecified target. He was then picked up at very short notice on 20th November 1963 and driven to the Holland Avenue Safehouse in Dallas, where he became part of Wallace's TSBD6 shooting team.
*****At this point divert and read the Mark Collom entry.*****
Factor duly featured in Glen Sample and Mark Collom's 1995 book, "The Men on the Sixth Floor", where he is profiled as support man for a two-shooter/one radio operator team consisting of Mac Wallace, LHO, and Ruth Martinez. Factor died 5th May 1994 of natural causes. Two months previously, in his final videotaped interview by Glen Sample, he insisted that the team had given him a rifle that he had taken station at the west-most window on TSBD6 [the one conveniently cropped from the Thomas Dillard photographs - Ed.], but that he had not fired it. This accords with Captain Will Fritz having ejected an unfired cartridge from the rifle recovered at TSBD6. More recently, in Rod Mac Kenzie( and Hooke)'s 2016 analysis of the assassination, Factor was listed #2 to Mac Wallace in a two-man team stationed on the 6th floor of the TSBD, and is credited with firing the first shot from a 7.65mm bolt-action Mauser rifle, but deliberately aiming it high to salve his conscience.
Fain, John: According to the La Fontaines in their 1996 book "Oswald Talked", John Fain [no convenient biography] was the FBI agent who had debriefed LHO upon this return from Soviet Russia.
Fair Play for Cuba Committee (FPCC): Established in New York City in 1960 the Fair Play for Cuba Committee [Wikipedia briefing] was a bona fide pro-Castro pressure group for left-wing intellectuals, not least James Baldwin and Jean-Paul Sartre. We are concerned here merely with its NOLA chapter, which by stark contrast seems to have been infiltrated by the CIA. Its flyers were routinely over-stamped with the contact details of the local activist, and in summer 1963 these stamps included "A. J. Hidell" at a P.O. Box, and LHO at either 544 Camp Street - next to Guy Bannister's office - or, later, 4907 Magazine Street. Any passers-by who showed sympathy with the cause went immediately into the authorities' little black book. Moreover, when LHO got an FPCC membership card dated 15th June 1963 and was then filmed handing out their flyers on 16th August 1963 he was being well and truly patsified (to cap matters off, Jack Ruby was even at the 23rd November 1963 DPDHQ Press Conference to make sure that the world's press got the Committee's name right - YouTube it here). Facing a wave of public hostility the FPCC disbanded itself 19th December 1963. LHO Patsification Thread.
False Flag: A false flag operation or attack or event is the very Prince of Black Ops relying, as it must, on the deliberate and wholly malicious falsification of agency. In everyday language, false flags are "fit-ups" [UK] or "frame-ups" [US]. The textbook false flag attack is the 1933 Reichstag Fire [Wikipedia briefing], where Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party burned down their own parliament building, but made it look to have been the work of their Communist Party rivals. Among the more or less certain high body count false flag attacks are (in date order) ...
1788 Puumala Incident (Started the Russo-Swedish War)
1931 Mukden Incident (Started the Second Sino-Japanese War)
1939 Gleiwitz Incident (Started WW2)
1963 JFK Assassination (Facilitated the Vietnam War)
1964 Gulf of Tonkin Incident (Started the Vietnam War)
2001 World Trade Center Attack (Started the Iraq War)
20?? The ?? Incident (2nd Korean War and - perhaps - Armageddon) - ANY DAY NOW
Faulkner, Jack W.: Dallas County Sheriff's Deputy Jack Faulkner [no convenient biography] was in the general gathering of deputies outside the Sheriff's Office as the motorcade went by. When the shooting started he joined "many officers" searching the railway area. He then went to assist A. D. McCurley and others in searching the TSBD from TSBD7 downward. Faulkner's evidential profile is as follows: Report 22nd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Favorito, Garland: Assassination researcher Garland Favorito [no convenient biography] fronted a 2013 video documentary which includes a good exposition of the Oswald Wallet Thread - YouTube it now.
FBI Division Five: See Division Five.
Feldsott, Louis: New York based sporting goods dealer Louis Feldsott [2017 obituary (aged 102 years)] was the President of Crescent Firearms, Inc., NYC, wholesaler of duly licensed imported rifles such as the Mannlicher-Carcano. In an affidavit dated 23rd July 1964 submitted to the Warren Commission [read it now] he stated that the FBI had contacted him on the day of the assassination about a Mannlicher-Carcano with the serial number C2766. He confirmed the sale to Klein's Sporting Goods, Inc., Chicago, on 18th June 1962. The FBI had then taken the documents away with them. Browse the Mannlicher-Carcano C2766 Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story. It may or may not be relevant that government agencies such as the FBI and ATF [=Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms] were, in 1963, looking for the Mister Bigs of the arms smuggling industry, and that FBI Agent James Hosty may have been using LHO as a field operative in just such an operation. [In the event, the Kennedy killing intensified this crack-down and resulted in the 1968 Gun Control Act - Ed.]
Ferrell, Mary Elizabeth McHughes: Dallas-based legal secretary turned assassination researcher Mary Ferrell [Wikipedia biography] was in the VIP Car (16th) of the motorcade (her own vehicle). She devoted the rest of her life [d. 2004] to uncovering the truth, and has left us the Mary Ferrell Database [website], a priceless political research resource.
Ferrie, David William: Heavily involved with the Louisiana Civil Air Patrol during the 1950's and presently working for NOLA's political right in their opposition to Fidel Castro's clean (and therefore unprofitable) Cuba, David Ferrie [Wikipedia biography] entered the assassination narrative in November 1963 when an employee of Guy Banister's named Jack Martin squealed to the NOLA police that Ferrie had been involved in nothing short of a major conspiracy to kill JFK. The FBI interviewed him, but eventually dismissed the allegations, and Ferrie was not called to testify before the Warren Commission. NOLA DA Jim Garrison, however, was less easily shaken off. He interviewed Martin in December 1966 at which time it was alleged that Ferrie and LHO had been working for Banister and helping to run guns to anti-Castro elements in Cuba. Ferrie was found dead at his home on 22nd February 1967. His autopsy was performed by Nicholas Chetta. It was not until the 1977 House Select Committee on Assassinations that a link between Ferrie and LHO was officially acknowledged.
Fetzer, James H.: Assassination researcher and academically responsible conspiracy theorist Jim Fetzer [Wikipedia biography] was the author of the 2000 book "Murder in Dealey Plaza". His discussion of discarding sabot [q.v.] ammunition has proven to be extremely promising.
Fiester, Sherry: The late CSI Analyst turned assassination researcher Sherry P. Fiester [no convenient biography, just lots of chatter] was the author of the 2012 book "Enemy of the Truth", in which she applied a lifetime's experience in criminological forensics to the Dealey Plaza CS [=crime scene]. In so doing she came up with a highly convincing argument that the Z313 headshot came not from atop the Grassy Knoll - or, to give it its more precise name, the North Knoll - but rather from its mirror-imaged counterpart - the South Knoll - at the other end of the Triple Underpass. This theory has attracted much online airtime ever since and deserves serious consideration.
*************** PROBABLE FRONT-LINE SHOOTER ****************
Files, James Earl: [a.k.a. James Sutton] Alabama born mobster James Files [Wikipedia biography] was - by his own assertion - behind the picket fence, and - again by his own assertion - delivered the destructive head shot using a .221" Remington Fireball XP-100 [YouTube one being fired]. In 1994, while serving time for attempted murder, he made these assertions to Dutch researcher Wim Dankbaar in a series of long video interviews and a 2008 follow-up book entitled "Files on JFK". The assertions, if you factor out the standard reluctance of one guilty party to incriminate another, are extremely convincing. In Rod Mac Kenzie( and Hooke)'s 2016 analysis of the assassination Files was indeed, along with J. D. Tippit and Roscoe White (both in uniform), part of a three-man shooting team assigned to the eastern end of the Picket Fence.
Finck, Colonel [U.S. Army] Pierre Antoine, MD: Military pathologist Colonel Pierre A. Finck [Spartacus Educational biography] was one of the three military medics who contributed to the JFK autopsy at the Bethesda Hospital between 2000hr on 23rd September 1963 and <time unrecorded> on <date unrecorded>. Browse the Medical Cover Up Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story. Finck's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Clay Shaw Trial testimony [read it now]; House Select Commission on Assassinations testimony [read it now]; Assassination Records Review Board testimony [read it now].
Fiorini, Frank Angelo: See the entry for Frank Sturgis.
Firing Line: [Very influential TV current affairs programme] See the entry for William F. Buckley.
Fisher, Deputy Chief of Police Newton T.: Deputy Chief of Police for the DPD Newton Fisher [no convenient biography] was head of DPD security at Love Field and, as such, confiscated evidential film from Jimmy Darnell.
Fitzgerald, Desmond: WW2 veteran, post-war CIA special operations, Chief of the Philippines Station in the mid-1950s, and Chief of the entire Far Eastern Division between 1957 and 1962, Desmond Fitzgerald [Wikipedia biography] would become the CIA's Director of Plans on 17th June 1965. His guiding philosophy was that if you could control the top families in a third world country then you could control the entire country (and with a C.V. like his, he can't have been far wrong).
Florer, Larry: Dealey Plaza bystander Larry Florer [no convenient biography] was arrested on camera outside the Dal-Tex Building after having been (wrongly) allowed to try to use one of the third floor telephones there. Florer's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit 22nd November 1963 [read it now]; Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Fonzi, Gaeton: [known to his friends as Ahab, because of his obsessive quest for the truth] Philadelphia born investigative journalist Gaeton Fonzi [Wikipedia biography] appears in the LaFontaine's 1996 book "Oswald Talked" as the "staff investigator" for Senator Richard Schweiker who delivered the House Select Committee on Assassinations' summons to the home of George de Mohrenschildt on the morning of 29th March 1977, following which de Mohrenschildt blew his brains out. He is also the author of the 1993 book "The Last Investigation". He died in 2012.
Forrest, Helen: [a.k.a. Mrs James Forrest] Mysterious Dealey Plaza spectator Helen Forrest [no convenient biography] featured in Michael Kurtz's 1982 book "Crime of the Century", and was there quoted as having witnessed, like Roger Craig, a man getting into a Nash Rambler station wagon. At the time of writing [February 2018], researchers have grown concerned that this report has never been corroborated. Browse the LHO Movements 22nd November Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Fort Detrich: The U.S. Army's centre of excellence for biological weapons research at Fort Detrick, MD was mentioned by Judyth Vary Baker as control centre for the Ochsner Clinic's research in the early 1960s into weaponised cancer.
Fort Hood: Military post at Killeen, TX [Wikipedia briefing], and the site of the Ford Hood Arms Thefts [q.v.].
Fort Hood Arms Thefts: In 1963, in an attempt to break the gun-running trade into Cuba, the FBI - specifically James Hosty - arranged with the army for an officer at Fort Hood - Captain George Nonte - to play crooked and arrange for arms and ammunition to go missing. Soon weapons were going missing by the truck load, and Hosty was doing his best to track down the mobsters involved. This was almost certainly the topic of the meeting on the morning of 22nd November 1963 between Hosty, ATF investigator Frank Ellsworth, and the 112th MIG military intelligence man Ed Coyle. However for whatever reason the ATF were not totally in the decision making loop because Ellsworth did not yet know that Nonte was only playing villain. The thefts, and the broader investigation, are noteworthy in the present context because there is a decent possibility that LHO was out in the cold amongst the mobsters and the Cubans as an FBI informer. Browse the ATF Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story.
Foust, Clyde: In Rod Mac Kenzie( and Hooke)'s 2016 analysis of the assassination Texas mobster Clyde Foust [no convenient biography] was, with John Ernst and Charles Harrelson, part of a three-man shooting team paid for by H. L. Hunt and assigned to the western end of the John Neely Bryan Pergola.
Fowler, Clayton: Dallas lawyer Clayton Fowler [no convenient biography] would be Jack Ruby's defence lawyer during his murder trial. Fowler died 22nd March 1971 aged 49. His death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".
Fox, James K.: Secret Service photographic expert James Fox [no convenient biography] received a copy of the Bethesda autopsy photographs from JFK's personal physician George Burkley, and was recommended by Roy Kellerman to "make a set for yourself - they'll be history someday" (Kurtz, 1993, xiv). He did, and they are. In 1981 Fox, by then retired, approached assassination researcher Mark Crouch and passed his copies on (the originals are the National Archive, but still sealed), on condition they would not be published until after his death. Fox died in 1987 and the material duly was duly featured in the 1988 edition of David Lifton's book "Best Evidence" - See JFKLance Slideshow. Fox would later inform researcher James Fetzer that on 6th or 7th December 1963 the Secret Service deliberately destroyed a number of photographs and X-Rays of medical evidence (Fetzer, 2000).
Fox, Martin and Pedro: Until it was closed down by the more ascetic Castro Regime in 1959 the Fox Brothers ran the Tropicana Casino-Nightclub in Havana, Cuba. They reputedly had close business links with Tampa mobster Santo Trafficante.
"Francisco": See the entry for "Francisco Rivera".
Frazier, Buell Wesley: Irving resident and fellow TSBD worker Buell Frazier [Spartacus Educational biography] entered the assassination history when, as a recent neighbour of Ruth Paine in Irving, he gave LHO his recently customary (after six or seven weeks of same) once-a-week lift to work on the morning of 22nd November 1963. His critical testimony was that on this occasion LHO had with him a blanket-wrapped bundle which he explained away as containing "curtain rods", but which the official story has as the assassination weapon, namely the Mannlicher-Carcano rifle. Frazier is thus central to the Mannlicher-Carcano Thread. His evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit, 22nd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [Part #1; Part #2]; Clay Shaw Trial testimony [read it now]; Dramatised Mock Trial, 1992 [You Tube it now]; 2013 retrospective with fellow witness Hugh Aynesworth [YouTube it now].
Frazier, Robert A.: FBI Special Agent Robert Frazier [no convenient biography] was one of the three-man FBI Lab ballistics team (the others being Cortlandt Cunningham and Charles Killion) who examined limo #1 after it had been flown back to DC. He was also involved on the chain of possession of CE-399, the famous Magic Bullet. He would also play a large part - along with photographic expert Lyndal Shaneyfelt - in the full-scale forensic re-enactment of the shooting which took place in Dealey Plaza on 24th May 1964. YouTube him now. Frazier's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [part #1; Part #2; Part #3]; Clay Shaw trial testimony [read it now]. Browse the Magic Bullet Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Freund, George: Conspiracy Cafe host.
Fritz, Captain John Will: Texas-born head of the DPD's Homicide and Robbery Bureau 68-year-old Will Fritz [Spartacus Educational biography] was at the Dallas Trade Mart at the time of the shooting. He drove back to the TSBD within minutes, and was on site during the search of TSBD6, even ejecting a live - unfired - round from the 7.65 Mauser used by Loy Factor after it had been discovered over by the western window. He then returned to his office to oversee the handling of witnesses (including at least one of the two sets of Three Tramps).
Frugé, Francis: [Read firstly the entry for Rose Cherami.] Louisiana State Police Lieutenant Francis Frugé [no convenient biography] was the Eunice, LA, officer who on 21st November 1963 delivered drug withdrawing Rose Cherami to the East Louisiana State Hospital, Jackson, LA, where psychiatrist Dr. Victor Weiss stabilised her. He then collected her on 26th November and escorted her to Houston for further questioning.
Future of Freedom Foundation (FFF): Founded in 1989 by Jacob Hornberger the Future of Freedom Foundation [Homepage] is a right of centre but nevertheless generally sensible and trustworthy educational foundation. It maintains a valuable online archive of articles, as well as regularly publishing top quality YouTube documentaries - Check one out now.
Gabaldon, Guy Louis: WW2 veteran (U.S.M.C.) and hero, turned film actor and some-say right-wing activist with CIA and Mexico City connections Guy Gabaldon [Wikipedia biography] could fairly be described as "a short Latino", and appeared right out of nowhere in the histories to be named in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so inner sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination. [Our verdict - unconfirmed and not very frequently discussed online, so take a watching brief.]
Gammons, Steve: Expert in U.S. military administration systems Steve Gammons [no convenient biography] was the historian interviewed (in 1992) by the La Fontaines for their 1996 book "Oswald Talked". Gammons initially identified the "Buff ID Card" card as "a dependent's ID", as routinely issued to the families of military personnel to entitle them to use on-base cafeterias, and the like. LHO could not have had one, he said, because, as a reservist, he would have been entitled to a reservist's card, and they were different - red card, picture centre not left. However, he added as an afterthought, the buff cards were occasionally issued to "civilian personnel requiring military identification overseas" (p74).
Garner, Dorothy Ann: Employed in the Scott, Foresman Company area of TSBD4, supervisor Dorothy Garner [no convenient biography] was watching the Presidential motorcade from a window when the shooting took place, in the company of fellow-workers Sandra Styles, Elsie Dorman, and Victoria Adams. She initially reported that in her opinion the shots had come from the west of TSBD, perhaps from the County Records Building. This being inconvenient, her evidence was not called by the Warren Commission. Garner died in 2012. Her evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Interview by author Barry Ernest, 2011 [read it now].
Garrison, James Carothers: NOLA District Attorney, fearless crime-fighter, and late-life movie star Jim Garrison [Wikipedia biography] only entered the assassination story after LHO's links to New Orleans emerged during the Warren Commission enquiries. His investigations led to one Perry Russo, who told him he had once overheard an assassination planning meeting between Clay Shaw, David Ferrie, and LHO. This then prompted him to indict Clay Shaw (by then the only one of the three still alive) with conspiring to murder JFK. The trial took place in early 1969, and Shaw was declared not guilty. The investigation and trial was dramatised 20 years later by Oliver Stone his 1991 movie "JFK" [IMDB entry].
Gatlin, Robert Brooks, Sr.: NOLA attorney and right-wing activist Robert Gatlin [ISGP biography] was an associate of Guy Banister in the latter's CIA-funded support for Cuban exiles against the regime of Fidel Castro. Gatlin died/was killed 28th May 1965 falling from a 6th floor hotel balcony in San Juan, Puerto Rico. His death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".
Gaudet, William George: Anti-Castro pamphleteer and CIA officer William Gaudet [no convenient biography] was editor of the Latin American Newsletter, in which respect he maintained offices at Camp and Common, New Orleans. He now seems to have deliberately arranged to be in Mexico City at the same time as LHO, having been issued on 17th September 1963 with Mexican Tourist Card 824084, the one before that used by Oswald. And he knew him by sight, having observed him handing out his Fair Play for Cuba Committee leaflets in August. He would later testify to the House Select Committee on Assassinations that he had not encountered LHO on his trip; nor could he recall whether he had done any spying while in Mexico City.
Gearhart, Ira: Chief Warrant Officer Ira Gearhart [no convenient biography] was in Car #4 of the motorcade with Emory Roberts, and carried "the football" [that is to say, the Presidential nuclear authorisation codes - Ed.]. after the shooting - as narrated by Steven Gillon in his 2009 book "The Kennedy Assassination" - such was the confusion that Gearhart had great trouble staying on the shirt-tails of those who might need him at any moment.
Geb, Colonel Ralph: WW2 veteran (USAF) Colonel Ralph Geb [no convenient biography] had featured in the online chatrooms since around 2010 as a possible identification for the man in the Mexico City Soviet Embassy photograph [YouTube the CIA surveillance images now].
Gedney, John Forrester: Bona fide innocent tramp John Gedney [no convenient biography] was one of the Three Tramps in the Mary la Fontaine documenting of the Three Tramps Thread.
General Dynamics: Previously known as the Electric Boat Company, General Dynamics [Wikipedia briefing] was formed on 24th April 1952, with major facilities in Fort Worth, TX.
George, Peter Bryan: Welsh born WW2 veteran (RAF) Peter George [Wikipedia biography] wrote the 1958 best-selling thriller "Red Alert", in which a more than averagely hawkish ...
ASIDE: The publicity blurbs use terms like "mentally deranged". Not wishing to insult the genuinely deranged, we prefer the term "hawks" as explained in its Wikipedia etymology.
... USAF commander launches an unauthorised nuclear strike. The work was the inspiration for Stanley Kubrick's 1964 movie "Doctor Strangelove".
George, M. Waldo: Owner of the house at 214 West Neely Street, Waldo George [no convenient biography] rented the upstairs apartment to LHO and Marina Oswald from 2nd March 1963 to 2nd May 1963. Since the letting was not renewed he cleaned the apartment and padlocked it. He also checked the apartment again on the afternoon of 22nd November in case he had missed anything. Despite these two checks officer William Brookhart, when searching the property on 24th November, managed to turn up an American Bakeries pay stub in the name of James Jackson, the occupant before LHO. [Recent theories have suggested that Roscoe White had planted this evidence using a pass key.] George's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony (by affidavit) [read it now].
Giancana, Salvatore ["Sam [the Cigar]"]: Chicago-born and based don Sam Giancana [Wikipedia biography] was recruited by the CIA in September 1960 (along with Santo Trafficante) to direct gangland's impressive skills at arranging executions against a particularly troublesome political target of theirs, namely Fidel Castro. The CIA appointed Robert Maheu to liaise, and Giancana deputised Johnny Roselli. Giancana was executed CIA-gangland style in 1975, just before testifying to the Church Committee concerning these very arrangements.
Gilbride, Richard: Assassination researcher Richard Gilbride [no convenient biography] was author of the 2009 book "Matrix for Assassination".
Gimpel, Martin: Although he had died of a heart attack in Chicago the previous year, Jack Ruby's friend and business associate since the 1940s Martin Gimpel [no convenient biography] was included by name on the Larry Crafard list.
GloCo Gas Station: In the present context we refer here to the gas station at 1502 North Zangs Boulevard, at the northern perimeter of his Oak Cliff beat, where J. D. Tippit waited in his patrol car between about 1254 and 1300hr 22nd November 1963.
Glover, Antoinette: 11-year-old Toni Glover [no convenient biography] witnessed the assassination from atop the water feature pedestal in the crook of the Houston-Elm turn. Because she remembers limo #1 being obscured by the concrete pillar 20 feet to the west at the time of the first shot her evidence has helped 2012 researchers triangulate that vehicle's position at that moment. (So sometimes what you cannot see is as valuable as what you can see!)
Glover, Everett D.: Dallas petrochemist Everett Glover [no convenient biography] had known the de Mohrenschildts on and off for about five years (thanks to shared tennis interests), and Ruth Paine for perhaps a little longer (thanks to shared choir interests). While visiting the de Mohrenschildt home some time in winter 1962-1963 conversation had turned to Marina Oswald, and he was told that she and her husband "were not getting along", and that the de Mohrenschildts were trying to find her somewhere safe to stay. Then on three or four similar occasions "somewhere in January " he actually got to meet Marina. After that he met LHO twice, the first time at a social gathering at the de Mohrenschildt home, and the second time at a follow-on gathering at his own home. Ruth Paine was included in the latter so that she would be able to meet fellow Russian speaker Marina. Glover's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Gonzalez, Virgilio R.: Anti-Castro Cuban exile Virgilio Gonzalez [Wikipedia biography] has been suggested as a member of S-Force and as having taken part in Operation Tilt in June 1963, and is mentioned in some theories as having been the shooter in a Dal-Tex Building shooting team. In 1972 he would be one of the five men arrested during the Watergate Investigations.
Goodpasture, Anne: WW2 veteran with OSS service in Burma, CIA senior administrator Anne Goodpasture [Spartacus Educational biography] "looked like a librarian but had the skills of a burglar" (Morley, 2008). She had been aide to Winston Scott, CIA Chief of the Mexico City Station, since 1957, and was therefore perfectly placed to record the comings and goings of LHO (or someone impersonating him) in late summer 1963.
Gorightly, Adam: Self-styled "crackpot historian" Adam Gorightly [Homepage] has written on many things but is most noteworthy in the present context for his 2014 book "Caught in the Crossfire: Kerry Thornley, Oswald, and the Garrison Investigation", in which the possibility is discussed that Kerry Thornley played a greater-than-hitherto-suspected part in LHO's history, including, perhaps, as a body-double of convenience.
Goss, Porter Johnstone: CIA Directorate of Operations officer since about 1958 Porter Goss [Wikipedia biography] was involved in a number of missions against Cuba, working out of Miami much of the time. The literature identifies him as a likely member of the Operation 40 team.
Gottlieb, Sidney: [a.k.a. Joseph Scheider] Known more or less fondly as "The Black Sorcerer" Sidney Gottlieb [Wikipedia biography] was recruited into CIA "Technical Services" in 1953, and soon became an expert in the use of poisons and mind control in intelligence work and special operations. In this he reputedly inherited many techniques from Nazi scientists adopted by the U.S. during Operation Paperclip. The work was centred on Randolph AFB, San Antonio, TX, and was accounted for under the codename MKULTRA. Gottlieb's poisons cupboard included cardiac stressing agents capable of conveniently inducing heart attacks.
Graef, John G.: Employed as "director of our photographic department" at Jaggars-Chiles-Stovall, John Graef [no convenient biography] was LHO's supervisor during his time there (12th October 1962 thru 6th April 1963). Graef's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Grammer, Billy R.: DPD officer Billy Grammer [no convenient biography] had been on DPDHQ Communications Room duty on the evening of 23rd November 1963 when a call came in from someone whose voice he knew, but could not quite place. The caller said, simply: "We are going to kill Lee Harvey Oswald in the basement tomorrow". Knowing that the transfer arrangements had not yet been made public, Grammar realised that this was not just another of the evening's crank calls and motioned for a nearby Lieutenant to come listen in ...
*****At this point divert and read the Henry Putnam entry.*****
Toward noon the next morning Grammer's wife woke him to tell him that someone named Jack Ruby had just shot LHO exactly as the previous evening's caller had predicted. And now at last Grammer could place that caller's voice - as far as he could tell, it had been Jack Ruby. Grammer's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
ASIDE: Hurt (1985) suspects that Ruby had been instructed by some higher villain to silence LHO in the only possible way, whereupon Ruby - unable to say no and stay living himself - tried to engineer a failed mission instead. In another police department, on another day, it might have worked.
Grant, Allan: Life magazine society photographer Allan Grant [Wikipedia biography] teamed with reporter Thomas Thompson at the Paine House after the assassination, where they were the first newsmen to interview Marina Oswald [see one of his images].
Grant, Eva: Eva Grant [no convenient biography] was "certainly not with the underworld" Jack Ruby's older sister. Her evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission background testimony [Part #1; Part #2].
Grassy Knoll: [a.k.a. North Knoll] The grassy rise north of Elm Street between the John Neely Bryan Pergola and the Triple Underpass. [Note that Dealey Plaza is symmetrical north over south, and that both knoll and pergola therefore have southern equivalents south of Commerce. However, only the north knoll is topped by a picket fence - Ed.]
Graves, L. C.: DPD Detective L. C. Graves [New York Times obituary, 1995] was the officer who wrestled the gun from Jack Ruby in the moments after he had fired the shot which killed LHO.
Gray, Louis Patrick, III: WW2 veteran Patrick Gray [Wikipedia biography] replaced J. Edgar Hoover as Director of the FBI on 3rd May 1972.
Greer, William Robert: Secret Service Agent Bill Greer [Wikipedia biography] was one of two SS agents riding the front of Limo #1 (i.e., Motorcade #2, counting from the pilot vehicle) in the Dallas motorcade (driver's seat).
Griffin, William Hayden: Dallas FBI Agent Will Hayden Griffin [no convenient biography] would be accused in April 1964 of having leaked the fact that LHO had been an FBI informant prior to the assassination. He denied the allegation strenuously and signed a witnessed statement to that effect on 4th May 1964.
ASIDE: Because the FBI subsequently officially confirmed that LHO WAS TOO an informer at the Dallas office, receiving $200 per month for his efforts, we must take the present denial to mean merely that it had not been Griffin who had let the cat out of the bag.
Griffin's boss Gordon Shanklin copied Griffin's statement the same day directly to J. Edgar Hoover, and eight days later Hoover told the Warren Commission the downright misleading: "at no time was he [LHO] ever an employee of the Bureau in any capacity, either as an agent or as a special employee, or as an informant". Griffin retired the FBI on 1st January 1978, and the affair was discussed in the Dallas Morning News on 20th February 1978 in an article by Earl Golz [read it now].
Griggs, Ian: Long-term assassination researcher (and fellow Brit) Ian Griggs [Spartacus Educational biography] was the author of the 1997 paper entitled "The Four Faces of Harry D. Holmes", for more on which see the entry for Harry Holmes - AND IT'S WELL WORTH THE DIVERT.
Grimm, Jack F.: In Rod Mac Kenzie( and Hooke)'s 2016 analysis of the assassination one-time USMC demolition expert Jack Grimm [New York Times obituary, 1998] was the radio man for John Ernst, Clyde Foust, and Charles Harrelson at the western end of the John Neely Bryan Pergola.
Grinnan, Joseph P.: Right-wing activist Joseph Grinnan [no convenient biography] was the member of the Dallas chapter of the John Birch Society who designed the media protests against JFK in the run-up to his 22nd November 1963 visit. The most obvious outcome was the black-bordered full-page Welcome Mr. Kennedy advertisement in that day's issue of the Dallas Morning News. Grinnan's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Groden, Robert J: Photographic lab technician turned JFK author Robert Groden [Wikipedia biography] first entered the JFK story in 1969 when his employers were contracted to run off copies of the Zapruder Film, and he was part of the lab team. He instantly became convinced that the assassination had been a conspiracy and has continued his research ever since. His most original works are F. Peter Model and Robert J. Groden's 1975 book "JFK: The Case for Conspiracy", and Harrison E. Livingstone and Robert J. Groden's 1989 book "High Treason".
Groody, Paul Joseph: Forth Worth mortician Paul Groody [2010 obituary] reported years after the event that while holding LHO's body overnight 24th/25th November 1963 he had (a) allowed two "agents" access to the body for a short time, and then (b) had had to clean fingerprinting ink from the corpse's hands. He was also on hand at the body's 1981 exhumation. YouTube the full story.
Grossi, John Caesar: [a.k.a. Jack Bowen, John Leslie Bowen, etc.] As presented in the La Fontaine's 1996 book "Oswald Talked" convicted bank-robber with mob connections John Grossi [no convenient biography] was a co-worker of LHO during his employment at Jaggars-Chiles-Stovall. As a convicted felon he was an unlikely employee at a medium-security site [as, indeed, was LHO himself], and so could have been planted by someone to shadow him. Certainly the La Fontaine's report that Grossi "later claimed Oswald brought to work, and showed him, the Mannlicher-Carcano rifle he had supposedly ordered by mail under the alias 'A. Hidell'" (p112). More recently an online researcher has added to the enigma as follows: "I am sure it is just a coincidence that one of [Grossi's] aliases (last name) was the same as that gentleman itinerant minister that LHO met on the bus on his way to Mexico" (The Education Forum, Ostensibly Tim Gratz, 7th October 2007; Accessed 29th January 2018).
Guerini, Antoine: Marseilles crime boss Antoine Guerini [Spartacus Educational biography] appears in the Christian David Corsican Hit Team Thread, which see. Guerini was assassinated in a local turf war on 23rd June 1967.
Guevara, Ernesto ["Che"]: Cuban revolutionary Che Guevara [Wikipedia biography] fought as part of the Cuban Revolution and was the victor of the Battle of Santa Clara, 1st January 1959, which led to the replacement of President Fulgencio Batista's U.S.-friendly regime by the already alienated regime of Fidel Castro.
Guinn, Vincent Perrie: Vincent Guinn [University of California Obituary] was the university chemist who carried out the "neutron activation analysis" [Wikipedia technical briefing] on the bullets and fragments recovered from the assassination scene and the bodies of JFK and John Connally.
ASIDE FOR READERS UNFAMILIAR WITH NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY BUT FAMILIAR WITH THE TV SERIES "NCIS": Think Abby Sciuto, her lab, her mass spectrometer - much the same principles, but doesn't need a nuclear reactor in the basement.
However, in his 1982/1993 book "Crime of the Century" Michael Kurtz notes enough anomalies in Guinn's results to judge them of dubious scientific value.
Hager, Steven: Journalist, film-maker, and assassination theorist Steven Hager [Wikipedia biography] was the author of the 2017 book "Killing Kennedy: The Real Story", an attempt to distil a single conspiracy theory out of the many competing ones.
Haire, Bernard J.: Having come out of his shop next door but one to the Texas Theater to see why so many police cars had suddenly arrived, Dallas shopkeeper Bernard Haire [no convenient biography] chose to walk round the back to where it was less crowded, and there witnessed an LHO Look-Alike being taken out through the back door of the cinema and driven off in a police car. Indeed, he didn't even realise it was not LHO until 1987 when telling his story to researcher Jim Marrs, who then featured it in his 1987 book "Crossfire". Haire's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]. Browse the Balcony Arrest Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story.
Hall, Loran Eugene ["Skip"]: [a.k.a. Lorenzo Pacillo, "Leopoldo"] 33-year-old pro-Castro mercenary turned "radical right wing" operative Loran Hall [Spartacus Educational biography] was a mobster for Santo Trafficante, a CIA operative with INTERPEN, and one of the three men who met with Silvia Odio on 25th September 1963 (the others being Lawrence Howard and William Seymour). Hall refused "to say shit" to researcher Anthony Summers in 1975 (Summers, 2013e), and would in due course be named in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so inner sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination.
Hall, Patricia Puckett: See the entry in her maiden name, Patricia Puckett.
Hall, Richard D.: Working to the dictum that you should believe none of what you are told and only half what you see for yourself, investigative journalist Richard Hall [no convenient biography] maintains the well-respected Rich Planet social media site, which see.
Halpern, Sam: Long-standing CIA operative Sam Halpern [Spartacus Educational biography] had worked to Richard Bissell and Desmond Fitzgerald in the agency's 1961-1963 operations against Fidel Castro. When subsequently interviewed by the House Select Committee on Assassinations he insisted that much of the momentum for these operations actually came from RFK, using the argument "If you don't do it, I'll tell my big brother on you".
Hamilton, Nancy: Sometime heroin addict and prostitute, recently widowed, and soon-to-be-remarried [11th April 1964] manager-hostess at Jack Ruby's Carousel Club Nancy Perrin Hamilton [no convenient biography, but for lots of background value, click here] was the widow of murdered gun-runner Robert Perrin [no convenient biography, but for lots of background value, click here]. Her testimony painted a dismal picture of DPD, claiming that fully half the force (as well as Dallas County District Attorney Henry Wade) took "favours" at the Carousel Club in the form of liquor, gambling, and girls [to see Wade's denial of any link with Ruby, click here]. Hamilton's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony (under the name Nancy Perrin Rich) [read it now]; Interview to camera, by Mark Lane [YouTube it now].
Hancock, Larry: Assassination researcher Larry Hancock [Spartacus Educational biography] was author of the 2006 book "Someone Would Have Talked".
Hargis, Patrolman Robert: DPD motorcycle outrider Bobby Hargis [Dallas Morning News obituary, 2014] was riding inside-left of the four DPD motorcycles attached to limo #1, and had to ride through the spray of presidential blood and brain tissue after the Z313 head shot. Despite the fact that his orders were to stay with the limo, he then parked his motorcycle, drew his pistol, and ran up onto the railway overpass. Finding nothing but confusion he returned to his motorcycle and passed under the overpass to check out the situation beyond. Drawing a blank a second time he finally returned to the TSBD, where he took station at the southwest corner of the building to prevent unauthorised egress. [For Officer Hargis' testimony to the Warren Commission, click here; said deposition does not indicate how long it was before he was able to take station outside the TSBD.]
Hargraves, Roy: Roy Hargraves [Spartacus Educational biography] was an experienced CIA INTERPEN mercenary who would be placed in Dealey Plaza at the time of the assassination - YouTube him in Dealey Plaza now.
***** DIVERTED BY FALSE ID *****
Harkness, David V.: 42-year-old DPD Sergeant David Harkness [no convenient biography] was at Main and Houston supervising the constables on crowd control in the area at the time of the shooting. Jumping on his three-wheeled command-post motorcycle he went down Main toward the Triple Overpass (following the direction of the crowds), and then veered back to Old Elm Street in front of the TSBD. Here he was told by Amos Euins that shooting had come from inside the building. He took Euins' name and address and at 1256hr rang in the report to Control. He then proceeded to seal off the building, himself and two others ("then", but not before seeing Euins into a police car) to the back of the building, and arriving squads under Inspector J. Herbert Sawyer at the front.
ASIDE: At this point in Harkness' Warren Commission testimony David Belin very conveniently obfuscates for several questions, until the witness leads him back to the issue of the back of the building.
At the rear of the building Harkness, like Joe Smith and Roger Craig before him, failed to detain "some Secret Service agents there". Sawyer next sent him to check out "a long freight [train]" presently blocking the back of the carpark, and here "we pulled some people off of there and took them to the station".
ASIDE: These "people" include the famous Three Tramps. In fact TWO long freights were shaken down in this period, by "several officers working in that area". Freight controller Lee Bowers performed an oft-overlooked service by keeping the two trains in place pending the search. By "the station" we understand DPDHQ, not the County Sheriff's Office, indicating that the Three Tramps were suspects and not witnesses, this being how things were organised at the time. Since the Three Tramps were guilty, and since they were quickly released without being followed up, we must suspect A MAJOR conspiratorial involvement at DPDHQ in the hour or so following their arrival there.
Sergeant Harkness' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Harrelson, Charles: Texas born armed robber Charles Harrelson [Wikipedia biography] came to the attention of assassination researchers in September 1980 when he claimed during a struggle to arrest him on an unrelated charge to have been involved in the events of 1963. He quickly withdrew the assertion, but he had put himself in the research spotlight. He next appeared in Jim Marr's 1989 book "Crossfire", where he was tentatively identified as one of the (second set of) Three Tramps - follow the Three Tramps Thread for the images. Harrelson was interviewed by investigative journalists and researchers several times before his death in 2007, but consistently denied his involvement. The best anyone ever got was the grudging admission that "it sure looks like me". In Rod Mac Kenzie( and Hooke)'s 2016 analysis of the assassination Texas Harrelson was, with John Ernst and Clyde Foust, part of a three-man shooting team paid for by H. L. Hunt and assigned to the western end of the John Neely Bryan Pergola.
Harris, Larry Ray: One time Oak Cliff mailman turned researcher at the JFKAIC.
Harrison, John ["Jay"] F.: Korean War veteran DPD Detective (Criminal Intelligence Section) Jay Harrison [no convenient biography] was staking out the nearby Black Muslim Church [a meeting place for adherents to Malcolm X's Nation of Islam - Ed.] at the time of the shooting, but responded to the all-units call and was sent to guard the injured John Connally. On the morning of 24th he was at DPDHQ with fellow officer Donald Steele, and was in the vehicle basement at the time LHO was eventually murdered. Harrison then became a researcher in his own right, recording personal contacts with Patrolman J. D. Tippit, General Edwin Walker, Jack Ruby, George de Mohrenschildt, Ruth Paine, and Michael Paine. His work was featured in Glen Sample and Mark Collom's (1995) book "The Men of the Sixth Floor". During his researches Harrison reputedly accumulated a full ton of supporting papers, which were handed to fellow researcher Walt Brown after his death in 2005. Much to the concern of the research fraternity at large, this material has yet [January 2018] to be processed. Harrison's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Interview for book, Glen Sample, 1966.
***** Possible accessory to the Jack Ruby shooting *****
Harrison, William J. ["Blackie"]: DPD Detective (Juvenile Squad) William Harrison [no convenient biography] was on duty at the Dallas Trade Mart at the time of the assassination, and thus missed the excitement in Dealey Plaza. However, on Sunday 24th November he was assigned to the basement lot of DPDHQ, where he helped disarm Jack Ruby following his shooting of LHO.
CONSPIRACY ALERT: In this latter respect researcher Anthony Summers (2013e) suspects that this was only after conspiring with Ruby and two other basement cops, Patrick Dean and George Butler, to get him into the basement in the first place! Harrison, Dean, and Butler were long-term frequenters of the Carousel Club.
Harrison's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Hartmann, Thom: Assassination researcher Thom Hartmann [no convenient biography] was second author to Lamar Waldron on the 2005 book "Ultimate Sacrifice", in which it is argued that a CIA-backed coup - codenamed AMWORLD - to remove Fidel Castro from power had been due to take place on 1st December 1963, but had been turned by the intervention of rogue CIA man David Morales into an attempt on the American presidency.
Hartogs, Dr. Renatus: Psychiatrist Dr. Renatus Hartogs [no convenient biography] was Chief Psychiatrist at the Youth House in NYC in the early 1950s. In 1953 he had assessed LHO following referral there for truanting, and so was able to give background evidence to the Warren Commission in 1964. The Commission, in its turn, then used that as part of its cover story profiling of LHO as a lone nut. Hartogs' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission Testimony [read it here].
"Harvey Lee": Possibly LHO or LHO Look Alike. See the entries for Richard Margeson and Lawrence Howard.
Harvey, William King: Nicknamed "the American James Bond", long-term CIA executive, and "very dangerous man" William Harvey [Wikipedia biography] was the CIA counterintelligence specialist responsible for the CIA's false defector programme during the years prior to the assassination. He also worked with John Roselli on the ZR/RIFLE schemes to assassinate Fidel Castro. As command superior to mid-hierarchy E. Howard Hunt he must be afforded a senior role in authorising the assassination, and he was indeed subsequently demoted to the Rome Station by RFK.
Haslam, Dr. Edward T.: Assassination researcher Edward Haslam [Spartacus Educational biography] became interested in Dr. Mary Haslam's work at NOLA's Ochsner Clinic because his father had worked with her in the early 1960s. He published his findings in his 2007 book "Dr. Mary's Monkey", the central thesis of which was that this clinic was one of 159 covert research centres available to the CIA, and specialised in biological weapons. The story is well trailed in an accompanying video promotion [YouTube it now].
Hawkeye: The intelligence services codename for the CIA's photographic lab at Kodak Park, Rochester, NY [Wikipedia briefing]. [The entire Kodak Park closed down for redevelopment in 2007, and now leads only a virtual life within the Kodak Rochester Archives at the University of Rochester [contact details].]
Heindel, John Rene: U.S. Marine John Heindel [no convenient biography] served at Atsugi with LHO, and was well acquainted with him. His own nickname was "Hidell" [pronounced high-dell]. Heindel's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit, 19th May 1964 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Helms, Richard McGarrah: With 20 years of field experience under his belt Richard Helms [Wikipedia biography] had been appointed the CIA's Deputy Director for Plans on 17th February 1962, and was in charge of the agency's plots to get rid of Fidel Castro now that JFK was forbidding further overt military action. In June 1967 Helms initiated a CIA-wide campaign to discredit Warren Commission critics as "conspiracy theorists".
Hemming, Gerald Patrick, Jr: Sometime CIA operative Gerry Hemming [Wikipedia biography] served with (and perhaps monitored) LHO from January 1959 during his time at Atsugi Naval Air Station. At the time of the assassination he appears to have been in command of a force of anti-Castro mercenaries based in Miami known as INTERPEN [from "International Penetration"]. He later featured in a number of assassination books.
Hickey, George W., Jr.: Secret Service Agent George Hickey [Wikipedia biography] was in limo #2 in the Presidential motorcade, rear seat, left side, armed with a loaded AR-15 assault rifle. Much to his annoyance he featured in Bonar Menninger's 1992 book "Mortal Error", which argued that it was an unintentional shot from said AR-15 which struck JFK in the head.
FOOD FOR THOUGHT: We see no value whatsoever in this particular line of argument. Indeed, in pure counterintelligence terms, the more crackpot ideas you can get into the discussion space, the more effectively you will be subconsciously discrediting the genuine workers. Which is probably why modern social media is as viciously fractured as it is - WW3 is being fought in the mind, right now [January 2018]. WW4 will be the nuclear one which finishes us all off!
So no, it was not Hickey, not Greer the driver, not Jackie the wife, not aliens, not a directed energy weapon, not the Federal Reserve, not the Hutchinson Effect, not the religious right (although close), not the Jews, not the Illuminati, not the Mossad, not even Al Q'aeda; not any of these comic book villains. Rather the hit was the work of professional assassins, and very probably lots of them, paid for - as always - by rich folks for the benefit of rich folks, and coordinated by legal but shady secret societies and cabals, not least Skull and Bones. In short, Hickey has a place on the WW3 Online Now Thread.
Hicks, James: Dealey Plaza bystander-perhaps-hit-team-radio man James Hicks [no convenient biography], a surveyor by profession, would be questioned by Jim Garrison on 11th January 1968 concerning his recollection of the assassination. He was, he said, on the Grassy Knoll at the time and witnessed two shooters and a "'56 model Pontiac" backed in just behind the picket fence, with one shooter kneeling in the boot and the other stood beside it. He heard four shots in all and saw damage inflicted to the Stemmons Freeway Sign below the John Neely Bryan Pergola. Read the full text interrogation here. However modern histories tend toward the view that Hicks was highly scripted in his testimony, and could not have seen what he describes from the positions he was photographed in. We must therefore be on our guard for a coordinated counter-story. Significantly, perhaps, Hicks would in due course be named in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so outer sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination.
Hicks, John J.: CIA intelligence officer since 1952 John Hicks [Wikipedia biography] would become Director at NPIC in 1969, after the retirement of Art Lundahl.
Hidell, Alek James: This was the name on the false Selective Service Id Card - not the genuine Buff Id Card - found in LHO's wallet at the time of his arrest on 22nd November 1963 at the Texas Theater. As such it fitted with evidence which would emerge over the ensuing days that he had mail-ordered the Smith and Wesson Revolver on 27th January 1963 and the Mannlicher -Carcano on 12th March 1963 under that name. Both the weapons, however, were delivered to a Post Office Box held in LHO's real name. The name comes up in the literature again - as an "A. J. Hidell, P.O. Box 30016, New Orleans" over-stamp on some of the Fair Play for Cuba leaflets found in NOLA on 16th June 1963 (the USS Wasp pamphleting) and 8th August (the Casa Roca pamphleting) [see Getty image] (but not the 16th August Trade Mart pamphleting, when the overstamp had been changed to read "L H Oswald, 4907 Magazine Street"). Hasan Yusuf's (2012 [FULL TEXT ONLINE]) paper "Oswald and the Hidell Id" gives a detailed dissection of the rifle purchase and the wallet.
Hill, Clinton J.: Secret Service Agent Clint Hill [Wikipedia biography] was one of four SS agents riding the running board of Limo #2 (i.e., Motorcade #3, counting from the pilot vehicle) in the Dallas motorcade (left side, front). Because he was Jacqui Kennedy's nominated bodyguard he reacted instantly to the shooting and is famously seen running forward to limo #1 and riding the trunk [see second image in bio]. Hill's evidential profile is as follows: Official report, 22nd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; interview to camera 2013 [YouTube it now].
Hill, Gerald ["Jerry"] Lynn: 34-year-old DPD Sergeant Gerald Hill [no convenient biography] was at his desk in DPDHQ at the time of the shooting, and, accompanied by fellow officer Jim Valentine and a Dallas Morning News reporter named Jim Ewell, immediately drove in plain clothes to Dealey Plaza to give support. Once there he accompanied Captain Will Fritz, some homicide detectives, and some Sheriff's deputies on the first major shakedown of the TSBD. They drew a blank on TSBD7, but when they came down to TSBD6 he was close at hand when "someone" [conventionally, Sheriff's Deputy Luke Mooney] yelled "Here it is" from the area by the easternmost window since generally known as the Sniper's Nest. There he saw "three spent shells". He told the deputies to preserve the scene until the CSI boys arrived, and went down to the street. Shortly afterward the call came in that an officer was down in Oak Cliff and he was sent to the new scene accompanied by Lieutenant Calvin Owens, Assistant District Attorney Bill Alexander, and the aforementioned reporter, Ewell. After handling the .38" shells at this scene he then made off again to the sighting at the Texas Theater where he helped search the balcony before supporting Maurice McDonald's arrest of LHO. Later that day he gave an interview to audio which contextualises most of what you have just read - YouTube it now.
ASIDE: Note how quickly LHO - still uncharged - has been patsified. His defection and his Russian wife are mentioned, he is falsely described as having admitted to being an "active Communist", he is accused of having "resorted to violence before", and described as "very arrogant". And he closes by adding: "I firmly believe we got the man that killed the President of the United States".
Officer Hill's contribution now needs to be just as firmly set into the broader perspective, thus ...
"Gerald Hill found–was virtually in contact with or very near the vicinity of–every piece of potentially incriminating evidence against Lee Harvey Oswald that day with three exceptions: the pristine bullet allegedly found on a stretcher at Parkland hospital that became known as CE 399, aka: the Magic Bullet; bullet fragments found in the presidential limousine; and the so-called backyard photos in which Oswald is seen posing with a rifle, a holstered pistol, and some propaganda pamphlets" (Burnham, undated, AssassinationOfJFK.net, 18th February 2018; emphasis added).
So we should not be too surprised to find that Hill is one of the sub-conspiracy of DPD officers proposed by researcher Bill Simpich [q.v.] in the last couple of years. Similarly, in his 2014 essay "Gerald Hill and the Framing of Lee Harvey Oswald" researcher Gokay Hasan Yusuf makes the observation that Officer Hill ...
"... was the only DPD officer who was on the sixth floor of the Texas School book depository building following the assassination, was allegedly at the murder scene of DPD officer J.D. Tippit [...], was at the Texas theater when Oswald was arrested for Tippit's murder, and was inside the unmarked DPD car which escorted Oswald to DPD headquarters following his arrest. Finally, and most significantly of all, Hill had possession of the revolver (WCE 143) which Oswald allegedly used to kill Tippit, inside the car as Oswald was escorted to DPD headquarters."
BLUE VEIN OF CORRUPTION: By any theory of jurisprudence Hill's bona fides in a number of chains of evidence need to be very carefully explored. As at the time of writing [February 2018] this exploration is still going on.
Hill's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Interviews to audio as above.
Hill, James: Dallas Barman James Hill [no convenient biography] was on duty in the bar of the Cellar Club during the unauthorised and wholly against procedures SS Night Out, 21st-22nd November 1963. He will be told to keep his mouth shut.
Hine, Geneva L.: Credit controller Geneva Hine [no convenient biography] was alone in her office on TSBD2 at the time of the assassination, moving to her window only at the last moment. She was later positive that the shooting came from within the building. Hine's evidential profile is as follows: Interview with DPD [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Ho, Chi Minh: Leader of the Viet Minh independence movement 1941-1954, victor of the pivotal Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, and since then President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh [Wikipedia biography] had helped establish the Viet Cong freedom army in South Vietnam on 20th December 1960, together with the Ho Chi Minh Trail [Wikipedia briefing] by which they were supplied. He would not become particularly widely known in America until after the assassination of JFK, when LBJ was free to ramp up U.S. support for the South Vietnamese.
Ho Chi Minh Trail: See Ho Chi Minh.
Hoffa, James Riddle: As explained in Michael Kurtz' 1982/1993 book "Crime of the Century", trade union leader Jimmy Hoffa [Wikipedia biography] had reportedly predicted in 1962 that JFK "would be shot while riding in an open convertible" (p171). Hoffa himself simply disappeared into thin air on 30th July 1975.
Hoffman, Virgil Ed: Deaf-dumb signer Ed Hoffman [Spartacus Educational biography] was spectating the motorcade from the shoulder of the Stemmons Freeway just short of the Triple Underpass. He witnessed a rifleman run west along the back of the picket fence, and pass his weapon to an accomplice, who immediately stripped it down and concealed it. He was unable to communicate effectively to officers as they arrived because they knew no sign language. Hoffman died in 2010, and his evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Interviews to camera, several, both convinced and otherwise.
Hoke, John Lindsay: "Writer, naturalist, and inveterate tinkerer" John Hoke [Washington Post obituary, 2011] was the husband of Sylvia Hoke.
Hoke, Sylvia Ludlow: [Néé Hyde] Reportedly a CIA operative with <TOP SECRET> security clearance since the mid-1950s Sylvia Hoke [no convenient biography] was sister of Ruth Paine.
Holland, Brent: Online broadcaster Brent Holland [no convenient biography] hosts the Night Fright Show and was author of the 2014 book "The JFK Assassination: From the Oval Office to Dealey Plaza".
Holland, S. M. ["Skinny"]: Union Terminal signals supervisor Skinny Holland [no convenient biography] witnessed the shooting from the parapet of the Triple Overpass, directly ahead/above the motorcade. He reported a first shot puff of smoke from the trees by the picket fence, but by the time he got there all that remained were a lot of footprints behind the fence. He would later complain that investigators deliberately played down what he had seen, and failed to interview his eight co-workers (McLaren, 2013). Holland's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit, 22nd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now - RECOMMENDED]; Interview to camera, 1966, Mark Lane [YouTube it now - RECOMMENDED].
Holmes, Harry D.: 58-year-old Harry Holmes [no convenient biography WHICH IS A GREAT SHAME] had put in some 40 years with the U.S. Postal Service when the Mannlicher-Carcano C2766 was delivered through one of the P.O. Boxes he supervised. As presented in the La Fontaine's 1996 book "Oswald Talked" he then more or less had to plead incompetence when quizzed about the paper trail for that purchase, because there was no trace of the all-important receipt signature counterfoil - the application "Part 3" - required under Federal gun law (known to be under crackdown in 1963).
ASIDE: The Post Office of necessity had separate procedures for small mail (which went into an actual "box") and heavy mail (where an advice note was put in the box, and the consignment itself went into a central storeroom). No testimony was taken from counter staff as to any recollections they might have had of the pick-up (Summers, 2013e).
By 1997, however, a more convincing explanation was out, namely that Holmes had deliberately and knowingly perjured himself, albeit for the very highest of motives: basically his country had asked him to do it. The clearest exposition of what might actually have happened is in a 1997 paper by Ian Griggs [read it now]. It may or not be relevant that Holmes watched the motorcade through binoculars from the 5th Floor of the Terminal Annex Building on the south side of Dealey Plaza, which, the present author notes, is just above the location of the South Knoll gunman proposed in 2012 by Sherry Fiester. It may or may not also be relevant that according to the Warren Commission's Exhibit 2064 [read it now ABSOLUTELY RIVETING], Holmes - clearly no run-of-the-mill postal clerk - was part of a four-person interrogation of LHO between 0925hr and 1110hr on Sunday 24th November 1963, and took precise notes of the questions set and the answers given (as recorded in said Exhibit). The other three members of the interrogation team were Captain Will Fritz, FBI Special Agent Forrest Sorrels, and SS Inspector Thomas Kelley of the Presidential bodyguard. LHO was shot to death by Jack Ruby eleven minutes after the interrogation finished. It may or may not also be relevant that Holmes seems already to have been present at Special Agent Sorrels' top-top-top-secret frame-by-frame viewing of the not-yet-doctored Zapruder Film on the evening of 22nd November 1963. Holmes' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission [perjured] testimony [Part #1; Part #2];
Holt, Chauncey ["Percy"]: [a.k.a. John O'Malley] Having spent most of the 1950s doing CIA dirty work Kentucky born one-time high-wire artist Chauncey Holt [Spartacus Educational biography] found himself in the front-line of the JFK assassination conspiracy, being identified by Jim Marr's 1989 book "Crossfire" as one of the (second set of) Three Tramps - follow the Three Tramps Thread for the images. Before that he had worked to the CIA's Phil Twombly on the framing of LHO, as part of which patsification exercise he bought the Mannlicher-Carcano - see the LHO Patsification Thread. He was interviewed by John Craig on 19th October 1991 [read transcript now]. He was also interviewed in 1997 by the Dutch researcher Wim Dankbaar to whom he stated that the Mannlicher-Carcano was scarcely an assassin's weapon of choice because "you'd be better off with a bow-and-arrow". Rod Mac Kenzie( and Hooke)'s 2016 analysis of the assassination places him as radio man to the Picket Fence shooters. We recommend the several lengthy Wim Dankbaar videos - click here to start.
Hood, James: Dallas Morning News advertising photographer Jim Hood [no convenient biography] accompanied Jerry Coley to the top of the Pergola steps at "a little after" 1300hr, saw the now congealing pool of blood, dipped his finger into it and tasted it to confirm it was indeed blood, and then took a photograph of it, thus entering the Blood or Cola Thread. Hood was killed in an unexplained light plane crash a few years later.
Hooke, Richard M.: California-based JFK researcher Richard M. Hooke [Facebook Homepage] is the ghosting author in Rod Mac Kenzie( and Hooke)'s 2016 book entitled "The Men That Don't Fit In".
Hootkins, William: 15-year-old Dallas schoolboy William Hootkins [Wikipedia biography] was interviewed by the FBI after the assassination because he was being taught Russian by Ruth Paine. Indeed it is even possible that Hootkins was the "14-year-old kid" referred to by LHO's Irving barber Cliff Shasteen as having talked leftish views while they were having their hair cut a few weeks before the assassination [we await all volumes of Greg Parker's "Lee Harvey Oswald's Cold War" with interest to see if we have read his hints accurately - Ed.]. Hootkins would later feature in blockbuster movies/TV series such as "Star Wars" (as the fighter pilot Porkins), "West Wing", "Young Indiana Jones", and "Taxi". He also played a genuinely impressive Winston Churchill in the 1981 British TV series "Lloyd George" (an honour he now [January 2018] shares with Oliver Stone's Oswald, actor Gary Oldman). Hootkins died 23rd October 2005, aged 57 years.
Hoover, John Edgar: As founder Director of the FBI in 1935, and still in post until 1972, the name of J. Edgar Hoover [Wikipedia biography] appears at many points in assassination histories, both official and alternative. The main accusations against him by alternative theorists are (1) that his FBI was heavily one-sided when dealing with crimes between the political left and right, (2) that the secretive Division Five often broke the law (if only by failure properly to manage the doings of loosely associated third parties or ex-employees such as Guy Banister), (3) that having tangentially assisted the assassination of JFK his FBI then conducted a cover-up of galactic proportions, complete with selective interrogation, intimidation, the destruction or concealment of evidence, perjury, and (although again at the hands of convenient third parties), murder; all closely monitored, of course, from his seat on the Warren Commission, and (4) that he personally maintained blackmail files on everybody he could, in order to be able to coerce their cooperation if ever necessary, thereby, in short, placing himself above the law.
ASIDE: Interestingly, it has even been suggested that Hoover himself was silenced by one of Sidney Gottlieb's cardiac arrhythmia potions when he died of a conveniently timed heart attack on 12th December 1973. His death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".
We might also mention that it was Hoover - intentionally or not - who "outed" George H. W. Bush as a significant CIA personage in 1963 by referring to him as "George Bush of the CIA" in a memorandum to the State Department dated 29th November 1963. Hoover's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]. Note, however, that he has been accused of "lying his eyes out" to the Warren Commission, so be ready to take his testimony with a pinch of salt.
Hornberger, Jacob G.: Acclaimed political theorist Jacob Hornberger [no convenient biography] was the founder in 1989 of the Future of Freedom Foundation, and the author in 2014 of the book "The Kennedy Autopsy".
Horne, Douglas: As Chief Analyst for Military Records for the Assassination Records Review Board, 1995 through 1998, Douglas Horne [Spartacus Educational biography] acquired an in-depth understanding of many of the personages listed in the present resource. He has passed on this knowledge in his 2009 book "Inside the Assassinations Records Review Board" [YouTube promotion - RECOMMENDED] and its 2013 follow-up "JFK's War With The National Security Establishment" [YouTube promotion - RECOMMENDED]. The coordinating thesis is that it was JFK's foreign policy, wrongly perceived by the military-industrial complex as a threat to national security, which got him killed. The 2009 work is about the best source on the Medical Cover-Up Thread that we have been able to find.
Horowitz, David Joel: A ferocious left-winger in his youth thanks, he explains, to his Communist parents, David Horowitz [Wikipedia biography] was author of the 1967 book "From Yalta to Vietnam: American Foreign Policy in the Cold War", an anti-establishment exposé of the antics of the CIA in spearheading U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War. After 1976 he moved politically to the right, and prospered.
Hosty, James Patrick, Jr.: FBI agent James Hosty [Wikipedia biography] had been assigned on 11th March 1963 to monitor returned defector LHO and his Russian wife Marina Oswald. In June 1963 Hosty's interest in Marina prompted LHO to visit his office in Dallas, and leave a note - since lost - purportedly asking that all questioning be arranged through him.
ASIDE: Some theorists have pointed out that Hosty was a specialist in firearms trafficking crime, and therefore may have been working LHO as an FBI undercover asset, maybe even keeping tabs on New Orleans persons of interest such as Guy Banister.
After the shooting Hosty sat in on LHO's interrogation at DPDHQ, and conducted early interviews with Marina and Ruth Paine. After LHO's murder Hosty's boss Gordon Shanklin ordered him to destroy all evidence of the June visit. Hosty published his memoirs in a 1996 book entitled "Assignment: Oswald". Hosty's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Dramatised Mock Trial testimony, 1992 [YouTube it now]; Book promotion to camera, C-SPAN2, 1996 [YouTube it now].
"House of Langley": One of Steven Hager's (2017) several sobriquets for the CIA. More specifically, he quips, the place where the search for the long-lost Babushka Film might most profitably begin.
House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA): Set up by the U.S. House of Representatives in September 1976 to investigate the killings of JFK and Martin Luther King the HSCA [Wikipedia briefing] went back over the ground covered by the Warren Commission, and, for the JFK killing, eventually granted that more than one assassin had probably been involved and that there had been a conspiracy, albeit just a little one.
Howard, Larry N.: Dallas assassination guru Larry Howard [no convenient biography] was Director of the JFK AIC [=Assassination Information Centre], West Side Mall, Dallas, part love-of-the-subject research centre, part tourist trap. This expertise got him called in 1990 as historical advisor to the production team for Oliver Stone's movie "JFK" [see his IMDB entry], and the renewed public interest sparked by the movie got him involved in the publishing of Glen Sample and Mark Collom's 1995 book, "The Men on the Sixth Floor". Howard died in 1993.
Howard, Lawrence John, Jr.: [a.k.a. Alonzo Escuido] Los Angeles based Mexican-American CIA asset Lawrence Howard [Spartacus Educational biography] was a member of INTERPEN and one of the three men who met with Silvia Odio on 25th September 1963 (the others being Loran Hall and William Seymour). He may also at some stage have met "Tex", "a white male, late 20's, 5'6" to 5' 9", slender build, 135 pounds, with former military service and a rotten disposition", who would later appear in the histories as "Harvey Lee" (see the entry for Richard Margeson). Howard would in due course be named in Richard Sprague's 1985 book "The Taking of America" as one of the dozen or so inner sanctum conspirators in the JFK assassination.
Howard, Thomas: According to researcher Bill Sloan in his 1993 book "Breaking the Silence", after the 24th November 1963 arrest of Jack Ruby a reporter for the Long Beach Press Telegram named Bill Hunter, together with another newsman named Jim Koethe, visited Jack Ruby's flat along with Ruby's flatshare George Senator in the presence of three of Ruby's lawyers, Jim Martin, Tom Howard [Spartacus Educational biography], and C. A. Droby, ostensibly to find a photograph of Ruby which the newsmen could use. Senator had been at DPD all afternoon and was no doubt feeling under some strain, but it is not apparent that anything deeply sinister happened on that occasion. Nevertheless within two years the two reporters and one of the lawyers had either been murdered or else died very conveniently. We may safely presume that these three continued to probe just a little too deeply. Howard died of a perhaps convenient heart attack 27th March 1965. His death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".
Hughes, Carol: TSBD office worker Carol Hughes [no convenient biography] was alone in her office at the time of the shooting. She had been spectating at her window and remained there, thus witnessing none of the internal comings and goings. Hughes' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; FBI statement, 20th March 1964 [read it now].
Humes, Commander [U.S.N.] James Joseph, MD: Military pathologist Commander James Humes [Spartacus Educational biography] was one of the three military medics who performed the JFK autopsy at the Bethesda Hospital between 2000hr on 23rd September 1963 and 0030hr on 23rd, and perhaps a follow-up examination of the brain injury some hours/days later. Browse the Medical Cover Up Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story. Humes' evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; House Select Commission on Assassinations testimony [read it now]; Assassination Records Review Board testimony [read it now].
Hunt, Dorothy: Long-term CIA employee and wife of E. Howard Hunt, self-confessed mid-level architect of the JFK assassination, Dorothy Hunt [Spartacus Educational biography] reportedly attempted to blackmail then-President Richard Nixon with potentially harmful revelations. She never got the opportunity to do this, however, because on 8th December 1972 she was killed in a politically highly convenient and technically highly suspicious air crash (reportedly the FBI got to the wreckage before the fire crews!).
Hunt, Everette Howard, Jr.: Possibly one of the (second set of) Three Tramps - follow the Three Tramps Thread for the images - CIA officer E. Howard Hunt [Wikipedia biography] was officially taken to task for his part in the 1972 Watergate Conspiracy. More recently it has been asserted in Rod Mac Kenzie( and Hooke)'s 2016 book "The Men That Don't Fit In" that he was on station in Dealey Plaza on the day, controlling Frank Sturgis' shooting team on the picket fence. Hunt died of natural causes on 23rd January 2007, shortly after making a detailed deathbed confession to his son Saint John Hunt, who subsequently published the material in his 2012 book "Bond of Secrecy".
Hunt, Haroldson Lafayette, Jr: Texas oil baron H. L. Hunt [Wikipedia biography] - whose story inspired not just the 1980s TV series Dallas, but also its anti-hero J. R. Ewing - was accused by Madeleine Brown, LBJ's long-term mistress, of having attended a meeting of senior assassination conspirators on the evening of 21st November 1963 at the home of Clint Murchison, Sr.
Hunt, John: Box-trawling assassination researcher John Hunt [no convenient biography] was the author in 2006 of two noteworthy papers, both supporting the accusation that the chain of custody for bullet CE-399 en route from Parkland to Bethesda was fatally - and deliberately - corrupted, in order to frame LHO in the eyes not just of the Warren Commission, but of the world. The two papers are "The Mystery of the 7:30 bullet" [read it now] and "Phantom Identification of the Magic Bullet: E. L. Todd and CE-399" [read it now]. Browse the Magic Bullet Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Hunt, Saint John: Son of E. Howard Hunt, and recipient of his father's deathbed confession in 2007 Saint John Hunt [no convenient biography] proceeded to edit his father's material into the 2012 book "Bond of Secrecy". His father's principle admission was that he had helped organise the assassination, and the principle denial was that he had actually been in Dallas on the fateful day. For a flavour of the content check you this radio interview to promote same [YouTube it here].
Hunter, William Bradley: According to researcher Bill Sloan in his 1993 book "Breaking the Silence", after the 24th November 1963 arrest of Jack Ruby a reporter for the Long Beach Press Telegram named Bill Hunter [Wikipedia biography], together with another newsman named Jim Koethe, visited Jack Ruby's flat along with Ruby's flatshare George Senator in the presence of three of Ruby's lawyers, Jim Martin, Tom Howard, and C. A. Droby, ostensibly to find a photograph of Ruby which the newsmen could use. Senator had been at DPD all afternoon and was no doubt feeling under some strain, but it is not apparent that anything deeply sinister happened on that occasion. Nevertheless within two years the two reporters and one of the lawyers had either been murdered or else died very conveniently. We may safely presume that these three continued to probe just a little too deeply. Hunter was killed 23rd April 1964 in the Press Room at Long Beach Police Headquarters by a policeman playing who-can-draw-his-gun-fastest. His death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".
Hurt, David John: A telephone subscriber named David John Hurt [no convenient biography] was one of the two "John Hurt"s who were found to match the two Raleigh, NC, telephone numbers on LHO's DPD telephone call slip (the other being Henry W. Hurt [q.v.]). Henry W. Hurt turned out to have quite a background in intelligence operations, but declared he had no prior relationship to LHO. Browse the Raleigh Call Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Hurt, Henry Charles, Jr.: "Rural Virginia" based "investigative reporter" Henry C. Hurt, Jr. [Spartacus Educational biography] was the author of the 1985 book "Reasonable Doubt: An Investigation into the Assassination of John F. Kennedy". Here is a recent assessment of this work (Amazon online feedback, Ostensibly from Christopher K. Halbower, 2nd October 2009) ...
"Henry Hurt's 'Reasonable Doubt' is an overview of the JFK assassination. Hurt was a researcher for the book 'Legend: the Secret World of Lee Harvey Oswald' by Edward Epstein. Hurt's research involved little more than contacting US Marines who knew Oswald. After providing research for Epstein, Hurt set aside the JFK case." [Accessed 29th January 2018]
Hurt also included an interview of Robert Easterling [q.v.].
Hurt, Henry W.: A telephone subscriber named Henry W. Hurt [no convenient biography] was one of the two "John Hurt"s who were found to match the two Raleigh, NC, telephone numbers on LHO's DPD telephone call slip (the other being David John Hurt). Henry W. Hurt soon convinced investigators that he was "a person of no interest" to them. Browse the Raleigh Call Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Hyde, Henry Baldwin, II: During WW2 Henry Hyde [no convenient biography but a helpful New York Times obituary] was recruited into William ["Wild Bill"] Donovan's OSS in 1942 by Allen Dulles. He then became Chief of OSS intelligence gathering operations in France, and his efforts in recruiting a network of agents went a long way toward securing the success of the 1944 D-Day Invasion. He then replaced Dulles as Chief of OSS in Switzerland, before returning to civilian life in 1947. His divorced first wife Marie Hyde [q.v.] just chanced to be in Minsk on 10th August 1961 when LHO just chanced to cross in front of her lens. As far as the present author has been able to establish, there is no short genealogical relationship between Hyde and Ruth Paine's father William Avery Hyde, although the families do share a common ancestor.
Hyde, Baroness Marie Emilie ["Mimi"] de la Grange: Divorced first wife of retired OSS divisional chief Henry Hyde, II [q.v.], Marie Hyde [no convenient biography] is here presumed to be the "Marie [?Loretta] Hyde" who was in Minsk on 10th August 1961 as a "tourist" who had become separated from her couriers in Moscow and who was presently in company with (genuine) tourists Monica Kramer and Rita Naman, "desirous" of returning with them to Warsaw. Before the group left Minsk she took photographs of passer-by LHO. She gave no affidavit to the Warren Commission, although her two companions did. The photographs presently [February 2018] on the web seem to be those of her companions not her own.
Hyde, William Avery: Insurance underwriter William Hyde [no convenient biography, but see LaMonica (1997 [Full Text Online - AN INTERESTING READ])] was father of Sylvia Hoke and Ruth Paine, and father-in-law to John Hoke.
Information Council of the Americas (INCA): INCA [see DeBenedictis] was the organisation founded on 15th May 1961 by Alton Ochsner, with financial help from Clint Murchison, as a right-wing propaganda organisation against the Castro Regime in Cuba.
Ingram, Hiram: Dallas County Sheriff's Deputy Hiram Ingram [no convenient biography] was a friend of murdered witness Roger Craig, and died of sudden onset cancer on 4th April 1968. His death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".
International Credit Bank of Geneva: [not to be confused with Bank of Credit and Commerce International] See the entry for Tibor Rosenbaum.
International Trade Mart (ITM): [This entry draws heavily from the scholarship of Ensenat (1974 [full text online - AN EXCELLENT SOURCE FOR ANYONE TRACKING BACK THROUGH NEW ORLEANS' BUSINESS LEADERS])] The ITM was a one-stop shop for potential importers and exporters through the port of New Orleans, akin to a permanent international exposition with much of the floorspace leased to advertisers (the concept had in fact proven successful in 1943 with International House one block away, and there were many common investors and directors). ITM was situated initially in a 5-story corner site at Camp Street and Common Street. Recently demobbed Clay Shaw was nominated General Manager on 19th January 1946 and oversaw the necessary refurbishment. The premises opened for business in January 1948 and the concept worked well for a decade. However by the early 1960s ITMs' financial state was "precarious".
Izquierdo, Nestor ["Jack"]: Anti-Castro Cuban exile Jack Izquierdo [no convenient biography] features in James Fetzer's version of the assassins' order of battle, being placed in the Dallas Uranium offices (a CIA front company) on the third floor of the Dal-Tex Building, armed with a Mannlicher-Carcano. Fetzer credits him with two misses and one successful rear headshot.
Jackson, General Charles Douglas: WW2 OSS veteran, post-war CIA agent, and expert on psychological warfare General Charles Jackson [Wikipedia biography] had been speech writer for Presidents and advisor to strategic committees ever since the war. At the time of the assassination he was publisher of Life magazine, and as such instantly snapped up Abraham Zapruder's film for safe keeping. It would emerge after his death in 1964 that he had been a senior official in Operation Mockingbird, the Establishment's bid to silence free and uncensored press comment.
Jackson, Donald: Journalist Donald Jackson [no convenient biography] wrote the 21st February 1964 Life magazine article in which LHO was painted with the loner-misfit persona which the official version of the assassination story demanded.
Jackson, Douglas L.: DPD motorcycle outrider Douglas L. Jackson [no convenient biography] was riding outside-right of the four DPD motorcycles attached to limo #1. He was not called to testify before the Warren Commission.
Jackson, Murray: Some time patrol partner of J. D. Tippit, and last-minute substitute for the rostered DPDHQ radio despatcher on 22nd November 1963, Murray Jackson [no convenient biography] was Channel 1 despatcher at the time of the assassination, and thus the voice on any log audio tapes. One of his most contentious decisions was in deciding which officers should be placed on patrol in "central Oak Cliff" at a time of a major incident downtown. In the event he assigned two cars - Ronald Nelson and J. D. Tippit - to that district as "outermost units", making the call at 1245hr.
ASIDE: In her 1967 book "Accessories After the Fact", assassination researcher Sylvia Meagher points out that this despatch was not available to the Warren Commission until Spring 1964, and more or less asserts it to have been falsified. [And if it was faked it would have needed a specialist laboratory to do it - Ed.]
Neither Tippit nor Nelson acknowledged the call - itself a very rare operational occurrence - and Nelson's later recollections were inconclusive as to whether or not he actually received it (Hurt, 1985). One online commentator recently put it like this: "Murray Jackson as far as I'm concerned is a liar" - YouTube him now and decide for yourself. Jackson's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Jackson, Robert Hill: Photographer Bob Jackson [Wikipedia biography] was one of the motorcade press car photographers, but chanced to have his camera empty at the time of the shooting in Dealey Plaza. He was luckier 48 hours later when he did manage to get a trigger shot of Jack Ruby wasting LHO in the basement of DPDHQ.
Jaggars-Chiles-Stovall: Security-rated printing and photographic works at 522 Browder Street, Dallas, where LHO was employed as a "cameraman trainee" between 12th October 1962 and 6th April 1963. The Warren Commission took testimony from three other employees of the company, namely John Graef (LHO's supervisor"), Dennis Ofstein ("employee") and Robert Stovall (President of the company). The company reportedly also employed - some have suggested as LHO's shadow - John Grossi.
ASIDE: It may or may not be relevant that some of the "photographic work" referred to above was on the incoming U-2 photoreconnaissance photostock (Summers, 2013e, p185).
Janney, Peter: Assassination researcher Peter Janney [Wikipedia biography] began researching the love affair between JFK and Mary Meyer in 1976, gradually assembling enough material for his 2012 book "Mary's Mosaic: The CIA Conspiracy to Murder John F. Kennedy" [Mary Meyer, you see, was the divorced wife of Cord Meyer, the CIA's Head of Covert Action at the time, and therefore a very bad man to make an enemy of - Ed.]. Meanwhile in 2009 he also chanced to interview NPIC's Dino Brugioni, the CIA's veteran photoreconnaissance expert, and the official responsible for the production of Briefing Boards - see the entry for Dino Brugioni for more on this.
Jarman, James Earl, Jr.: 34-year-old order checker James Jarman [no convenient biography] was with Harold Norman and Bonnie Ray Williams at the TSBD5 window directly under the Sniper's Nest, it not being possible to safely access TSBD6 because it was being refloored by outside contractors at the time. Unlike Norman he did not recall the sound of cartridges hitting the TSBD6 flooring above. Jarman's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit, 23rd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
JFKAIC: See under Larry Howard.
JM/WAVE: CIA codename for the facilities in and around Florida from where Ted Shackley oversaw both military and psychological operations against the Castro Regime and other Central American players [Wikipedia briefing]. The facilities were centred on the disused Richmond Naval Air Station, 15 miles or so southwest of downtown Miami, but included many rural and coastal training areas. All up, JM/WAVE formed the largest CIA base outside of CIAHQ at Langley, MD. Indeed, intelligence services seem to have been Florida's largest industry at the time.
John Birch Society: A conservative advocacy group supporting anti-communism and limited government. Founded 9th December 1958 in Indianapolis. Think California F-Scale, and then some.
Joannides, George Efythron: [codenames "Howard" and Walter Newby] At the time of the assassination CIA C/PW [=Chief of Psychological Warfare], Miami, George Joannides [Wikipedia biography] was financing the anti-Castro front organisation Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil (DRE), a group which, in turn, had significant prior contact with LHO as part of the LHO Patsification Thread. Joannides subsequently acted as the CIA's liaison officer on the House Select Committee on Assassinations, making sure that said operation remained in the shadows.
ASIDE - "TRUTH" VS. "WHOLE TRUTH": In his 2013 (e)book "Not in Your Lifetime" Anthony Summers uses the Joannides case to make an historically fundamental point about honesty and the way the world is run. Joannides got up at the House Select Committee on Assassinations and testified that he had been unable to "find any records indicating the name of the DRE's control officer" (p435). This simple "truth" concealed the fact that that officer was he himself (which had been the question put to him), and that he had already had anything incriminating removed from the archive before his search!
John Neely Bryan Pergola: This famous Dallas structure [Wikipedia image] was erected in 1940 during the broader remodelling of Dealey Plaza.
Johnson, Gladys J.: Dallas cafe-owner Gladys Johnson [no convenient biography] was LHO's landlady at 1026 North Beckley Avenue between 14th October 1963 and 22nd November.
ASIDE: Do not confuse with Earlene Roberts, who was the housekeeper at that address, and employed as such both for the owners and the roomers. Both ladies testified to the Warren Commission.
Her 40-year-old daughter Fay Puckett [Dallas Morning News obituary, 2008], a photographer with studios across the street from the Texas Theater, witnessed LHO's removal from the scene after his arrest. Her 11-year-old granddaughter Patricia Puckett used to play with LHO [see separate entry for details]. Mrs. Johnson's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony (as "Mrs. Arthur Carl Johnson") [read it now].
Johnson, Lyndon Baines: Texas businessman-politician LBJ [Wikipedia biography] was VPOTUS until 1438hr, 22nd November 1963, whereupon he was sworn in as POTUS. He has been cited as a major conspirator in many alternative theories of the assassination [see, for example, Barr McClellan].
Johnson, Marvin: DPD Detective Marvin Johnson [no convenient biography] was out making an unrelated arrest at the time of the shooting, but became free to attend the TSBD by about 1300hr, joining others already searching TSBD6. Here he saw the three cartridge cases discarded under the east-most window. Also a heavy brown paper sack nearby "about the same shape as a rifle case would be". Also the debris from a chicken lunch over at the western end, second window. Johnson's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]. Browse the Heavy Paper Wrapping Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Johnson, Robert Emmett: [several aliases and noms-de-plume] Korean War veteran (U.S.M.C. Press Attaché) and long time Miami-based CIA operative and hitman now on Castro's case Robert Emmett Johnson [Spartacus Educational biography] entered the assassination narrative as a probable member of INTERPEN after the failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion. However, his deeds would remain very "dark" until his name started to be mentioned in the early 2000's by researcher James Richards as a potential Dealey Plaza shooter.
Jones, Robert E.: Based in Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, the Commanding Officer of the Texas administration of the 112th Military Intelligence Group, Colonel Robert Jones [no convenient biography], had between eight and twelve plain-clothed intelligence officers in Dallas on the day of the assassination, who would, if challenged, be able to show Secret Service IDs. The 112th's own file on LHO (which was opened as a perceived counterintelligence risk after his Fair Play for Cuba Committee activity in August) linked him to the name "A. J. Hidell", and Colonel Jones informed the FBI of this straight away.
Jones, William Penn, Jr: Texas local newspaper editor Penn Jones [Wikipedia biography] was editor/owner of the Midlothian Mirror, one of the first journals to carry material beyond the officially approved narrative. His researches soon convinced him that the assassination had involved a large team of professional assassins, and that the wet work had then extended to any inconvenient witnesses.
Junta Revolucionaria (JURE): The left-of-centre anti-Castro organisation founded by Manolo Ray Rivero on 23rd July 1962 [HSCA briefing paper].
Kaack, Milton R.: New Orleans FBI Agent Milton Kaack [no convenient biography] was described in the La Fontaines' 1996 book "Oswald Talked" as having been asked by Dallas Agent James Hosty on 29th July 1963 to try to locate LHO in New Orleans. Kaack made a number of on-foot calls on 5th August, finally discovering that LHO was now at 4905 Magazine Street. This search was not brought to the notice of the Warren Commission.
Kaiser, David: Assassination researcher David Kaiser [no convenient biography] was author of the 2009 book "The Road to Dallas", which includes an analysis of Central American (that is to say, not merely Cuban) power politics in the years leading up to the assassination.
Karamessines, Thomas Hercules: New York born lawyer and WW2 OSS Greek Desk veteran Tom Karamessines [Wikipedia biography] was CIA Chief of the Athens Station until 1953, and then Chief of the Rome Station from 1959 until - according to Jefferson Morley's 2016 book "CIA and JFK" - he was appointed in January 1963 to the newly formed SAS [= "Special Affairs Staff"] in the Directorate of Plans. Morley asserts that his duties there were to ensure the plausible deniability of all CIA operations. SAS were thenceforth copied in to all substantive communications, including his protégé George Joannides' project to "make some use of Oswald" as it unfolded in August 1963 in New Orleans.
Katzenbach Memorandum: See the entry for Nicholas Katzenbach.
Katzenbach, Nicholas: Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach [Wikipedia biography] would be responsible for the 25th November 1963 secret briefing to LBJ's advisor William Moyers. This briefing, now known as the Katzenbach Memorandum, famously recommended that it was in the national interest to pin the crime on LHO, no matter that he had been innocent. Here are some of the exact words ...
"The public must be satisfied that Oswald was the assassin; that he did not have confederates who are still at large; that the evidence was such that he would have been convicted at trial" (Katzenbach Memorandum, as cited in Kurtz, 1982/1993, p24).
The upshot was the creation of the entirely with-prejudice Warren Commission four days later.
Katz n' Jammer's Bar: See 544 Camp Street.
Kay, Everett: Miami Police lieutenant Everett Kay [no convenient biography] was the officer who set up William Somersett's wire sting against right wing conspirator Joseph Milteer in Miami, the result of which was that the route of JFK's motorcade through Miami on 18th November 1963 was significantly altered.
Keith, James: Assassination researcher Jim Keith [no convenient biography] was the author of the 1997 book "Mind Control, World Control", a work which includes the transcript of an interview with the mysterious David Bucknell.
Kellerman, Roy H.: Secret Service Agent Roy Kellerman [Wikipedia biography] was one of two SS agents riding the front of Limo #1 (i.e., Motorcade #2, counting from the pilot vehicle) in the Dallas motorcade (passenger's seat). He was Acting SAIC [=Special Agent in Charge] of the SS White House Detail, in the absence of Jerry Behn.
Kelley, Thomas J.: Secret Service Inspector Thomas Kelley [no convenient biography] was responsible for the effective performance of the Presidential SS bodyguard. Kelley's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [Part #1; Part #2]; House Select Committee on Assassinations testimony [read it now].
Kilgallen, Dorothy Mae: Having - probably as a dupe, herself - played a part in the "Great UFO Hoax" by spreading dumbed down cover-up stories during the early 1950s, society columnist turned investigative journalist Dorothy Kilgallen [Wikipedia biography] had been publicly exploring flaws in Jack Ruby's testimony when she was found dead from a convenient sedatives overdose on 8th November 1965. Her death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".
Killion, Charles L.: FBI Special Agent Charles Killion [no convenient biography] was one of the three-man FBI Lab ballistics team (the others being Robert Frazier and Cortlandt Cunningham) who examined limo #1 after it had been flown back to DC.
King, John J.: [Not to be confused with fellow Denver oilman John McCandish King CEO of King Resources] Denver oilman John J. King [no convenient biography] bought the Mannlicher-Carcano C2766 from Marina Oswald as beneficiary of her husband's Estate for $10,000 down in 1965 (Wheeler, 1965 [full text online]), at a time that the weapon was still in the custody of the authorities. That October, however, the Senate approved, and LBJ countersigned into law, an Act requiring the weapon be kept in the National Archives, where it remains to this day [February 2018]. When sued for possession by King in 1979 the government pointed out that because LHO had ordered the weapon under a false name - an offense under gun law - it was already forfeit as government property when Marina Oswald took King's money. Browse the Mannlicher-Carcano C2766 Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
King, Colonel Joseph Caldwell: Long-standing CIA officer Colonel Joseph King [Wikipedia biography] was author of the 1959 King Memorandum, which see.
King Memorandum: The document now routinely referred to as the King Memorandum [briefing and full text online] was sent 11th December 1959 by Colonel Joseph King in his role as CIA Chief, Western Hemisphere, to CIA Director Allen Dulles, recommending that Fidel Castro needed to be assassinated. Dulles took the suggestion to the NSC who approved Operation 40 to do that very thing. See next Tracy Barnes.
Kinney, Samuel A.: Secret Service Agent Samuel Kinney [no convenient biography] was one of two SS agents riding the front of Limo #2 (i.e., Motorcade #3, counting from the pilot vehicle) in the Dallas motorcade (driver's seat). He had arrived at Love Field in a cargo C-130 at 0605hr, with limo #1, and been briefed by Forrest Sorrels (SS Dallas) and Winston Lawson (SS White House Detail). From his vantage point immediately behind limo #1 he reported seeing gun smoke from the direction of the Grassy Knoll, and [but only by much later hearsay] reportedly confessed to putting a bullet on the stretcher at Parkland Hospital. He was also the agent who washed out limo #1 at Parkland. Kinney's evidential profile is as follows: Initial Report, 30th November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED]; Interview to audio, Vince Palamara 1994 [YouTube it now].
Kinsley, Eddie: Ambulance driver Eddie Kinsley [no convenient biography] was one of the two crew of the Dudley M. Hughes Funeral Home ambulance (the other being Clayton Butler) used to recover the body of J. D. Tippit from the 10th Street scene of his murder.
Klein's Sporting Goods, Inc.: This is the Chicago-based sporting goods shop which mail-ordered the Mannlicher-Carcano C2766 to "A. Hidell" at P.O. Box 2915 in Dallas. See next William Waldman for the details of the ordering process, and Mitchell Scibor for what happened to the microfilmed documentation. Browse the Mannlicher-Carcano C2766 Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Klines, Thomas Gregory: See the entry for Thomas Clines.
Knebel, Fletcher: Ohio born journalist turned author Fletcher Knebel [Wikipedia biography] was author of the 1962 national security thriller "Seven Days in May" (subsequently filmed under the same name in 1964 [IMDB entry]). Knebel is on record as claiming to have got the idea of a pro-war U.S. military coup in an interview with General Curtis LeMay in late 1962, at which time he got the distinct impression that LeMay judged JFK a dangerous coward. According to Douglas Horne in his 2013 book "JFK's War with the National Security Establishment", JFK read a personally gifted copy when it first came out, agreeing that "it could happen", but "not on my watch". He underestimated the hawks amongst his Chiefs of Staff. [See also Burris Memorandum and "Doctor Strangelove".]
Koch, Fred Chase: Self-made millionaire Texas oilman Fred C. Koch [Wikipedia biography] was a founding member of the John Birch Society.
Kodak Rochester Archives: When the Kodak Corporation closed down its Kodak Park works in Rochester, NY, it passed its corporate library over to the Kodak Rochester Archives at the University of Rochester [contact details].
Koethe, James F.: According to researcher Bill Sloan in his 1993 book "Breaking the Silence", after the 24th November 1963 arrest of Jack Ruby a reporter for the Dallas Times Herald named Jim Koethe [Spartacus Educational biography], together with another newsman named Bill Hunter, visited Jack Ruby's flat along with Ruby's flatshare George Senator in the presence of three of Ruby's lawyers, Jim Martin, Tom Howard, and C. A. Droby ...
Spats Colombo and his lawyers, 1959
... ostensibly to find a photograph of Ruby which the newsmen could use. Senator had been at DPD all afternoon and was no doubt feeling under some strain, but it is not apparent that anything deeply sinister happened on that occasion. Nevertheless within two years the two reporters and one of the lawyers had either been murdered or else died very conveniently. We may safely presume that these three continued to probe just a little too deeply. Koethe was killed 21st September 1964 by a karate chop, and remains officially an unsolved murder. His death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses".
Krock, Arthur: [Read firstly the entry for Operation Mockingbird.] Commentator for the New York Times and "Veteran CIA-mouthpiece and messenger-boy".
Kurtz, Michael L.: Historian Michael Kurtz [Wikipedia biography] was the author of the 1982/1993 book "Crime of the Century", a review of the Warren Commission and the House Select Committee on Assassinations investigations, and of the competing conspiracy theories. In what he described as the first "full-length scholarly study" of the assassination he identified three assassins, and three, perhaps four, shots. He suggested that Fidel Castro had been the prime mover. In 1982, he wrote in 1993, he had been strongly pro- conspiracy; and what he had discovered during the intervening 11 years had made this conviction even stronger.
La Fontaine, Ray and Mary: [Jointly, the La Fontaines] Researchers-Authors of "Oswald Talked: The New Evidence in the JFK Assassination", first published 1996. Their key proposals are as follows (roughly in Chapter order)...
(1) That on the basis of some hitherto overlooked arrest records the Three Tramps were entirely innocent hoboes, specifically Gus Abrams, Harold Doyle, and John Gedney. [Because it has since transpired that there were TWO sets of three tramps, we assess this line of evidence as a deliberate counterintelligence operation to take the heat off the other - very, very, suspicious - three, namely Charles Harrelson, Chauncey Holt, and Charles Rogers - follow the Three Tramps Thread.]
(2) That during the late evening of 22nd November 1963 LHO had confided to fellow prisoner John Elrod that he had seen another inmate before, in a motel room, where he had received cash from a certain Jack Ruby to drive a blue Ford Thunderbird loaded with stolen guns. At a stroke, this evidence made the lone nut assassination theory totally untenable.
(3) That there were major inconsistences in the contents of LHO's wallet and his use of the Hidell alias.
(4) That George de Mohrenschildt and Ruth Paine had been setting LHO up for a year prior to the assassination.
(5) That the goings-on in New Orleans had indeed been pivotal, just as Jim Garrison had been saying since 1969. Also that John Masen and Jack Ruby were not just bit part players in the flow of illegal arms out of U.S. military armouries and into anti-Castro hands: rather, they were in it up to their necks. Also that the July 1963 Pontchartrain Raid had really put the spark of murder into Cuban exile eyes. Also the part played by Silvia Odio.
(6) That we still had a lot to learn about FBI Agent James Hosty's interest in the Oswalds, not least because after two of the occasions that Hosty got in touch with LHO he went straight out and did significant things involving P.O. Boxes. On the first occasion he went and ordered a Mannlicher-Carcano using a box he had opened in late 1962, and on the second occasion, on 1st November 1963, he opened a new box and immediately mailed self-patsifying letters to the American Communist Party and the American Civil Liberties Union. See the entries for P.O. Box 2915 and P.O. Box 6225, respectively - WELL WORTH THE DIVERT.
(7) That LHO was not merely an FBI informer (as has often been claimed), but that - in his eyes at least - he was acting as an FBI asset - a sort of "Junior Crimestopper" (p163). Also that LHO had, via James Hosty, got a warning through to J. Edgar Hoover in DC, who had duly issued a national alert to "all SACs" [=Special Agents in Charge] in the early hours of 17th November 1963. Also that this had all subsequently been meticulously suppressed.
Lala, Michael: New Orleans newsman Mike Lala [Legacy.Com obituary] conducted the WDSU-TV radio interview with LHO which helped establish the pro-Communist LHO during the latter's time in NOLA. Browse the LHO Patsification Thread to assemble the various parts of the story.
Lamont, Corliss: Civil liberties activist Corliss Lamont [Wikipedia biography] had been an enthusiastic supporter of the Castro Revolution since 1959, and was the author of the pamphlet "The Crime Against Cuba", a copy of which was in LHO's possession during his interview with Special Agent John Quigley on 13th August 1963.
Lamont, Thomas W.: Journalist turned banker Thomas Lamont [Wikipedia biography] was a participant in the 1910 Jekyll Island Discussions which conspired to introduce a central bank into American finance. The following year he became a partner in J. P. Morgan and Company.
La Motta, Gino: According to Mac Kenzie( and Hooke), Gino la Motta [no convenient biography] was an underworld hitman-cleaner, skilled, so it is reported, in disposing of gangland cadavers into fairground hotdogs! More mustard, anyone?
Landis, Paul: Secret Service Agent Paul Landis [no convenient biography] was one of four SS agents riding the running board of Limo#2 (i.e., Motorcade #3, counting the pilot vehicle) in the Dallas motorcade (right side, rear). His evidential profile is as follows: Agent's Report, 22nd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Lane, Mark (JFK Researcher): Arguably the grandfather of JFK research Mark Lane's [Wikipedia biography] best-selling 1966 analysis of the flaws in the Warren Commission's investigations was entitled "Rush to Judgement". For a taste of his style (fighting for his professional life against hostile questioning) follow the link in the entry for William F. Buckley.
Lansdale, Colonel Edward Geary: OSS veteran and senior CIA staffer since the early 1950s Colonel Edward Lansdale [Spartacus Educational biography] was Operations Officer for Operation Mongoose, the 1960 plan to topple Fidel Castro by covert operations once the overt Bay of Pigs Invasion had failed. He is thought by some researchers to have successfully led the assassination of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem on 2nd November 1963, and he has also been placed in Dealey Plaza at the time of the JFK assassination, overseeing what was in all but name a CIA coup d'état. [Two out of three ain't bad, I suppose - Ed.]
Lansky, Meyer: Havana based until the 1959 fall of Batista Meyer Lansky [Wikipedia biography] thereafter ran the Lansky Syndicate from Las Vegas.
Lanuza, Jose Antonio: Anti-Castro Cuban exile Jose Lanuza [no convenient biography] was a DRE activist in the Miami area. Along with Carlos Bringuier in New Orleans, Lanuza helped disseminate LHO's PRO-Castro credentials to the mainstream media in the late afternoon of 22nd November 1963, hitting the national headlines the following morning. This places him firmly on the LHO Patsification Thread.
Lawrence, Jack: Dallas used-car salesman Jack Lawrence [Spartacus Educational biography] was - in his version of events - on his way to work at the time of the shooting, but late, and then further delayed by the post-shooting traffic jams. He would become one of the assassination's pendulum shooters, swinging from innocent to guilty in successive theories. He first entered the narrative in the early afternoon on 22nd November 1963. He had been absent, along with a demonstrator car, during the morning, and when he finally turned up at about 1300hr fellow workers reported strange behaviour on his part to the police. The car was later found in the parking lot behind the Picket Fence. He may or may not have been a visitor to the Carousel Club and a friend of Jack Ruby's flatshare George Senator.
Lawson, Winston George: Trained in counterintelligence work at the CIC Counterintelligence School, Fort Holabird, MD, [Wikipedia factsheet] and with experience interrogating Korean War prisoners, SS Special Agent Winston Lawson [Spartacus Educational biography] was in charge of the SS White House Detail operations on the ground in Dallas. In this role he organised offloading of limo #1 at Love Field, assigned the agents to their positions, and was personally driver of the motorcade pilot car. Lawson's evidential profile is as follows: Report, 23rd November 1963 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Leavelle, James Robert: WW2 veteran and experienced DPD officer Jim Leavelle [Wikipedia biography] was the right arm escort to LHO (the one in the light suit) when Jack Ruby murdered him at 1121hr 24th November 1963.
"Lee, Harvey": Possibly LHO or LHO Look Alike. See the entries for Richard Margeson and Lawrence Howard.
Lee, Vincent Theodore: More to him, perhaps, than meets the eye Vincent Lee [no convenient biography, but believed detailed in ARRB archive] was the <Precise Title Unknown> at the New York City head office of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee who signed LHO's membership card on 29th May 1963 following the latter's letter dated 26th May 1963 asking for membership and (although already printing his own) requesting distributable literature. Lee's evidential profile is as follows: Affidavit, 20th May 1964 [read it now]; Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
LeMay, General Curtis Emerson: Hero of the WW2 U.S. strategic bombing offensives against Germany and Japan - including the Pax Atomica attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki - and father of the post-war Strategic Air Command, USAF General Curtis LeMay [Wikipedia biography] was reportedly in Canada at the time of the shooting. He despised JFK as an appeaser (apparently he liked to mumble under his breath at meetings that it was "Munich all over again"), and is known in the histories for his concept of the "Sunday Punch" first strike.
Lemnitzer, Lyman Louis: General Lyman Lemnitzer [Wikipedia biography] was Supreme Allied Commander for NATO at the time of the shooting.
"Leon": Possibly LHO under cover or perhaps an Oswald Look-Alike doing patsification. See the entry for Silvia Odio.
"Leopoldo": See the entry for Bernado de Torres.
Liddy, George Gordon Battle: FBI Agent (1957-1962) turned lawyer G. Gordon Liddy [Wikipedia biography] would feature in the 1972 Watergate Affair. He becomes relevant to the JFK assassination because Frank Sturgis' deathbed confession asserts that he killed J. D. Tippit as part of a conspiracy to incriminate LHO.
Lifton, David S.: Assassination researcher David Lifton [Wikipedia biography] was the author of the pro-conspiracy 1981 book "Best Evidence". He also provided a 3-page Introduction for Kerry Thornley's 1991 book "The Idle Warriors".
Liggett, John Melvin: For whatever reason, "highly skilled embalmer" John Liggett [no convenient biography but lots of value here] was called away from a family funeral at Restland Cemetery, Dallas, at about 1330hr on 22nd November 1963 and taken aboard Air Force Two. His life then took a turn for the worse: his wife divorced him, he was arrested on 28th March 1974 for attempted murder, and then - perhaps conveniently - shot while attempting to escape custody on 14th February 1975.
Ling Electronics: Avionics manufacturer based in Anaheim, CA, and now part of the Data Physics Corporation. Noteworthy in the present context as one-time workplace of JFK assassin Mac Wallace.
Little, Malcolm: Birth name of the human rights activist Malcolm X.
Livingstone, Harrison Edward Assassination researcher Harrison E. Livingstone [no convenient biography] was the author of the 1993 book "Killing the Truth: Deceit and Deception in the JFK Case".
Livingston, R. W. ["Rusty"]: DPD Crime Lab Detective Rusty Livingston [no convenient biography] spent the afternoon/evening of 22nd November 1963 in DPDHQ, busily booking in and collating new items of evidence as they arrived. This included maintaining safe copies of documents and photographs. This forensic archive would then remain largely undiscussed for 30 year, until finally it came to the notice of his nephew Gary Savage, who helped him present it in their jointly authored 1993 book "JFK: First Day Evidence".
Lomax, James A.: DPD Officer James Lomax [no convenient biography] was patrol partner to Earle Brown, but seems content to have let his partner to do the talking, and he was not openly quizzed as to the issue of smoke seen or smelled, despite that being an "inconceivable omission" (McLaren, 2013). Lomax's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Lorenz, Ilona Marita: One time lover of Cuban revolutionary leader Fidel Castro but based in Miami since 1960 Marita Lorenz [Wikipedia biography] had been touted by Frank Sturgis in 1961 on behalf of the CIA to poison Castro. She then came forward in 1977 with stories of LHO's involvement with Sturgis in summer 1963, testifying as such to the House Select Committee on Assassinations.
Lovelady, William Nolan: 26-year-old one time receiver of a stolen gun Billy Lovelady [Spartacus Educational biography] was at the top of the steps of the TSBD front entrance, being clearly identifiable in the background of the Altgens6 photograph (by virtue of which he is sometimes referred to as "Doorway Man").
ASIDE: There was a major controversy during the 1970s as to whether Doorway Man was Lovelady or LHO, and whether Altgens6 had been doctored. In this controversy it became important to know what colour/pattern shirt both men had been wearing at the time. David Lifton has recently (2012) discussed this case online and reminds everyone (a) that both men appear in a snippet of newsreel taken on the 3rd Floor of DPDHQ at 1403hr 22nd November 1963 (LHO having just been arrested a few minutes previously at the Texas Theater), (b) that this film shows what they were wearing, and (c) that the House Select Committee on Assassinations had taken this evidence into account in 1977 when judging that Doorway Man was Lovelady. He also reminds modern readers that only SUSPECTS were processed at DPDHQ; the WITNESSES were processed at the County Sheriff''s Office.
Lovelady died 14th January 1979. His evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now].
Luce, Henry Robinson: Media magnate, long-standing Skull and Bones member, and willing ally of Western intelligence movers and shakers since WW2 and of the CIA specifically since the Cold War, Henry Luce [Spartacus Educational biography] had owned the Time Magazine/Life Magazine stable since the 1930s, and must be presumed to have approved Charles Jackson's purchase of the Zapruder Film.
Lundahl, Arthur ["Art"] Charles: WW2 veteran (U.S.N.), CIA photoreconnaissance expert since 1953 and founder of the CIA's National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC) [Wikipedia briefing] in 1961 Art Lundahl [Wikipedia biography] was still Director at NPIC when, at some time mid-afternoon of Saturday 23rd November 1963, he was asked to produce Briefing Boards of still images from the recently acquired Zapruder Film. He immediately called his Bulletin Board man, Dino Brugioni, asking him to get a small team together. Browse the Zapruder Film Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Lynch, Grayston: WW2 and Korean War veteran, and long time CIA asset Grayston Lynch [Spartacus Educational biography] had been in the front line of the Bay of Pigs Invasion, and was then active at the JM/WAVE training camp in Florida. He would be one of the nine persons identified by Bradley Ayers in 1994 as having "intimate operational knowledge" of how the assassination was put together.
Mabra, W. W. ["Mo"]: Dallas County Sheriff's Deputy Mo Mabra [no convenient biography] was standing with Orville Smith on Main Street outside the Criminal Court at the time of the shooting. He then ran to the railway yard and parking lots beyond the Grassy Knoll intending to search the area, but was told by a DPD officer that "Nobody came this way". He then escorted a witness to the Sheriff's Office and stayed there. Mabra's evidential profile is as follows: Initial Report, 27th November 1963 [read it here]; Warren Commission testimony [NOT CALLED].
Macarthur, General Douglas: WW1 and WW2 veteran, production manager for the first ten months of the (First) Korean War, and fanatical anti-Communist General Douglas Macarthur [Wikipedia biography] had met with JFK in 1961, at which meetings he had criticised the Bay of Pigs Invasion and counselled against any build up of U.S. forces in South Vietnam.
Macarthy, Senator Joseph Raymond: WW2 veteran (U.S.M.C.) and Senator from Wisconsin since 1947 Joseph Macarthy [Wikipedia biography] had been the political and media cheerleader for the anti-Communist movement in the U.S. during the early 1950s. His "witch hunts" set the scene for the Cold War over the ensuing decade.
Machado, Quintin Pino: Castro Regime diplomat and "dangerous person" Quintin Pino Machado [no convenient biography] would be named in Michael Kurtz's 1982/1993 book "The Crime of the Century" as having been earmarked to escort LHO out of Dallas to Cuba.
Mack, Gary: Assassination researcher Gary Mack [Spartacus Educational biography] joined the Sixth Floor Museum in 1994 and worked there until his death in 2015.
Mac Kenzie, Roderick A. ["Mac"], III: [a.k.a. Ward Alexander] Printer-forger turned circus artiste turned emergency room auxiliary and, when not thus occupied, gun-runner to Cuban mercenaries, mobile Id Card workshop, and "wet worker" for the underworld Rod Mac Kenzie [no convenient biography] hit the headlines in 2016 with the publication of his memoirs in Mac Kenzie( and Hooke) [YouTube extracts of the man himself promoting same]. He was trained in Id Card forgery at the "CIA Seals and Flaps School" [Buy the Manual!!], Fort Dietrich, MD, and proudly asserts that his Id Card forgeries were the best you could get. He applied the skills acquired during a period supplying false Id Cards for DISC.
ASIDE: We may therefore confidently assume that any Grassy Knoll conspirators with CIA credentials were carrying false Rod Mac Kenzie identities. And they seemed to have worked flawlessly - see the entries for Gordon Arnold, Bernard Barker, Roger Craig, and Mo Mabra.
After the assassination (if not earlier!) he made himself a new identity - as one Ward Alexander - before going very dark for 50 years. He remains active on FaceBook (under his real name) to this day [December 2017].
MacNeil, Robert Breckenridge Ware: Montreal born NBC journalist Robert MacNeil [Wikipedia biography] was in the motorcade Press Bus at the time of the shooting. Upon hearing the shots he ran firstly to the Grassy Knoll, and then on to the TSBD, where, at around 1233hr, he asked a man where the nearest telephone was, receiving the reply, "Better ask inside". It will later be suggested that the man was LHO making good his escape from the building - YouTube the fuller story.
MACS-9: Acronym for Marine Air Control Squadron 9 [Wikipedia briefing]. This is the U.S.M.C. unit, stationed between 1955 and 1971 at Santa Ana and El Toro, CA, where LHO was assigned upon returning in late 1958 from his deployment to Atsugi, and where, probably in the first half of 1959, he reportedly got to know fellow Marines David Bucknell and Kerry Thornley.
Magic Bullet: [a.k.a. CE-399] This is the everyday name for Warren Commission Exhibit CE-399, the more or less undamaged 6.5mm Mannlicher-Carcano slug which was - but only in Arlen Specter's official story, not in reality - recovered from the gurney used to transport Governor John Connally from limo #1 into the emergency room at Parkland Hospital. Discarding the official line that the Connally bullet had already passed through JFK's body, and then guided by the alternative narrative in Josiah Thompson and Gary Aguilar's "The Magic Bullet" (and other sources as shown), here is a step-by-step account of bullet XCE-000, the true projectile, which starts with the rifle which fired it, traces it through Connally's body all the way to the FBI Labs at DC, and ends with CE-399 the bullet in the National Archives. Problems and inconsistencies - and there are many - are highlighted [THUS] as soon as they occur ...
STEP 1: At Z235 a shooter on TSBD6 [identified in recent accounts as Mac Wallace] fires bullet XCE-000 from a still unidentified rifle [in recent accounts a .30-06 scopeless bolt-action rifle], hitting JC in the back, spinning, axially stable (i.e., not "toppling"), and undeformed . It passes through him demolishing his 5th rib and lacerating his right lung on the way, and then exits his front with reduced velocity, unknown spin, some instability (toppling), and undeformed [IT SHOULD BE DEFORMED]. However, being undeformed, at least it leaves no metal fragments in the chest [THERE ARE FRAGMENTS IN THE CHEST].
STEP 2: XCE-000 then hits JC's right wrist, shattering the radius bone, and then exits with only residual velocity, unknown spin, significant instability, and undeformed [IT SHOULD BE DEFORMED]. However, being undeformed, at least it leaves no metal fragments in the wrist [THERE ARE FRAGMENTS IN THE WRIST].
STEP 3: XCE-000 then strikes JC's left thigh about six inches above the knee, being stopped by, but not fracturing, the femur. It is still largely undeformed [IT SHOULD BE DEFORMED]. Because the leg muscles at this point are at their thinnest, the bullet is quite loose and ready to fall out spontaneously.
STEP 4: Mrs. Connally comforts her husband all the way to Parkland Hospital where he is taken out, put on a gurney, and wheeled to the emergency room where he is transferred onto the operating table. JC later recalls hearing the sound of something hitting the floor during this latter manoeuvre [HENCEFORTH WE ARE ASSUMING THAT THIS IS XCE-000] and then seeing a nurse pick whatever it was up and put it in her pocket [WE CAN JUST ABOUT RELY ON CONNALLY'S RECOLLECTION DESPITE THE GRAVITY OF HIS WOUNDS BECAUSE IT WILL EVENTUALLY BE GIVEN WITH GREAT CERTAINTY].
STEP 5: This nurse - whom, for reasons which will shortly become apparent, we are going to name as NOT Audrey Bell - shows XCE-000 to bystanding Dallas County District Attorney Henry Wade, no less, who will later recall "I told her to give it to the police". [SHE MAY OR MAY NOT AT THIS PRECISE JUNCTURE SEAL IT IN AN EVIDENCE ENVELOPE]. She collars bystanding JC aide Bill Stinson, presently talking to uniformed Texas Ranger Bobby Nolan, and Stinson says "Give it to him" (i.e. Nolan) [BY THIS JUNCTURE THE ITEM IS SEALED IN AN EVIDENCE ENVELOPE].
STEP 5A: Nolan in due course returned to DPDHQ, and handed the envelope in to Captain Will Fritz's office. He reports "They told me it was a bullet" and initialled and dated the evidence envelope. If this envelope actually contained the true projectile then this was the last anyone would see of it.
STEP 6: Back at Parkland, the gurney is recycled to a corridor, and left. Shortly afterwards passing maintenance engineer Darrell Tomlinson tidies the gurnies and sees XCE-001 fall onto the floor [BEING UNSURE WHETHER THIS IS XCE000 WE HAVE INTRODUCED A NEW ID].
ASIDE: At this point we note the hearsay confession of Sam Kinney that he found a bullet in limo #1 and placed it on a gurney for when everybody was less busy.
STEP 7: Tomlinson gives XCE-001 to nearby Parkland security officer O. P. Wright, who later recalls that it is not greatly deformed and has a pointed tip [CE-399 DOES NOT HAVE A POINTED TIP; .30-06 ROUNDS DO]. Persons unknown at the FBI and the Warren Commission later deliberately suppress this contradictory evidence.
ASIDE: Because of Geneva Convention rules against dum-dum bullets most rifles can fire either "military load" - full metal jacketed rounds which pass through bodies with reduced deformation - or "hunting load" - soft point jacketed rounds which fragment within the target the better to take it down. The "stopping power" of any firearm is maximised when all the kinetic energy in its projectiles is expended within the target.
STEP 8: Wright handed XCE-001 on to SS Agent Richard Johnsen, who later passed it up his chain of command to head of the White House SS detail, Jerry Behn, who later passed it up to SS Chief James Rowley [MIGHT BE SWITCHED HERE], who later passed it to FBI Agent Elmer Todd, who initialed it, and sent it to the FBI Lab's ballistics man Robert Frazier. By the time it arrived, the pointed XCE-001 had either already, or soon would, become the round-nosed CE-399.
STEP 9: During June the following year, with the Warren Commission busily accumulating the papers it wished to see, the FBI conducted an internal audit of the chain of possession outlined in STEP 8 above, summarising their findings in a formal Memorandum dated 7th July 1964. This memorandum deliberately overstated Tomlinson's, Wright's, and Nolan's identifications, ignored all references to pointed rounds, and included reassuring reports apparently from an investigating agent named Bardwell Odum.
MEANWHILE, back at Parkland ...
STEP 10: Senior Nurse Audrey Bell came out of Trauma Room One, where JFK had now been pronounced dead, and attended JC's ongoing treatment. One of her jobs was to place into evidence envelopes any projectile fragments from wounds. This she did, passing fragments from chest and wrist (but not thigh) to the aforementioned Elmer Todd, who passed them to the aforementioned Robert Frazier (who needed them because the total weight of all the fragments should equal the known factory weight of the round in question).
STEP 11: When interviewed long after the event, Tomlinson, Wright, Nolan, Bell, and Odum [see their separate entries] all gave less than totally confirmatory (and in some instances directly contradictory) accounts to that put forward in the aforementioned FBI Memorandum, exposing it as nothing short of precisely targeted case-pivotal institutional perjury [BUT WE DO NOT KNOW THE CHAIN OF DECEPTION FROM THIS POINT UPWARD].
For a quick visual accompaniment to this story - YouTube Bob Harris now. Then browse the Magic Bullet Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story (the total weight of which does not - sadly - yet equal the truth).
Maheu, Robert Aime: Maine-born businessman and lawyer with FBI and CIA credentials, and "no-good dishonest son of a bitch" (Howard Hughes) Robert Maheu [Wikipedia biography] was appointed by the CIA is September 1960 to liaise with mobsters Johnny Roselli and Sam Giancana and Santo Trafficante in organising mob resources against Fidel Castro. Much of what is now known about these arrangements came from Maheu's 1975 testimony before the Church Committee.
Mannlicher-Carcano C2766: At the time of writing [February 2018] the official version of the assassination narrative remains as it has always been, namely that JFK was killed by LHO firing a 41-inch-long variant of a 6.5mm Mannlicher-Carcano [Wikipedia technical briefing] with item stamp C2766. An article by Keith Wheeler in the 27th August 1965 edition of Life Magazine entitled "Cursed Gun - The Track of C2766" [online at Google Books - FASCINATING] goes through this weapon's provenance in some detail, from Italy to Louis Feldsott's Crescent Firearms, Inc. (and, indeed, through to its 1965 owner). And here's a curious thing ...
"Another curious point is the failure by investigators to find a single Mannlicher-Carcano cartridge other than those, including a live round still in the rifle, discovered at the scene. No extra cartridge was ever found on Oswald or in his possessions. No evidence was found that he ever purchased ammunition at all. If he was the assassin, his only ammunition was at the scene - the cartridge shells lined up as evidence in the assassin's lair. There is no official explanation as to where Oswald supposedly got his four cartridges" (Hurt, 1985, p384).
Browse the Mannlicher-Carcano C2766 Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Mannlicher-Carcano Charger Clip: A charger clip is a metal pressing designed to hold rifle cartridges - in the case of the Mannlicher-Carcano six of them - in readiness for rapid loading into a weapon's magazine. When needed, the bolt is drawn back and the clip pushed into the magazine from above, by which action it will compress a feeder spring beneath the lowermost round. When the bolt is returned to the firing position it pushes the topmost round out of the clip into the breech. When the bolt is re-opened, a claw at the front of the bolt brings the spent cartridge case with it until it hits a stop, whereupon it is flipped clear of the weapon (that is to say, "ejected"). The feeder spring, meanwhile, pushes the next round to the top of the charger clip so that the process can be repeated. When all the cartridges have been fired the empty clip can be dropped out for re-charging. YouTube a demonstration here. Over the years many histories have asserted that no clip was found with Mannlicher-Carcano C2766, which would - if true - have reduced it to being a manually fed weapon rather than a magazine fed one, with a firing rate of maybe one shot every 5 seconds. For the likely resolution of this debate, click here.
Malcolm X: [birth name Malcolm Little] Nebraska born Malcolm X [Wikipedia biography] was a human rights activist and minister for the Nation of Islam politico-religious movement.
***** "I had the son of a bitch killed" *****
Marcello, Carlos: Arriving in the U.S.A. as a 1-year-old Carlos Marcello [Wikipedia biography] worked his way down in the New Orleans underworld until, in the late 1940s, he got to the very bottom as the local Godfather. LHO knew of him as a boy because his mother Marguerite Oswald had once dated his driver. David Ferrie was often his pilot. He reportedly became a sworn enemy of the Kennedys during interrogation by RFK in 1959, and many theories - not least his own (as a sick old man), Davis (1990), and Blakey and Billings (1993) - credit him with ordering the JFK hit.
Blakey, G. R. and Billings, R. N. (1993). The Fatal Hour: The Assassination of President Kennedy by Organized Crime. New York: Berkley.
Davis, J. H. (1990). Mafia Kingfish: Carlos Marcello and the Assassination of John F. Kennedy. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Marchetti, Victor L.: When consulted by Grover Proctor for his (from-)1980 research into "Oswald's Raleigh Call", one time CIA Assistant Deputy Director Victor Marchetti [Wikipedia biography] identified the telephone numbers on LHO's DPD telephone call slip as a field agent's emergency contact numbers. Browse the Raleigh Call Thread to accumulate all the fragments of this story.
Markham, Helen Louise: Oak Cliff resident Helen Markham [Spartacus Educational biography] was the only full-facial witness to the shooting of Patrolman J. D. Tippit. She then fainted, was taken to Parkland Hospital to recover, and then to DPD, where she identified LHO as the assailant in a (procedurally flawed) line-up. Inconsistencies in her testimony were soon detected by Mark Lane - YouTube his derision now. Markham's evidential profile is as follows: Interview to camera [YouTube it now]; Warren Commission testimony [1st try; 2nd try; third and most important try].
Marrs, James Farrell, Jr: Crusading journalist and best-selling conspiracy author Jim Marrs [Wikipedia biography] lent his investigative skills to the JFK conspiracy movement in his 1989 book "Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy". Amongst the key areas of disagreement were ...
Doubts as to LHO's involvement in the death of Patrolman J. D. Tippit.
The role of oilmen angered by JFK's plans to withdraw the oil-depletion allowance.
The role of the military-industrial complex eager to milk a future war in Vietnam.
The role of the CIA irritated by JFK's refusal to back the Bay of Pigs Invasion.
The fact that a near word-perfect manuscript was rejected by all the major publishing houses, one after another, just about says all that needs to be said! Marrs died 2nd August 2017, but not before he had delivered a 5th September 2015 lecture, coincidentally in Dallas, in which he sorted the 9-11 cover-up as well. Sure it was a conspiracy, he said, the biggest in history; but it was conceived, enacted, and concealed by the U.S. government with the pre-assured connivance of the mainstream media. Just like 1963 - YouTube it now.
Marshall, Henry H.: Just doing his job good guy Henry Marshall [Spartacus Educational biography] was an investigator for the Agricultural Administration Agency (AAA), and was murdered 3rd June 1961 for getting too close to the truth in Billie Sol Estes' Cotton Allotment Scam, allegedly on the orders of LBJ, and allegedly by Mac Wallace.
Martello, Francis L.: New Orleans police lieutenant Francis Martello [no convenient biography] was the officer who interrogated LHO on 10th August 1963 following his arrest the previous day. It was during this interrogation that LHO requested to speak to an FBI agent - see the entry for John Quigley. Martello's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony (includes a long extract from Quigley's report) [read it now].
Martens, Layton Patrick ["Kid"]: [a.k.a. Kid Layton] 20-year-old jazz musician Kid Martens [various online obituaries available] was a roommate of David Ferrie at the time of the assassination, having met him while in his Civil Air Patrol squadron in 1958. He was also acquainted with Clay Shaw and Guy Banister, but had not heard of LHO until the assassination. He was subsequently indicted by Jim Garrison for perjury [charges later dropped]. He became an actor in the late 1980s and died of somewhat convenient heart failure on 18th March 2000, aged 57 years, while apparently researching his own book on the New Orleans tales.
Martin, Patrolman Billie Joe: DPD motorcycle outrider B. J. Martin [no convenient biography] was riding outside-left of the four DPD motorcycles attached to limo #1, and, after the shooting, stayed with the limo all the way to Parkland Hospital. Officer Martin's evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it now]; Testimony at the trial of Clay Shaw, 14th February 1969 [read it now].
Martin, Captain (DPD) Frank M.: Police Captain with the DPD's Juvenile Bureau Frank Martin [no convenient biography] was on crowd control in the basement of DPDHQ at the time of the Jack Ruby murder, but was not a close witness. Captain Martin died from cancer 17th June 1966, aged 56 years. His death is one of 115 more or less suspicious assassination-related deaths listed in Roberts and Armstrong's (1995) book "The Dead Witnesses". His evidential profile is as follows: Warren Commission testimony [read it here].
Martin, Jack: New Orleans private detective Jack Martin [Spartacus Educational biography] was an associate of Guy Banister and David Ferrie. As such he was destined to become one of Jim Garrison's most important early informants in unravelling at least some of the threads of the JFK assassination conspiracy.
Martin, James: Dallas attorney Jim Martin [no convenient biography] was one of Jack Ruby's lawyers.
Martin, Nancy: Archivist for the Kodak Rochester Archives at the University of Rochester.
Martin, Shirley: [Néé Harris] Oklahoma-based Shirley Martin [Spartacus Educational biography] became an assassination researcher by volunteering her time to Mark Lane. She carried out a number of early witness interviews, including Jean Hill (but not Mary Moorman because she was at the time too scared to talk), Marguerite Oswald, Ruth Paine, and Acquila Clemons. She met with Vincent Salandria in 1965. She finally toned down her researches after her daughter Victoria Martin died from injuries sustained in a perhaps convenient road traffic accident on 8th September 1967.
Martinez, Eugenio: Cuban exile since the Castro Revolution Eugenio Martinez [Spartacus Educational biography] seems to have taken part in Operation Tilt in June 1963 and is mentioned in some theories as having been a spotter for shooter Virgilio Gonzalez in a Dal-Tex Building shooting team.
Martinez Gomez, Reinaldo: Cuban exile Reinaldo Martinez Gomez [no convenient biography] was interviewed in 2007 at age 81 by Anthony Summers and G. Robert Blakey, and named one Herminio Diaz Garcia as having been involved in some way on the day.
ASIDE: We have seen it rumoured that the Cuban exile shooting team was based at the Dallas Trade Mart, and therefore took no part in the main event.
Martinez, Ruth Anne: [Sometimes the "girl in the polka dot dress"] In Rod Mac Kenzie( and Hooke)'s 2016 analysis of the assassination CIA-accredited hit-woman and reportedly a Black Widow in bed Ruth Martinez [no convenient biography] was the radio operator for Mac Wallace's shooter team on the 6th floor of the TSBD. Sample and Collom (1995) suggest she was synchronising with the shooters at the picket fence. Browse the Collins Radio Thread and the Shooter Teams Thread to accumulate all the fragments of Martinez' story.
Marvin, Daniel: Korean War veteran Daniel Marvin [Spartacus Educational biography] underwent special forces training during the late-1950s and would go on to lead a Green Beret team in high impact operations from 1964.
Masen, John Thomas: Dallas gun-dealer John Masen [no convenient biography] was alleged by the La Fontaines in their 1996 book "Oswald Talked" to have mixed gun running with his legitimate gun dealing. It was Masen, for example, who had set up the failed Thunderbird Drop and who knew how to coax arms out of the various military armouries dotted around Texas. He was also one of only two arms dealers in the Dallas-Irving area which stocked the rather obscure 6.5mm ammunition (the other being John Brinegar). His involvement has recently been discussed by Dick Russell in his 2008 book "On the Trail of the JFK Assassins", where, on the subject of the Mannlicher-Carcano C2766, it is noted that Masen had purchased about ten boxes of 6.5mm Mannlicher-Carcano ammunition from Brinegar in early 1963, although he could not subsequently recall to whom it had been sold. The histories also tell that when ATF investigator Frank Ellsworth saw LHO for the first time at DPDHQ on the afternoon of 22nd November 1963 he remarked that Masen would have made a good LHO Look Alike. Browse the LHO Look Alike Thread to accumulate the various fragments of this story.
Masferrer Rojas, Rolando Arcadio: 45-year-old anti-Castro warlord and racketeer Rolando Masferrer [Wikipedia biography] had been associated with Santo Trafficante since arriving in Miami, and, as a disenfranchised Batistiano with money, supported the anti-Castro operations from the shadows. In his 2009 book "The Road to Dallas" David Kaiser suggests that Masferrer wanted to topple the regimes in Haiti and the Dominican Republic in order to make military adventures against Cuba that much easier.
Mather, Carl Amos: [Read firstly the entries for T. F. White and Wes Wise.] Collins Radio employee Carl Mather [no convenient biography] was at work at Richardson at the time of the assassination. He was a close neighbour and friend of J. D. Tippit, and the owner of a car with the same registration number as that jotted down by T.F. White at around 1400hr on 22nd November. This latter fact did not emerge, however, until after Wes Wise took the White sighting to the FBI in December 1963. But it transpired (a) that Mather's car was a light blue over medium blue 1957 Plymouth (which did not match the one sought), and (b) that he personally had a high security clearance as a Collins Radio employee (he maintained the installation aboard Air Force Two!). This line of investigation was soon dropped, only to be re-examined by the 1976-1978 House Select Committee on Assassinations under the heading "The Wise Allegation" (HSCA, Volume XII), whereupon it was adjudged that White must have taken the car number down wrongly.
Matthews, Russell Douglas: WW2 veteran, Cuban bar owner 1958-1959, Dallas bookmaker, and street-named the "stealthy enforcer" Russell Matthews [no convenient biography, but see Smith (2013 [full text online] had been a "not close" associate of