The Aneurin Great War Project: Timeline

Part 4 - The Religious Civil Wars, 1603 to 1661

 

Copyright Notice: This material was written and published in Wales by Derek J. Smith (Chartered Engineer). It forms part of a multifile e-learning resource, and subject only to acknowledging Derek J. Smith's rights under international copyright law to be identified as author may be freely downloaded and printed off in single complete copies solely for the purposes of private study and/or review. Commercial exploitation rights are reserved. The remote hyperlinks have been selected for the academic appropriacy of their contents; they were free of offensive and litigious content when selected, and will be periodically checked to have remained so. Copyright © 2018, Derek J. Smith.

 

 

 

 

First published 12:34 BST 9th October 2013. This version [2.0 Copyright] 09:00 BST 5th April 2018  [BUT UNDER CONSTANT EXTENSION AND CORRECTION, SO CHECK AGAIN SOON].

 

 

This timeline supports the Aneurin series of interdisciplinary scientific reflections on why the Great War failed so singularly in its bid to be The War to End all Wars. It presents actual or best-guess historical event and introduces theoretical issues of cognitive science as they become relevant.

 

UPWARD

Author's Home Page

Project Aneurin, Scope and Aims

Master References List

 

BACKWARD IN TIME

Part 1 - (Ape)men at War, Prehistory to 730

Part 2 - Royal Wars (Without Gunpowder), 731 to 1272

Part 3 - Royal Wars (With Gunpowder), 1273-1602

 

FORWARD IN TIME

Part 5 - Imperial Wars, 1662-1763

Part 6 - The Georgian Wars, 1764-1815

Part 7 - Economic Wars, 1816-1869

Part 8 - The War Machines, 1870-1894

Part 9 - Insults at the Weigh-In, 1895-1914

Part 10 - The War Itself, 1914

Part 10 - The War Itself, 1915

Part 10 - The War Itself, 1916

 

UNDER CONSTRUCTION

Part 10 - The War Itself, 1917

Part 10 - The War Itself, 1918

Part 11 - The Poetry and the Science, 1919 to date

 

 

**********  BRITANNIA FINALLY BECOMES GREAT BRITAIN  **********

**********  BRITANNIA FINALLY BECOMES GREAT BRITAIN  **********

**********  BRITANNIA FINALLY BECOMES GREAT BRITAIN  **********

1603 [24th March] The Psychologies of War [XXII - Purity of Thought (The Protestant Inquisition)]: [Continued from 1541 (19th April)] Upon the death of Elizabeth I of England and Ireland [<=1588] James VI of Scotland [<=1566 (19th June)] ascends the English throne as James I of England, Scotland, and Ireland but starts to style himself "King of Great Britain", rather than the three kingdoms separately. Constitutionally, however, England and Scotland will remain separate kingdoms until 1707 [sub-thread continues at 1607 ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE: .James inherited the crown of Scotland in 1567 as James VI [<=1567 (24th July)], aged only one year. At this time England had been a Protestant country for 34 years [<=1533 (7th April)] and Scotland for 7 years (Wikipedia factsheet [<=1560 (24th August)]). He had therefore grown up in the shadow of Martin Luther [<=1517 (1st November)], Jean Calvin [<=1536], and John Knox [Wikipedia biography]. Once of age he took a personal interest in the witchcraft issue, attending Scottish witch trials in the 1590s, and writing his own book on the subject in 1597-1599 under the title "Daemonologie" [Project Gutenberg full text online], which begins by describing witches as "detestable slaves of the devil" and goes downhill from there.

 

1603 [30th March] The Treaty of Mellifont: This treaty between Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone [1601<=>1607] and the British crown brings to an end the Irish Nine Years War [<=1594]. The treaty grants the Irish chieftains full pardons and the return of their estates providing they swear loyalty to James I of Englandetc [24th March<=>1609]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1604 As a spin-off from his experiments with optics the German astronomer Johannes Kepler [Wikipedia biography] improves della Porta's [<=1589] "camera obscura" technology, and popularises that name itself. [THREAD = HISTORY OF SCIENCE]

 

1604 [18th August] The Treaty of London: This treaty between England and Spain brings the Anglo-Spanish War [<=1585] to an end. Britain is free to remain a Protestant country, but agrees in return to stop supporting the Dutch Rebellion against Spain. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1605 The British nobleman-philosopher Francis Bacon [Wikipedia biography] publishes an encyclopaedia of science under the title "The Advancement of Learning" [full text online]. [THREAD = HISTORY OF SCIENCE]

 

1605 [8th April] A son is born to Philip III of Spain [1598<=>1607] and his queen consort Margaret of Austria [Wikipedia biography] and named Philip (IV of Spain) [Wikipedia biography=>1621]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1605 [26th October] The Gunpowder Plot: An anonymous tip-off is received by the British security service warning of a Catholic plot to blow up the House of Lords at the State Opening of Parliament on 5th November. The cellars of the Palace of Westminster are thoroughly searched and Guy Fawkes [Wikipedia biography] is discovered along with 36 barrels of gunpowder, a length of fuse, and a box of matches. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1606 [20th December] The Susan Constant Expedition: Sponsored by the Virginia Company of London, Captain Christopher Newport [Wikipedia biography=>1608] leads a three-ship convoy carrying 104 colonising Puritan settlers to New England. They make landfall at Cape Henry, at the southern lip of Chesapeake Bay, on 26th April 1607, and by 14th May are putting up shelters at "Jamestown" [modern Jamestown, VA - see their heritage museum website], on the northern bank of the James River Estuary. One of their number, John Smith [Wikipedia biography=>1608] will spend much of his time exploring the surrounding territory and in 1608 will be captured and nearly executed by the indigenous tribes-people, surviving only thanks to the intervention of the local Chief's daughter Pocahontas [Wikipedia biography]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  STRANGERS AND PILGRIMS  **********

1607  The Psychologies of War [XXIII - Purity of Thought (The Scrooby Congregation)]: [Continued from 1603 (24th March)] Intent on enforcing the Anglican orthodoxy, the Archbishop of York Tobias Matthew [Wikipedia biography] purges the villages in his diocese - most famously Scrooby, Nottinghamshire - of "Congregationalists", an extremely presbyterian form of Puritanism. Led by church ministers such as William Brewster [Wikipedia biography=>1620], John Morton/Murton [Wikipedia biography], and John Robinson [Wikipedia biography], the congregation - including one William Bradford [Wikipedia biography] - seeks freedom from oppression at Leiden in the Dutch Republic. Contact seems to be maintained with other English Puritans, for the Leiden Separatists will contribute a party of 35 persons, Brewster and Bradford included, to the 1620 Mayflower Expedition [sub-thread continues at 1608 (14th May) ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

RESEARCH ISSUE - RELIGIOUS SEPARATISM: There is no clear psychological theory of separatist cognition in general, nor of religious separatism in particular (e.g., Van Leeuwen and Mashuri, 2013; Hudson et al, 1999 online; see also the Wikipedia article on the Evolutionary Psychology of Religion). Where such separatism also involves some element of authoritarian charisma on the part of a factional leader our understanding has advanced little since Theodore W. Adorno presented his F-Scale (Adorno, 1950).

 

1607 [14th September] The Flight of the Earls: This is the name given by historians to a deputation of Irish clansmen led by Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone [<=1603] seeking Spanish help against the British. Philip III of Spain [1605<=>1617] declines their request. The British, however, see the mission as flagrantly nullifying the Treaty of Mellifont [<=1603] and respond with a programme of "plantation" [=>1609], that is to say, of dispossessing the Irish clans of their ancestral lands by forcibly settling non-Catholic ethnic outsiders upon them [=>1609].  [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1608 [8th January] The First Virginia Supply Mission: Captain Christopher Newport [1606<=>??th September] arrives back at Jamestown with two ships, the John and Frances and the Phoenix, loaded with supplies and 120 fresh colonists. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1608 [14th May] The Psychologies of War [XXIV - Purity of Thought (The Protestant Union)]: [Continued from 1607] Frederick IV of Wittelsbach, Elector of the Palatinate [Wikipedia biography=>1610] organises the establishment of a mutual aid confederation of German Protestant states. George Frederick of Baden-Durlach [Wikipedia biography=>1622] commits to providing an army of 12,000 men [sub-thread continues at 1609 (10th July) ...].  [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1608 [18th July] Upon the death of Joachim Frederick, Margrave and Elector of Brandenburg [<=1572], the title passes to his son John Sigismund [1594<=>1618], with Anna of [East] Prussia [<=1594] as his "Electress Consort".  [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1608 [??th September] The Second Virginia Supply Mission: Captain Christopher Newport [8th January<=>1609] arrives at Jamestown in the Mary Margaret, loaded with supplies and 70 fresh colonists. On his return voyage he evacuates John Smith [<=1606] for medical treatment in England following accidental gunpowder burns. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1609  The Plantation of Ulster: In retaliation for the "Flight of the Earls" [<=1607] James I of Englandetc [1603<=>1613] approves plans to populate Ulster with English and Presbyterian Scottish settlers. The process will continue on and off for a hundred years or so, and will help to create a Protestant enclave in Ireland which will survive until the present day as Northern Ireland.  [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1609 [2nd June] The Third Virginia Supply Mission: Admiral George Somers [Wikipedia biography] and Captain Christopher Newport [<=1608] set sail from England with a nine-ship convoy loaded with supplies and 500-600 fresh colonists. Their flagship is the brand-new armed merchantman Sea Venture. Unfortunately the convoy is scattered by a storm in mid-July and Sea Venture becomes separated from the other ships, which limp into Jamestown over the following weeks. Sea Venture, meanwhile, is on the verge of sinking but makes a very lucky landfall at "Discovery Bay", Bermuda, and is beached to prevent her complete loss. All 150 passengers and crew (and the ship's dog) make it to shore, claiming the islands for the English Crown [continues 1610 (23rd May) ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1609 [10th July] The Psychologies of War [XXV - Purity of Thought (The Catholic League)]: [Continued from 1608 (14th May)] Inspired and led by Maximilian I (Elector)1623 of Bavaria [Wikipedia biography=>1619], the Catholic states of Germany form a mutual aid confederation along the lines of the Catholic League in France [<=1576] to counterbalance politicking across Europe by the Protestant Union [<=1608] [sub-thread continues at 1612 ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1609 [late-1610 (31st  May)] The Starving Time Begins: The non-arrival of the Sea Venture at Jamestown [<=2nd June] ushers in a period of intense privation, for the ships which did arrive on time brought more mouths to feed and diseases such as yellow fever and plague. The colony is also besieged by Indians, making it difficult to work fields or hunt forests. With a population of some 500 persons to start with, each passing day now sees, on average, around two deaths, and it is going to be a long winter. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1610 [1st April-9th June] The Fourth Virginia Supply Mission: Thomas West, 3rd Baron de la Warr [henceforth "Lord Delaware"] [Wikipedia biography] sets sail for Virginia with three supply ships. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1610 [14th May] Upon the death of Henry IV of France [<=1601] the French throne passes to his eight-year-old son Louis XIII of France [1601<=>1615], with the child's mother Marie de Medici [<=1601] acting as Regent until 1617. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1610 [20th-31st May] Deliverance and Patience: When first shipwrecked [<=1609 (2nd June)], the crew of the Sea Venture had several important resources available to them, not least an island rich with timber, the hulk of the Sea Venture herself, complete with masts, rope, tackle, tools, etc., and plenty of willing pairs of hands. They therefore built for themselves two new ships, the Deliverance (80 tons) and the Patience (30 tons). Loading them with what supplies they can scrape together, they set off for Jamestown a second time. Amongst the 142 souls on board are General Sir Thomas Gates [Wikipedia biography] and John Rolfe [Wikipedia biography] (who will later marry Pocahontas [<=1606], and make Virginia-grown tobacco a commercial success story). Unfortunately, their arrival at Jamestown reveals that only 60 persons have survived the Starving Time, and so they all decide to call it a day and return to England. They spend a week preparing Deliverance and Patience and set sail on 7th June. They are only just clear of the James River, however, when they are spotted on 9th June by Lord Delaware's Fourth Supply Mission, and allow themselves to be persuaded to return to Jamestown with Delaware as Governor. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1610 [4th July] The Battle of Klushino: This battle is fought near modern Smolensk, Russian Federation, between a heavily outnumbered Polish-Lithuanian army under Stanislaw Zolkievski [Wikipedia biography] and a Muscovite army under Dmitry Shuisky. The outcome is an impressive against-the-odds victory for the Polish-Lithuanians. The battle is noteworthy in the present context for demonstrating the value of concentrated well-trained cavalry, specifically the Polish hussars. [THREAD = THE WW1 ARMIES]

 

1610 [19th September] Upon the death of Frederick IV of Wittelsbach, Elector of the Palatinate [<=1608] his title passes to his son Frederick V [Wikipedia biography=>1613]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1612 Belief Systems [V - Superstition, Witchcraft, and Magic (Bachet de Meziriac on)]: [Continued from 1589] The French mathematician Claude Bachet de Meziriac [Wikipedia biography] publishes "Problčmes Plaisans" [Library of Congress full text online], a compendium of how to do surprising things with numbers [sub-thread continues at 1612 (18th August) ...]. [THREAD = THE BATTLE FOR HEARTS AND MINDS]

 

1612 [20th January] Upon the death of the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph II of Austria [Wikipedia biography] his titles pass to Archduke Matthias of Austria [Wikipedia biography=>1614]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

The following entry is best considered under two headings

1612 [27th July-19th August] Belief Systems [VI - Superstition, Witchcraft, and Magic (The Lancashire Witch Trials)] and The Psychologies of War [XXVI - Purity of Thought (The Lancashire Witch Trials)]: [The first continued from 1612, the second from 1609 (10th July)] Keen to support James I of England's [<=1603 (24th March)] zealous stand against "slaves of the devil" [ditto] the magistrates at Lancaster and York try nine women and two men on charges of witchcraft, convicting and executing all but one of them [sub-threads continue at 1635 (Henry Dean) and 1618 (23rd May), respectively ...]. [THREAD = THE BATTLE FOR HEARTS AND MINDS]

 

1613 [14th February] The marriage takes place of Frederick V, Elector of the Palatinate (Frederick I of Bohemia)1619 [1610<=>1618] and Elizabeth Stuart [Wikipedia biography=>1619], daughter of James I of Englandetc [1609<=>1620]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE - THE PALATINATE: [Latin palatium = "palace"] In the Roman Empire a Palatinus was a senior civil servant or judge attached to a Court of some sort and therefore special in some way. The early Holy Roman Empire borrowed the same term for those of its lands which had no royal house, calling them "counties palatine" and appointing "counts palatine" to rule over them. By the early 17th century the main counties palatine were the "Upper" and "Lower" Palatinates of Germany. The Upper Palatinate was that part of the larger province of Bavaria centred on the city of Regensburg [Wikipedia map]. The Lower Palatinate, or "County Palatinate of the Rhine", is the old name for the Pfalz, that area of modern Germany tucked in to the north of Alsace and to the east of Luxembourg [Wikipedia map]. It includes the cities of Kaiserslautern, Pirmasens, and Ludwigshafen, and is the historical home of the Amish people of Pennsylvania. It is noteworthy at this point in history because it is strategically placed on the "Spanish Road", the Spanish overland line of supply from Genoa, up over the Alpine passes, and thence through south-west Germany to the Spanish Netherlands [Wikipedia map].

 

1613 [13th October] Following the assassination of Sigismund Báthory, Prince of Transylvania1 [Wikipedia biography] his titles pass (with the required Ottoman approval) to the Calvinist Gabriel Bethlen [Wikipedia biography=>1619]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1ASIDE: We have already explained the division of the eastern Balkans into Habsburg, Ottoman, and "Ottoman-approved" [<=1515 (Congress of Vienna); 1526 (Habsburg-Ottoman War)]. Transylvania is one of the Ottoman-approved states.

 

1614  The British mathematician John Napier [Wikipedia biography] publishes Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio [= "The Construction of Logarithms"] [full text online], in which he explains one of the major theoretical advances of the era, namely logarithms, a method of multiplying by adding. Logarithms are power, or "exponential", relationships, reflecting how many times a number - known as the "base" of the logarithm - has to be multiplied by itself to give another number. As a general formula, the process would be summarised as ...

 

 logbx + logby = logb(x.y)

 

 ... which is the same thing as the following ...

 

 x.y = antilog[logbx + logby]

 

Logarithms immediately catch on because once the log and antilog look-up tables have been calculated and printed, the process of using them involves less steps, and is less prone to error, than do long multiplications. No matter how big your numbers are, or how many of them you have to multiply together, their multiplication involves looking up the antilogarithm of the sum of their logarithms; indeed, the more complicated the multiplication, the bigger the saving. [NO SINGLE THREAD]

 

1614 [??th August] The Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke Mathias of Austria [1612<=>1617] appoints Charles de Longueville, Count of Bucquoy [Wikipedia biography=>1618] Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial army. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE - BUCQUOY IN WW1: The town of Bucquoy - Bucquoy's ancestral estate - lies midway between Albert and Arras, in the open country between Gommecourt and Bapaume. It will therefore be behind the German lines on the first day of the Battle of the Somme.

 

1615 [24th November] The marriage takes place of Louis XIII of France [1610<=>1620] and Anne of Austria [Wikipedia biography=>1638]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1617 [5th June] The Treaty of Ońate: This secret treaty between the soon-to-be Holy Roman Emperor, (Archduke)1619 Ferdinand II of Austria [Wikipedia biography=>1618] and Philip III of Spain [1607<=>1621]. It awards the province of Alsace to Philip in return for his withdrawing the Spanish Habsburgs' claim to the Austrian Habsburg succession. This enables Ferdinand to be parachuted into the crown of Bohemia by the Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias of Austria [1614<=>1619]. The deal is attractive to Philip because Alsace is on the Spanish Road1 and will therefore maintain a contiguous arc of Spanish Habsburg influence to the north and east of France. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1ASIDE: As already mentioned [<=1613 (ASIDE)], this arc of influence runs from the Spanish Netherlands on the North Sea to Genoa on the Mediterranean. As such it follows the historic line of the Frankish kingdom of Lotharingen [<=843 (The Treaty of Verdun and the Divisio Imperii)]. It therefore also approximates to the line of the WW1 Western and Italian Fronts.

 

1618 [20th February] Upon the death without heir of his elder half-brother Philip William, Prince of Orange [<=1584] his title passes to Maurice of Nassau [1590<=>1624].  [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1618 [23rd May] The Psychologies of War [XXVII - Purity of Thought (The Thirty Years War, 1618-1648)]: [Continued from 1612 (27th July)] This war is fought between the largely Protestant nations of northern Europe [Sweden, Denmark-Norway, Bohemia, the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and Brandenburg-Prussia] and the largely Catholic nations of southern Europe [the Catholic League states of Germany, the Spanish Empire, Habsburg Hungary, and Croatia]. Germany is particularly severely split by religion, with four of its seven Electors, including (Archduke)1619 Ferdinand II of Austria [1617<=>next], being Catholic, one (Saxony) Lutheran, and two (Brandenburg-Prussia and the Palatinate) Calvinist. The main military figures are ...

 

·         Don Ambrosio Spinola, 1st Marquis of the Balbases [Wikipedia biography=>1620] [henceforth just "Spinola", commander of the Spanish Habsburg forces in the Palatinate, 1621-1623, and the Netherlands, 1624-1625]

·         Ernst von Mansfeld [Wikipedia biography=>1620] [henceforth just "von Mansfeld", commander of the Bohemian mercenary army, 1618-1620, the Palatinate mercenary army, 1621-1622 and 1625-1626(d.)]

·         Henry Matthias, Count of Thurn [Wikipedia biography=>1618] [henceforth just "Thurn", commander of the Bohemian Revolutionary Army, 1618-1620; general in the Swedish army, 1626-1633 (ret'd)]

·         Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly [Wikipedia biography=>1622] [henceforth just "Tilly", commander of the Catholic League forces in Germany, 1620-1632(d.)]

·         Albrecht von Wallenstein [Wikipedia biography=>1620] [henceforth just "von Wallenstein", cavalry commander in the Bohemian Revolt, 1618-1620; Commander-in-Chief Habsburg Imperial Army, 1625-1630]

·         Sir Horace Vere, 1st Baron Tilbury [Wikipedia biography=>1620] [henceforth just "Lord Tilbury", commander of an English volunteer contingent in the Dutch Army, 1604-1605; ditto in the Palatinate Army, 1620-1622; ditto in the Dutch Army, 1624-1632]

·         Charles de Longueville, Count of Bucquoy [1614<=>1620] [henceforth just "Bucquoy", Commander-in-Chief Habsburg Imperial Army, 1614-1621(d.)]

·         Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba [Wikipedia biography=>1621] [henceforth just "Córdoba", commander of the Spanish Expeditionary Force, Flanders and Palatinate Germany, 1621-1623 and 1632-1633]

 

Here are the main events ...

 

·         THE BOHEMIAN REVOLT, 1618-1621 [see separate indexing entry =>1618]

·         THE HUGUENOT REBELLIONS, 1620-1629 [see separate indexing entry =>1620]

·         THE PALATINATE WAR, 1620-1624 [see separate indexing entry =>1620]

·         THE DANISH-LED PHASE, 1624-1629 [see separate indexing entry =>1625]

·         THE ANGLO-FRENCH WAR, 1627-1629 [see separate indexing entry =>1627]

·         THE SWEDISH-LED PHASE, 1630-1635 [see separate indexing entry =>1630]

·         THE FRENCH-LED PHASE, 1635-1648 [see separate indexing entry =>1635]

 

The overall outcome is that Habsburg influence is curtailed at the expense of a stronger Bourbon dynasty in France. The war also breaks the cohesion of the German states, setting neighbour against neighbour, so that later regional kings and princes lack a sense of "being German"1, but are instead Hanoverian, Prussian, Saxon, Westphalian, etc. The war also sees the demise of large mercenary armies driven at every level by the promise of loot [sub-thread continues at 1620 (25th December) ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE] [THREAD = THE BATTLE FOR HEARTS AND MINDS]

 

1ASIDE - PRUSSIA: It is therefore not coincidental that the first great German after the Thirty Years War - the "Great Elector", Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg and King of Prussia [=>1640] styled himself as a Prussian, as in due course will Frederick the Great in the 18th century and Blücher during the Napoleonic Wars. It will be left for Otto von Bismarck to re-unify the German-speaking peoples in the 19th century. Much more on this in due course.

 

ASIDE - PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUES IN THE THIRTY YEARS WAR: Taylor (1990) concludes that "the principal medium" of propaganda in the early 17th Century was the "small-format publication", namely posters, news-sheets, leaflets, and pamphlets. The Thirty Years War was in this respect a "war of the pens" (p90), not dissimilar to the Lutheran Reformation [<=1517 (1st November)], but conducted on a hitherto unknown scale. Jowett and O'Donnell (1992) add ...

 

"... both sides in the [Thirty Years War ...] turned out massive quantities of leaflets, pamphlets, and line drawings, including vicious caricatures of the religious and secular leaders. A new development of some importance in this conflict was the printing of posters from copper plates, which made possible a much wider distribution that was possible from wood-cuts. Both sides engaged in writing about the atrocities that the other had committed (a technique widely used even today), while the roving bands of uncontrolled soldiers produced printed materials warning towns of starvation if they resisted and promising booty to those who joined them" (pp54-55).

 

1618 [23rd May] The Bohemian Revolt, 1618-1621: This sequence of events constitutes the first major phase of the Thirty Years War [<=preceding]. The war is fought between the Protestants in Bohemia under Frederick V [1617<=>1619] and the Catholic League states [<=1609] under (Archduke)1619 Ferdinand II [preceding<=>next]. Frederick will receive military support from his immediate neighbours, as well as political and financial support from the Dutch Republic, England-Scotland, Denmark, and Sweden. Ferdinand will receive military support from the Spanish Habsburgs and financial from the Papacy. Here is a campaign map, and here are the main events ...

 

·         The Defenestration of Prague, 1618

·         The Sieges of Pilsen and Budweis, 1618

·         The First Siege of Vienna, 1619

·         The Battle of Sablat/Záblati, 1619

·         The Battle of Wisternitz, 1619

·         The Second Front, 1619

·         The Deposal of the King of Bohemia, 1619

·         The Second Siege of Vienna, 1619

·         The Treaty of Ulm, 1620

·         The Habsburg Counter-Offensive, 1620

·         The Battle of the White Mountain, 1620

·         The Peace of Mainz, 1621

 

The overall outcome is a short-lived victory for the Protestants, followed by 20 years of pain and privation for just about all concerned. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1618 [23rd May] The Defenestration of Prague: The Bohemian Revolt begins when two  lieutenants of (Archduke)1619 Ferdinand II [preceding<=>1619] outstay their welcome at the Bohemian Court and at the instigation of Thurn [preceding=>1619] are literally thrown out (through an upstairs window) of Hradčany Castle, Prague. Bohemia now erupts into armed insurrection and puts out a call to fellow Protestants across Europe for assistance. A 30-man Revolutionary Committee is established under Wenzel von Ruppau [no convenient biography] and Thurn is appointed Minister for War. Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy [Wikipedia biography] responds to the appeal for aid with a covert offer to fund a mercenary army under von Mansfeld [preceding<=>next]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1618 [26th June] The Moravian President Karel Žerotín [no convenient biography=>1619] declares his loyalty to the Habsburgs but nevertheless commissions von Wallenstein [23rd May<=>1619] to start assembling a Moravian army. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1618 [??th August-21st November (Pilsen)/15th June 1619 (Budweis)] The Sieges of Pilsen and Budweis: The first thing that von Mansfeld [23rd May<=>25th November] does when he arrives in Bohemia is to encircle the residual Habsburg strongholds at Pilsen and send a detached column under George Frederick of Hohenlohe [Wikipedia biography=>1619] to do likewise at Budweis. Pilsen falls on 21st November, but Budweis is defended by a larger force under Bucquoy [23rd May<=>1619] and holds out until the following summer. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1618 [28th August] Upon the death of Albert Frederick of (Ducal) Prussia [<=1569] the dukedom of Prussia passes to (the House of Hohenzollern) John Sigismund, Margrave and Elector of Brandenburg [1608<=>1619]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

                                                                                          

1618 [1st October] The Silesians assemble a 4000-strong army under Johann-Georg von Jägerndorf [no convenient biography]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1619 [20th March] Upon the death of the Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke Matthias [<=1617] his titles pass after a long and particularly fiercely debated electoral process to Ferdinand II [1618<=>19th August]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

                                                                                          

1619 [??th April] Karel Žerotín [<=1618] is assassinated and the Moravian army under von Wallenstein [1618<=>1620] is sent to assist the Bohemians. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

                                                                                          

1619 [??th May] The First Siege of Vienna: Now reinforced by the Moravians [<=preceding] Thurn [1618<=>next] mounts an offensive toward Vienna. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

                                                                                          

1619 [10th June] The Battle of Sablat/Záblati: This battle is fought as part of the Bohemian Revolt [<=1618] between a Bohemian army under von Mansfeld [1618<=>1620] and an Imperial army under Bucquoy [1618<=>5th September]. Von Mansfeld is en route from Pilsen to Budweis in order to rejoin with Hohenlohe's command [<=1618], but Bucquoy manages to ambush him while still 15 miles away and wins a convincing victory, prompting Thurn [preceding<=>21st November] to abandon the sieges of Vienna and Budweis on 14th June and Hohenlohe to abandon the siege of Pilsen the day after. Bucquoy then sends a column under Henry Duval, Count of Dampierre [Wikipedia biography<=>next] to take care of a Moravian offensive 100 miles further east. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1619 [5th August] The Battle of Wisternitz: This battle is fought as part of the Bohemian Revolt [<=1618] between an Imperial army under Dampierre [preceding<=>21st November] and a Moravian army under Friedrich von Teuffenbach [no convenient biography] which is attempting to secure South Moravia for the Protestants. The outcome is a Moravian victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1619 [???August] The Second Front: Gabriel Bethlen [1613<=>5th September] leads a Transylvanian Protestant army against Habsburg Hungary from the east. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1619 [19th/26th August] The Deposal of the King of Bohemia: The Bohemian Parliament reverses its election of the Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke Ferdinand II [20th March<=>1620] to the Bohemian throne, and on 26th August offers the title instead to Frederick V [1618<=>15th September]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

                                                                                          

1619 [5th September] The Battle of Kaschau/Košice: This battle is fought as part of the Bohemian Revolt [<=1618] between Gabriel Bethlen [??th August<=>12th October] and his advancing Transylvanians and the Imperial garrison at Kaschau/Košice. The outcome is a Protestant victory. When he learns of this setback Bucquoy [10th June<=>1620] abandons his offensive in Bohemia and hurries south to block the Transylvanian line of advance. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1619 [15th September] Frederick V [19th October<=>14th October] accepts the offer of the crown of Bohemia. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1619 [12th October] The Battle of Pressburg/Bratislava: This battle is fought as part of the Bohemian Revolt [<=1618] between Gabriel Bethlen [5th September<=>21st November] and his advancing Transylvanians and the Imperial garrison at Pressburg/Bratislava. The outcome is a Protestant victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1619 [14th October] A third son [fourth child] is born to Frederick V [15th September<=>1620] and his consort Elizabeth Stuart [1613<=>1620], and named Prince Rupert (of the Rhine) (1st Duke of Cumberland)1644 [Wikipedia biography=>1620]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1619 [21st October] The Treaty of Munich: Archduke Ferdinand II [19th August<=>1620] offers Maximilian I [1609<=>1620] rights of conquest over such Bohemian lands as he can conquer, in return for Catholic League military support in his confrontation with Frederick V [15th September<=>1620]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1619 [21st November-5th December] The Second Siege of Vienna: The Bohemians under Thurn [10th June<=>1620] combine forces with the Moravians under Dampierre [5th August<=>1620], and the Transylvanians under Gabriel Bethlen [12th October<=>1620], cross to the south bank of the Danube at Bratislava, and head for Vienna some 40 miles to the west. The siege will be short-lived, however, being abandoned in a hurry on 5th December when news reaches Bethlen that Transylvania is itself under attack from marauding Cossacks. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1619 [23rd December] Upon the death of John Sigismund, Margrave and Elector of Brandenburg [<=1618] his titles pass to his son George William [Wikipedia biography=>1631]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1620 [12th January] True to the Treaty of Ońate [<=1617], Philip III of Spain [1617<=>1621] offers 12,000 elite Spanish troops to his uncle (and fellow Habsburg, of course) Archduke Ferdinand II [1619<=>1621], commanded by Tilly [16th August<=>24th July]. They will be ready for operations in high summer [=>24th July]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1620 [??th February] Unwilling to intervene directly in the Bohemian Revolt, James I of Englandetc [1613<=>1625] approves the raising of two expeditionary forces of Protestant volunteers for service in the Palatinate. The first is raised in Scotland by Sir Andrew Gray [no convenient biography] and disembarks in Hamburg in May, and the second is raised in England by Lord Tilbury [1618<=>5th September] and disembarks in the Dutch Republic on 2nd August. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

ASIDE: The American historian William S. Brockington Jnr [academic homepage] has a paper online detailing the role played by Scottish mercenaries in the Thirty Years War [check out Brockington (2012 online)]. The topic is also extensively covered in Grant (1889 [online at Electric Scotland]).

 

1620 [3rd July] The Treaty of Ulm: This treaty agrees peace (but only within the confines of Germany) between the states of the Protestant Union [<=1608] and those of the Catholic League [<=1609]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1620 [24th July] The Habsburg Counter-Offensive: The newly arrived Spanish army under Tilly [12th January<=>20th September] and the Bavarians under Maximilian I [1619<=>8th November] push northward into Bohemian-held northern Austria, taking Linz on 4th August. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1620 [25th July] The Mayflower Expedition: Captain Christopher Jones [<=1609] departs Rotherhithe, London, in Mayflower, carrying some 65 English Puritans1 on the first leg of a voyage of settlement to New England. Their first stop is at Southampton in order to rendezvous with another 50 or so passengers - drawn from the Leiden Separatists previously discussed [<=1607] - due in from the Dutch Republic on the Speedwell. The two ships then set sail on 15th August, only to be forced back to Plymouth after a week when Speedwell springs a leak. All but a few faint hearts then cram aboard Mayflower and she sets off again on 16th September, arriving in the lee of Cape Cod on 21st November and going ashore at "Provincetown" on 23rd. The party includes ...

 

·         William Bradford, Scrooby Congregation [<=1607], farmer

·         William Brewster, Scrooby Congregation [<=1607], Minister

·         Myles Standish [Wikipedia biography], soon to be commander of the new colony's militia.

 

On 6th December a scouting party discovers "Plymouth Bay" on the opposite side of Cape Cod Bay, and Mayflower moves anchorage on 20th December. Over the next three months they build the first shelters at "Plymouth Colony", only finally disembarking on 31st March, by which time 49 of their number have already succumbed to malnutrition, accident, and diseases such as scurvy. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1ASIDE: Farmers, artisans, and common labourers in roughly equal proportion.

 

1620 [5th September] THE PALATINATE WAR, 1620-1625: Concerned at the turmoil in Bohemia, but sensing that the Austrian Habsburgs now have the upper hand, the Spanish decide to secure the Lower Palatinate in order (a) to cut the Dutch-Bohemian (east-west) supply lines, (b) to guarantee their own Spanish Road (north-south) supply lines, and (c) to deal with Frederick V [1619<=>8th November] once and for all. They therefore plan a complex offensive in which Tilly's army will be brought across from the Bohemian Front as soon as practicable and reinforced with a new expeditionary army under Córdoba [1618<=>1622] and a 35,000-man detachment from their Flanders Army under Spinola [1618<=>next]. Here is a campaign map, and here are the main events...

 

·         Spinola's Occupation of the Lower Palatinate, 1620

·         Tilly's Upper Palatinate Campaign, 1621

·         The Relief of Frankenthal, 1621

·         The Battle of Jülich, 1621

·         The Battle of Mingolsheim, 1622

·         The Battle of Bad Wimpfen, 1622

·         The Battle of Höchst, 1622

·         The Siege of Heidelberg, 1622

·         The Battle of Fleurus, 1622

·         The Capture of Mannheim, 1622

·         The Battle of Stadtlohn, 1623

·         The Siege of Breda, 1624

 

The overall outcome will be a Spanish Habsburg victory in the Palatinate, but a continuing stalemate in the Netherlands. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1620 [5th September] Spinola's Occupation of the Lower Palatinate: The detached Spanish Flanders Army under Spinola [preceding<=>1621] crosses the Rhine in order to secure the Lower Palatinate. Bad Kreuznach [map] falls on 10th September Oppenheim [map] on 14th, the Bergstrasse region of Hesse [map] a few days later, and Bacharach [map] on 1st October. The Dutch respond by occupying Jülich in the north of the Palatinate and Lord Tilbury's [??th February<=>1621] newly arrived English division establishes a stronghold at Frankenthal. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1620 [20th September] Tilly's Advance Continues: Tilly [24th July<=>8th November] now joins forces with Bucquoy [1619<=>8th November]. They pass a few weeks building up their strength and then on 5th November, leaving a brigade to contain von Mansfeld [1619<=>1621] in Pilsen, they strike rapidly northward for Prague. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1620 [8th October] The Battle of Bratislava/Pressburg: This battle is fought as part of the Bohemian Revolt between an Imperial army under Dampierre [<=1619] and the Transylvanians under Gabriel Bethlen [<=1619]. The outcome is a defeat for the Imperials and the death of Dampierre on the battlefield. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1620 [8th November] The Battle of the White Mountain: This battle is fought in what is now a suburb of Prague as part of the Bohemian Revolt [<=1618] between a Catholic League army under Bucquoy [<=20th September], Tilly [20th September<=>1621], and Maximilian I [24th July<=>1621], and a larger but less battle-hardened Bohemian/ Protestant Union army under von Wallenstein [1618<=>1626] and Christian I of Anhalt-Bernburg [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is a decisive victory for the Catholics, leaving the city to Tilly. Frederick V [1619<=>1621] and his consort Elizabeth Stuart [1613<=>1621] flee1 to sanctuary in the Hague as guests of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange [1618<=>1624] and the Bohemian Estates formally cease their rebellion on 13th November. Thurn [1619<=>1626] forfeits his estates and is exiled. Elsewhere in Bohemia von Mansfeld [1618<=>1621] holds Pilsen and Tabor for a short period before being forced to withdraw into the Upper Palatinate. The reprisals in Prague will continue through into the Spring as measures are put in place to bring Bohemia firmly back into the Habsburg fold, where it will remain until 1918. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1ASIDE: The story goes that so abrupt was their departure that they nearly forgot to take the one-year-old Prince Rupert [1619<=>1638] with them, an attentive courtier tossing the child into the royal carriage at the last moment!

 

**********  IN FRANCE MEANWHILE ...  **********

1620 [25th December] The Psychologies of War [XXVIII - Purity of Thought (The Huguenot Rebellions, 1620-1629)]: [Continued from 1618 (23rd May)] Threatened by Louis XIII of France [1610<=>1622] and a hostile French Catholic establishment, the French Protestants - the Huguenots - hold a General Assembly in La Rochelle at which they resolve to establish a "state within a state" under Henry, Duke of Rohan [Wikipedia biography]. The resulting unrest will be dealt with under the following sub-headings ...

 

·         THE FIRST HUGUENOT REBELLION, 1620-1622 [see separate indexing entry =>1620]

·         THE SECOND HUGUENOT REBELLION, 1625-1626 [see separate indexing entry =>1625]

·         THE THIRD HUGUENOT REBELLION 1627-1629 [see separate indexing entry =>1627]

 

The war as a whole is noteworthy in the present context as yet another sad demonstration of how quickly a clash of belief systems can lead to (or at least be used to help justify) outright warfare [sub-thread continues at 1622 (22nd June) ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1620 [25th December] The First Huguenot Rebellion, 1620-1622: This two-year armed insurrection is the first of the three Huguenot Rebellions [<=preceding], and will be considered under the following event headings ...

 

·         The La Rochelle General Assembly, 1620 [casus belli]

·         The Siege of Saumur, 1621

·         The Siege of St-Jean-d'Angély, 1621

·         The Blockade of La Rochelle, 1621

·         The Siege of Montauban, 1621-1622

·         The Siege of Nčgrepelisse, 1622

·         The Treaty of Montpellier, 1622

·         The Battle of St-Martin-de-Ré, 1622

 

The eventual outcome is that the Huguenots are driven back into their strongholds at Montauban and La Rochelle, where they prepare for the second phase of the war [=>1625]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1621 [31st March] Upon the death of Philip III of Spain [<=1617] his titles pass to his 15-year-old son Philip IV of Spain [1605<=>1624]. At the advice of senior noblemen the young King resolves to pursue the long-standing Eighty Years War [<=1566] against the republican Dutch with renewed vigour by moving on the strategically important city-stronghold of Breda [=>1624]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1621 [12th April] The Peace of Mainz: The Protestant Union formally withdraws its support for the Bohemians and agrees a three-month ceasefire. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1621 [14th April] Frederick V [1620<=>1622] and his consort Elizabeth Stuart [1620<=>1630] arrive at the Hague. The Dutch promise to support his efforts to retake his lands. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1621 [early May] The Siege of Saumur: This siege is fought out as part of the First Huguenot Rebellion [<=1620] between a Royal army under Louis XIII of France [1620<=>next] and the Huguenot garrison at Saumur under Philippe du Plessis-Mornay [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is a victory for the King. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1621 [16th May-23rd June] The Siege of St.-Jean-d'Angély: This hard-fought siege is fought out as part of the First Huguenot Rebellion [<=1620] between a Royal army under Louis XIII of France [preceding<=>1622] and the Huguenot garrison at St.-Jean-d'Angély under Benjamin de Rohan, Duke of Soubise [Wikipedia biography=>]. The outcome is a victory for the King. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1621 [???August] Tilly's Upper Palatinate Campaign: This campaign is fought out as part of the tidying up after the Bohemian Revolt [<=1618] between a Spanish army under Tilly [1620<=>1622] and the refugee Bohemian army under von Mansfeld [1620<=>next]. Tilly takes Cham [map] on 23rd September whereupon von Mansfeld judges that discretion is the greater part of valour and withdraws westward into the Lower Palatinate without offering any further resistance. A grateful emperor then awards the Upper Palatinate to Maximilian I [1621<=>1622]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

         

1621 [??th August] The Battle of Mainz: In the Lower Palatinate, meanwhile, Córdoba [1618<=>19th September] captures Mainz. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE: The German historian Peter Milger [homepage] has detailed what it was like as Córdoba's army systematically bled white each village in his path [check this out]; and friendly armies were little better!

 

1621 [19th September-25th October] The Siege/Relief of Frankenthal [map]: This battle is fought between Córdoba [??th August<=>1622] and Lord Tilbury's [1620<=>1622] garrison at Frankenthal. Von Mansfeld [preceding<=>1622] drives the besiegers off in late October and then moves off himself to overwinter [= loot, rape, and murder the locals] in Alsace. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1621 [5th September-3rd February 1622] The Siege of Jülich: This siege is fought out as part of the Palatinate War [<=1620] between the detached Flanders Army under Spinola [1620<=>1622] and the Dutch garrison at Jülich. The outcome is a Spanish victory, thereby severing the Protestant supply route between the Netherlands and the Palatinate. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1621 [9th November] The Fortune Expedition: This small merchantman delivers a party of 37 colonists led by Robert Cushman [Wikipedia biography] to Plymouth Colony, bringing their present numbers up to 66 men and 16 women. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1622  The clergyman William Oughtred [Wikipedia biography] creates the slide rule. In its simplest form, this is simply two straight laths of wood placed together long side to long side, with a logarithmic power scale etched into the two facing edges. If the <zero> point on the second scale is placed against the multiplicand on the first scale, then the multiplier on the second scale is level with the product of the multiplication on the first, that is to say, the logarithm of the multiplicand has been added to the logarithm of the multiplier, which, given Naperian theory [<=1614], is equivalent to multiplying the original natural numbers together. The system is only accurate to a couple of significant figures, but that is sufficient for most applications. It is also portable, cheap, and does not require voluminous look-up tables at hand to make it work. Oughtred's discovery will be put to practical use two years later by the astronomer Edmund Gunter [Wikipedia biography] as a "ready reckoner" for sailors. [THREAD = WW1 GUNNERY CONTROL SYSTEMS]

 

1622 [22nd February] Having spent some years developing a coal-fuelled iron furnace, Dudd Dudley [1598<=>1650] has his father Edward Sutton, 5th Baron Dudley [<=1598] take out protective patents on the process. The secret of its success is for the coal to be turned into coke before firing up the furnace. This requires driving off the impurities in much the same way that wood becomes charcoal when roasted anaerobically for several days. Dudley's interests include works at (a) Pensnett Chase, Dudley, (b) Himley, near Dudley, (c) Cradley, near Halesowen, and (d) Hasco [now Askew] Bridge, Dudley. [THREAD = THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION]

 

**********  "PROPAGANDA" IS BORN  **********

1622 [22nd June] The Psychologies of War [XXIX - Purity of Thought (The Sacra Congegatio)]: [Continued from 1620 (25th December)] Pope Gregory XV [Wikipedia biography] establishes the Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide [= Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith] to promote the Church's missionary activities [sub-thread continues at 1627 (1st August) ...]. [THREAD = THE BATTLE FOR HEARTS AND MINDS]

 

1622 [21st April] Frederick V [1621<=>13th July] arrives in the Lower Palatinate from the Netherlands, to lead a summer offensive against Tilly [1621<=>next] and Córdoba [1621<=>6th May]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1622 [27th April] The Battle of Mingolsheim [map]: This battle is fought as part of the Palatinate War [<=1620] between a Protestant Union army under von Mansfeld [1621<=>6th May] and the Spanish expeditionary army under Tilly [21st April<=>6th May]. The outcome is a Protestant victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1622 [6th May] The Battle of Bad Wimpfen [map]: This battle is fought as part of the Palatinate War [<=1620] between a Protestant Union army under von Mansfeld [27th April<=>4th July] and George Frederick of Baden-Durlach [1608<=>1627] and the Spanish expeditionary armies of Tilly [27th April<=>20th June] and Córdoba [21st April<=>20th June]. The result is the virtual annihilation of the Badeners, with George Frederick escaping seriously wounded. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1622 [10th June] The Siege of Nčgrepelisse [map]: This two-day siege takes place as part of the First Huguenot Rebellion [<=1620] between a crown army under Louis XIII of France [1621<=>next] and the Huguenot garrison at Nčgrepelisse. The attack is driven home with exceptional fervour thanks to the 21-year-old Louis commanding that no quarter should be given since the town's defiance had "irritated" him. The outcome is that the town is burnt to the ground and all 800 inhabitants massacred. The event is noteworthy for making the act of massacre a legitimate primary military objective in its own right, that is to say, neither for political gain nor monetary, but rather [to use the modern word] "cleanse" an area of its unsavoury inhabitants. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1622 [20th June] The Battle of Höchst [map]: This battle is fought as part of the Palatinate War [<=1620] between a Protestant Union army raised in Lower Saxony by Christian of Brunswick-Lüneburg [Wikipedia biography=>29th August] and the Spanish expeditionary armies of Tilly [6th May<=>4th July] and Córdoba [6th May<=>next]. The Protestants are caught half-way across the River Main and, though they do their best to retire in good order, have to abandon their baggage train and suffer some 2000 men drowned. They then fall back toward the de facto Protestant Union capital, Heidelberg ... [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1622 [4th July-19th September] The Siege of Heidelberg: This siege is fought out as part of the Palatinate War [<=1620] between the Spanish expeditionary armies of Tilly [20th June<=>20th October] and Córdoba [preceding<=>29th August], fresh from their victories at Bad Wimpfen [<=6th May] and Höchst [<=20th June], and a Palatinate army under Christian of Brunswick-Lüneburg [20th June<=>next]. Christian also has available to him a small English army under Sir Gerard Herbart [Wikipedia biography], Lord Tilbury [1621<=>20th October], and Sir John Burroughs [Wikipedia biography=>1623], who divide their numbers between Heidelberg (Herbert), Mannheim (Tilbury), and Frankenthal (Burroughs). The outcome is that Herbert is killed in action during the final Spanish assault on the city, which surrenders on 19th September. Tilly then mops up at Mannheim [=>20th October] and Frankenthal [=>1623]. Frederick V [21st April<=>1630] finally declares that his cause is lost, and that he can no longer afford to maintain his armies, whereupon Christian of Brunswick-Lüneburg [preceding<=>next] and von Mansfeld [6th May<=>29th August] are immediately signed up by the Dutch for their own war against the Habsburgs 230 miles west in Flanders [=>next]. Frederick will be replaced as Elector of the Palatinate by Maximilian I [1621<=>1631] on 23rd February 1623. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  THE SPANISH-DUTCH WAR RE-IGNITES  **********

1622 [29th August] The Battle of Fleurus [map]: This battle reopens the Eighty Years War [<=1566] after a decade of peace. It is fought between a Protestant Union army under von Mansfeld [4th July<=>1625] and Christian of Brunswick-Lüneburg [preceding<=>1623] and a considerably smaller but much more experienced Spanish army under Córdoba [<=4th July]. Córdoba has force-marched his army all the way from the Lower Palatinate in pursuit of von Mansfeld, in order to prevent him joining up with the Dutch in Breda against Spinola [1621<=>1624]. He makes the interception at Fleurus, just east of Charleroi, and achieves an against-the-odds victory with disproportionate Protestant casualties (only 3000 of von Mansfeld's 14,000-strong army make it through to Breda). [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1622 [19th October] The Treaty of Montpellier: This treaty between Louis XIII of France [10th June<=>1624] and Henry, Duke of Rohan [<=1620] brings the First Huguenot Rebellion [<=1620] to an end. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1622 [20th October-2nd November] The Fall of Mannheim: This short siege is fought out as part of the Palatinate War [<=1620] between the Spanish expeditionary army under Tilly [4th July<=>1623] and the brigade of the English expeditionary division under Lord Tilbury [4th July<=>1624]. The defenders fight efficiently and well but are heavily outnumbered and eventually strike their colours. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1622 [27th October] The Battle of St.-Martin-de-Ré: This naval battle is fought as part of the First Huguenot Rebellion [<=1620] between a crown fleet under Charles, Duke of Guise [Wikipedia biography=>1625] and a smaller Huguenot fleet under Jean Guiton [Wikipedia biography=>1627]. The Huguenots fight well but are soon forced back into port by the larger and more heavily armed ships of the French fleet. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1623 [??th March] The Fall of Frankenthal: This short siege is fought out as part of the Palatinate War [<=1620] between a Spanish Habsburg army under Tilly [1622<=>1625] and the survivors of the English expeditionary division under Sir John Burroughs [<=1622]. As at Mannheim the previous Autumn, the defenders are heavily outnumbered and have little choice but to surrender. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1623 [6th August] The Battle of Stadtlohn [map]: This battle is fought as part of the Palatinate War [<=1620] between a Protestant Union army under Christian of Brunswick-Lüneburg [<=1622] and the Spanish expeditionary army under Tilly [1622<=>1625]. The outcome is the virtual annihilation of the Protestants, and marks the end of the Palatinate War, all bar the tidying up. The Dutch Republic, for all its efforts, now has Spanish armies on all its borders, not just the southern one with Flanders. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1624  Around this time an ironworks is being developed at Top Forge [=>1640] in Wortley, Yorkshire [map]. [THREAD = THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION]

 

1624  Around this time a Londoner named Roger Conant [Wikipedia biography] emigrates to New England, where he is one of the first to settle on the south shore of the Naumkeag Estuary, an area soon to grow into the harbour/port of Salem, MA. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1624 [26th April] The French clergyman-politician Armand du Plessis, Cardinal de Richelieu [Wikipedia biography=>1627] is appointed Chief Minister to Louis XIII of France [1622<=>1626], and embarks upon an 18-year career as the cunning behind the throne. He begins by taking a strong anti-Habsburg stance, and this means supporting the Protestant Dutch in their struggles against Spain. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1624 [28th August-5th June 1625] The Siege of Breda: This nine-month siege is fought out as part of the renewed Spanish offensive1 against the Dutch Republic authorised by Philip IV of Spain [1621<=>1629] between the Spanish Flanders Army under Spinola [<=1622] and the well-prepared Dutch garrison at Breda under Justin of Nassau [Wikipedia biography]. Attempts to raise the siege by Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange [1620<=>1625] and Lord Tilbury [<=1622] are repeatedly thwarted, and the outcome is a slow-but-sure Spanish victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1ASIDE: The renewed offensive may be viewed historically and formally as part of the Eighty Years War [<=1566] but is best seen militarily as part of the Palatinate War phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1620].

 

1625 [17th January] The Second Huguenot Rebellion, 1625-1626: This 12-months extension of the First Huguenot Rebellion [<=1620] is fought around the Huguenot stronghold at La Rochelle, defended by Benjamin de Rohan, Duke of Soubise [1621<=>next]. Here are the main events ...

 

·         The Battle of Blavet, 1625

·         The Huguenot Capture of the Isles of Ré and Oléron, 1625

·         The Recapture of the Isle de Ré, 1625

·         The Treaty of Paris, 1626

 

The overall outcome is a weakening of the Huguenots who are now penned tightly into La Rochelle but no longer with a navy of their own to defend them. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1625 [17th January] The Battle of Blavet [map]: This naval battle is fought as part of the Second Huguenot Rebellion [<=preceding] between a Huguenot fleet under the (self-styled) "Admiral of the Protestant Church" Benjamin de Rohan, Duke of Soubise [preceding<=>next] and an anchored (and largely unmanned) French squadron at Blavet under Charles Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is a major Huguenot victory, sweetened by the capture of many ships, including the first-rater La Vierge, 80 guns. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1625 [??th February] The Huguenot Capture of the Isles of Ré and Oléron: This battle is fought as part of the Second Huguenot Rebellion [<=preceding] between the recently augmented Huguenot fleet under Benjamin de Rohan, Duke of Soubise [preceding<=>16th August] and the French Loyalists on the Isles de Ré and Oléron. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1625 [27th March] Upon the death of James I of Englandetc [<=1613] his crowns pass to his son Charles Stuart, Duke of Albany [<=1600] as Charles I [=>??th October]. Unfortunately, the new king's marriage a few weeks later [13th June] to the Catholic princess Henrietta Maria of France [Wikipedia biography=>1643] goes down badly with the "Puritans" of the Protestant British religious right. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1625 [23rd April] Upon the death of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange [<=1618] his title passes to his younger brother Frederick Henry [Wikipedia biography=>9th December]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1625 [19th May] The Danish-Led Campaign, 1624-1629: This campaign is part of the Thirty Years War [<=1618] and is fought between a Danish/Protestant Union led by Christian IV of Denmark1 [Wikipedia biography=>next] and the Holy Roman Empire led by Archduke Ferdinand II [1620<=>1630]. Here is a campaign map and here are the main events ...

 

·         The Danish Offensive, 1625

·         The League of the Hague, 1625

·         The Battle for the Dessau Bridge, 1626

·         The Siege of Münden, 1626

·         Von Mansfeld's Silesian Campaign, 1626

·         The Battle of Lutter-am-Bamberg, 1626

·         The Battle for Havelberg, 1627

·         The Battle for Lauenberg, 1627

·         Von Wallenstein's Long March, 1627

·         The Holstein Campaign, 1627

·         The Battle of Grossenbrode, 1627

·         The Capitulation of Franzburg, 1627

·         The Battle of Wolfenbüttel, 1627

·         The Siege of Stralsund, 1628

·         The Battle of Wolgast, 1628

·         The Treaty of Lübeck, 1629

 

The overall outcome of this phase of the broader war is a defeat for the Danes, who then step aside to let the Swedish have a try. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1ASIDE: Christian was not just King of Denmark at this time but also Duke of Holstein and the Niedersächsischer Reichskreis [= "Lower Saxon Circle"].

 

1625 [19th May-17th August] The Danish Offensive: This campaign opens the Danish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1618]. It is fought between the Danish national army under Christian IV [preceding<=>9th December] supported by a mercenary army under von Mansfeld [1622<=>1626], and a Bavarian army under von Wallenstein [1620<=>??th October]. The Bavarians move northward out of the Upper Palatinate, following the River Saale whilst the Danes move south-eastward to confront them. The immediate outcome is a relatively stable battle-front, but one which can easily be outflanked from the Lower Palatinate to the southwest, where the Spanish expeditionary army under Tilly [1623<=>1626] is being rapidly remobilised. On 25th July Tilly strikes northwards along the River Weser, taking Hamelin on 17th August and Minden [map] shortly afterward. Caught off balance, Christian and von Mansfeld withdraw as fast as pushed, and often faster. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1625 [16th August] The Recapture of the Isle de Ré: This battle is fought as part of the Second Huguenot Rebellion [<=preceding] between a French fleet under Charles, Duke of Guise [<=1622] and the Huguenot defenders on the Isle de Ré under Benjamin de Rohan, Duke of Soubise [<=??th February]. Soubise's defences are soon overwhelmed and he flees to sanctuary in England. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1625 [??th October] Von Wallenstein [17th July<=>25th April] calls his advance to a halt, and takes up winter quarters on the Elbe around Halberstadt and Magdeburg. Tilly does likewise 150 miles to the west on the Weser. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1625 [9th December] The Treaty of the Hague: This treaty between Charles I of Englandetc [27th March<=>1627], Christian IV [19th May<=>1626], and Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange [23rd April<=>1629] agrees that the English and the Dutch will subsidise the Danish army for the duration of the Danish-led Campaign in Germany. As treaties go, however, this one has little substantive impact. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1626 [5th February] The Treaty of Paris: This treaty between Louis XIII of France [1624<=>1627] and the Huguenots of La Rochelle brings the Second Huguenot Rebellion [<=1625] to an end. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1626 [6th March] The Scottish nobleman Sir Donald MacKay (1st Lord Reay)1628 [Wikipedia biography] recruits a 2000-man regiment in Scotland for service in Denmark under von Mansfeld [1625<=>25th April]. This new unit - MacKay's Regiment [=>??th June] - will see active service from the following Spring. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE: The role of poverty in making military life attractive despite the attendant dangers may be seen in the popular saying at the time that "he who is down on his luck can still get a dollar from MacKay".

 

1626 [25th April] The Battle for the Dessau Bridge [map]: This battle is fought as part of the Danish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1618] between a Danish/Protestant Union army under von Mansfeld [6th March<=>??th June] and the Imperial army under von Wallenstein [1625<=>??th June]. Von Mansfeld is trying to get his army across the River Elbe in order to threaten the north-south line of supply up to the Imperial forward base at Magdeburg. Von Wallenstein is charged with preventing him, and has the firepower to do just that. The Dessau Bridge becomes a killing ground and after taking around 4000 casualties the Protestants abandon the attempt. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1626 [??th May] The Polish-Swedish War, 1626-1629: This war is fought between Sweden under Gustavus II Adolphus [Wikipedia biography=>22nd September] and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth under Sigismund III Vasa [Wikipedia biography=>22nd September], supported by the Holy Roman Empire. Here are the key events ...

 

·         The Swedish Invasion of Prussia, 1626

·         The Battle of Gniew, 1626

·         The Battle for Hammerstein/Czarne, 1627

·         The Battle of Dirschau/Tczew, 1627

·         The Battle of Honigfeldt/Trzciana, 1629

·         The Peace of Altmark, 1629

·         The Treaty of Stuhmsdorf, 1635

 

The overall outcome is a Swedish victory. The war is noteworthy for field testing the experimental Swedish "leather gun". [THREADS = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE and WW1 ARTILLERY]

 

ASIDE - THE LEATHER GUN: This innovative piece of artillery was popularised by the gun foundries at Örebro, Sweden, in the early 1620s to a technically challenging set of specifications, firstly that the resulting weapon should be light enough to accompany infantry into battle, and secondly that it should be cheap and quick to manufacture. The result was a composite construction barrel on a light two-wheeled carriage. The barrel was built up by taking an axial copper tube core with a 50-100 mm. bore, tightly wrapping it with a jacket of strong cord, and then finally sheathing the cord with wetted leather wrapping [images, courtesy of Warlord Games]. The result was effectively a giant shotgun - ideal for anti-personnel applications at close range, especially when firing some sort of fragmentation round. In the long run, however, the weapon is found to degrade too much during use, and is soon replaced by an all-brass three-pounder, whose robustness and reliability more than justifies its greater weight. Stevenson and Caldwell (1979 online) offer a detailed history if interested.

 

1626 [??th May] The Swedish Invasion of Prussia: This invasion takes place as part of the Polish-Swedish War [<=preceding] when a Swedish invasion fleet lands 8000 troops in Ducal Prussia (with, it will be suggested, the tacit consent of the Duke thereof, despite his being in fief to the Polish crown). [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1626 [30th May] The Siege of Münden [map]: This siege is fought out as part of the Danish-led Phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1618] between the Spanish expeditionary army under Tilly [1625<=>5th August] and the Protestant garrison at Münden. The outcome is a fairly predictable Imperial victory, whereupon Tilly moves his siege artillery forwards to threaten Göttingen, twenty miles further northeast. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1626 [??th June] Von Mansfeld's Silesian Campaign: This battle is fought as part of the Danish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1618] between a Protestant Union army under von Mansfeld [25th April<=>dies 29th November] and the Imperial army under von Wallenstein [25th April<=>1627]. The campaign will last some four months but neither side has sufficient resources to inflict significant damage on the other. It does, however, prevent Tilly and von Wallenstein joining forces further north. When winter comes the offensive grinds to a halt, with von Mansfeld succumbing to an illness on 29th November. Von Wallenstein will drive the remnants of von Mansfeld's armies from Silesia the following Spring. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1626 [??th June] The Scottish nobleman Robert ("the Black Baron") Munro, 18th Baron Foulis [Wikipedia biography=>1628] joins Mackay's Regiment [<=6th March] for service as a "soldier of fortune" [= mercenary] in the Thirty Years War [<=1618], firstly for Christian IV [1625<=>next] with the Danish army and later with the Swedish army. His battle honours will include Grossenbrode [=>1627], Stralsund [=>1628], Breitenfeld [=>1631], and Lützen [=>1632]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1626 [5th August] The Fall of Göttingen: This battle is fought as part of the Danish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1618] between the Imperial army under Tilly [30th May<=>next] and the defenders of the Lower Saxon city of Göttingen. The outcome is an Imperial victory, and forces Christian IV [preceding<=>next] and his army to fall back toward Wolfenbüttel. This retreat takes the Danes through Lutter-am-Bamberg ... [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1626 [26th-27th August] The Battle of Lutter-am-Bamberg: ... Tilly [preceding<=>1627] detaches a flying column of his fastest moving units to overhaul the retreating Danish army under Christian IV [preceding<=>1627]. The outcome is a convincing victory for Tilly, with heavily disproportionate Danish casualties. As such the battle marks the end of Danish offensive operations and the beginning of a two-year period of retreat culminating in a final collapse after the Battle of Wolgast [=>1628]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE: The problem with running away from one battlefield is that unless your enemy expressly lets you go you rarely make it to the next. Your biggest problem is deciding whether to put your fighting troops ahead of your baggage train, or behind it, and both decisions are wrong. If you put your troops ahead of your baggage train then it leaves all your food, ammunition, tents, etc., and all but your lightest cannon, undefended. If you put your troops behind your baggage train then your retreat will be at the speed of the slowest cart and the weakest wagon-wheel. The best solution is to withdraw with as little panic as possible, and with an effective rear-guard to keep your pursuers at a distance. It is also useful to be leaving behind a place worth looting because is likely to distract your pursuers. We shall be studying the relationship between logistics and mobility in WW1 in due course.

 

**********  THE ESTERHÁZYS TAKE THE STAGE  **********

1626 [10th August] As a reward for loyal service to the Roman Catholic Church and the Habsburg Empire, the Hungarian landowner Nikolaus Esterházy [Wikipedia biography] is appointed Count of Galántha. His Royal House will maintain a direct line of inheritance down to the present day [details]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1626 [22nd September-1st October] The Battle of Gniew: This battle is fought as part of the Polish-Swedish War [<=??th May] between a Swedish army under Gustavus II Adophus [??th May<=>1627] and a Polish army under Sigismund III Vasa [<=??th May]. The outcome is a Swedish victory, prompting Sigismund to transfer his most experienced commander, Stanislaw Koniecpolski [Wikipedia biography=>1627], from another war in the south of the country. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1627 [??th April] The Battle for Havelberg [map]: This battle is fought as part of the Danish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1618] between an Imperial army under Tilly [1626<=>next] and the Danish garrison at Havelberg. The outcome is a victory for the Imperials. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1627 [12th-17th April] The Battle for Hammerstein/Czarne: This siege-battle is fought as part of the Polish-Swedish War [<=1626] between a Swedish army under Johann Streiff [no convenient biography] and the Polish northern army under Koniecpolski [1626<=>16th August]. The outcome is a negotiated Swedish surrender, followed by a mass re-enlistment into the Polish army. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1627 [31st May] The Battle for Lauenberg: This battle is fought as part of the Danish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1618] between the Imperial army under Tilly [preceding<=>1st August] and the Danish garrison at Lauenberg, 20 miles north of Göttingen. The outcome is a Imperial victory. The plan is now that von Wallenstein [1626<=>1st August] should join him from Silesia, there no longer being a credible threat in that direction. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1627 [12th July] The Third Huguenot Rebellion, 1627-1629: This further extension of the Huguenot Rebellions [<=1620;1625] begins when Charles I of Englandetc [1625<=>next but one] decides to support the Huguenots in La Rochelle. Here are the main events ...

 

·         The Siege of St.-Martin-de-Ré, 1627

·         The Siege of La Rochelle, 1627-1628

·         The Siege of Privas, 1629

·         The Siege of Alés, 1629

·         The Treaty of Alés, 1629

 

The overall outcome is the end of Huguenot Protestantism in France. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1627  [12th July-27th October] The Siege of St.-Martin-de-Ré: This siege is fought out on the Isle de Ré, just off La Rochelle, as part of the Third Huguenot Rebellion [<=preceding] between a 100-ship British fleet under (the reputedly incompetent) George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham [Wikipedia biography] (who has brought no siege artillery with him) and the French garrison within the fortified town of St.-Martin-de-Ré under Jean de St. Bonnet, Marquis of Toiras [Wikipedia biography]. Toiras fights a very good fight, and Buckingham eventually abandons the siege on 27th October. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1627  [12th July] The Anglo-French War, 1627-1629: This war is fought between Louis XIII of France [1626<=>1633] and Charles I of Englandetc [last but one<=>1629]. It is triggered by English interference in the Third Huguenot Rebellion [<=last but one] and is therefore best considered as a sideshow within a sideshow to the broader Thirty Years War [<=1618]. The overall outcome is a French victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1627  [1st August] Von Wallenstein's Long March: As planned after the fall of Lauenberg [<=31st May] von Wallenstein [31st May<=>??th August] now takes 50,000 troops and all the associated artillery and wagons and marches them 700 miles across the North German Plain to join Tilly's [31st May<=>??th August] advance into Holstein. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1627  [1st August] The Psychologies of War [XXX - Purity of Thought (The Collegium Urbanum)]: [Continued from 1622 (22nd June)] The better to support the propaganda drive begun five years previously by the Sacra Congregatio [<=1622 (22nd June)], Pope Urban VIII [Wikipedia biography] issues a Papal Bull under the title "Immortalis Dei Filius", establishing a Pontifical University in Rome [see their 21st Century website] for training up the necessary missionary force [sub-thread continues at 1635 (Henry Dean) ...]. [THREAD = THE BATTLE FOR HEARTS AND MINDS]

 

1627 [16th-17th August] The Battle of Dirschau/Tczew: This battle is fought as part of the Polish-Swedish War [<=1626] between a Swedish army under Gustavus II Adophus [1626<=>1629], Thurn [1626<=>1631], and Hermann Wrangel [Wikipedia biography=>1629], and the Polish northern army under Koniecpolski [12th April<=>1644]. The Swedes are intent on taking the strategically important Pomeranian city-port of Danzig/Gdansk, and Koniecpolski, being out-numbered, is trying to stop them without being brought to full battle. The battle swings gradually in favour of the Swedes until a lucky musket shot seriously wounds Gustavus and they decide to abandon their advance for the time being. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1627  [??th August] The Holstein Campaign: This campaign is fought as part of the Danish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1625] between the Spanish expeditionary/Imperial armies under Tilly [1st August<=>1631] and von Wallenstein [1st August<=>18th September] and a Danish army under George Frederick of Baden-Durlach [1622<=>18th September]. Domitz, on the Elbe, will fall to von Wallenstein on 30th August, followed by the Battles of Grossenbrode [=>18th September] and Wolfenbüttel [=>14th December]. The outcome is that the Danes are comprehensively broken. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1627  [10th September-28th October 1628] The Siege of La Rochelle: This year-long siege takes place during the Third Huguenot Rebellion [<=1627] and involves a besieging French Army led by Cardinal Richelieu [1624<=>1629] and the Huguenot defenders at the port of La Rochelle under Jean Guiton [<=1622]. The English fail in a number of attempts to lift the siege from the sea and the city is finally sacked in October 1628. The siege is noteworthy in the present context (a) for the complexity of the besieging entrenchments [cf. any of the land battles in WW1], and (b) for an early use of drift mines against anchored shipping. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

WAR ART: The French victory duly inspired a number of self-congratulatory works by French artists, of which the following are typical: "Louis XIII at the Siege of La Rochelle" and "The Surrender of La Rochelle". The besieging entrenchments can be seen in Jacques Callot's (1630) "La Rochelle Surrounded".

 

1627 [18th September] The Battle of Grossenbrode: This battle is fought as part of the Danish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1618] between an Imperial army led by von Wallenstein [??th August<=>10th November] and a Danish army under George Frederick of Baden-Durlach [<=??th August] and Bernard of Saxe-Weimar [Wikipedia biography=>1632]. The outcome is a Danish rout. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1627 [10th November] The Capitulation of Franzburg: Von Wallenstein [??th August<=>1628] persuades the Pomeranian high command to allow his forces unopposed entry into Stralsund. In the event, however, the Stralsunders themselves decide to make a fight of it and force von Wallenstein into a siege [=>next two]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1627 [14th December] The Battle of Wolfenbüttel: This battle is fought as part of the Danish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1618] between an Imperial column under Gottfied Heinrich (Count of Pappenheim)1628 [Wikipedia biography=>1631] and the Danish garrison at/around Wolfenbüttel. The outcome is an Imperial victory and, in that, the loss of the last Danish stronghold in Lower Saxony. The Danes now hold their islands and retain a little influence in the coastal ports of Pomerania, most notably Stralsund ... [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1628 [13th May-4th August] The Siege of Stralsund: This siege is fought out as part of the Danish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1625] between the Imperial army under von Wallenstein [1627<=>next] and Hans von Arnim-Boitzenburg [Wikipedia biography=>1629] and a hotch-potch army of Danes under Henry Holke [Wikipedia biography], expeditionary Swedes (from 23rd June) under Fritz Rosladin [Wikipedia biography], expeditionary Scottish under Robert Munro, 18th Baron of Foulis [1626<=>1631], and native Pomeranians (whose city, after all, it is). A further 1100 Scottish under Alexander Lindsay, 2nd Lord Spynie [Wikipedia biography] will arrive on 9th July, followed by 1200 Swedes under Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven [Wikipedia biography=>1636] on 16th July. The battle goes well for the defenders throughout thanks in part to heavy rain and von Wallenstein abandons the siege around 21st July. The Swedes, with their feet under the table, decide to stay put. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1628 [4th March] The New England Company: The English nobleman and entrepreneur Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick [Wikipedia biography] leads an group of investors, including one John Endicott [Wikipedia biography=20th June], in signing a land grant to "The New England Company for a Plantation in Massachussetts" (or, more popularly, "The New England Company"). [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1628 [20th June] The Abigail Expedition: John Endicott [<=4th March] sails for New England with a party of 50 or so Puritan settlers aboard the Abigail to join Roger Conant's 1624 party [<=] at Naumkeag/Salem. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1628 [12th August] The Battle of Wolgast [map]: This battle is fought as part of the Danish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1625] between the Danish national army under Christian IV [preceding<=>1629] and the Imperial army under von Wallenstein [preceding<=>1629], now no longer tied down in the siege lines at Stralsund. The outcome is a decisive Imperial victory and the end of the Danish war all bar the tidying up. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1629 [11th February/1st May] The Lyon's Whelp Expedition: Captain John Gibbs [no convenient biography] carries Francis Higginson [Wikipedia biography] and a party of 350 or so Puritan settlers aboard six ships to join John Endicott's 1628 party [<=] on Massachussetts Bay. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  THE ENGLISH PURITANS DISENFRANCHISED  **********

********** NEW ENGLAND OFFERS A SAFE "HIDINGE PLACE"  **********

1629 [2nd March] The Personal Rule: In a fit of royal pique, Charles I of Englandetc [1627<=>1633] dissolves Parliament and begins a period of "personal rule" which will last 11 years [=>1640]. One of the Members of Parliament to lose his seat in the dissolution is a 30-year-old Puritan by the name of Oliver Cromwell [Wikipedia biography=>1642]. More significantly, however, the entire Puritan population of England has also suddenly become dis-enfranchised, including one John Winthrop [Wikipedia biography=>1630]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1629 [30th April-14th September] The Siege of 's-Hertogenbosch: This siege is fought out as part of the Eighty Years War [<=1566] between a Dutch army under Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange [1625<=>1635] and the Spanish garrison at 's-Hertogenbosch [Wikipedia map and images]. The outcome after months of creative siege engineering is the surrender of the city. The siege is noteworthy in the present context as an early marker of Dutch supremacy in their struggle against Spain. Indeed the remaining 18 years of Frederick Henry's life will be assessed militarily, commercially, and culturally as a Dutch golden age. The siege is also noteworthy for the courage and ingenuity shown by a young French-born officer named Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne (Vicomte de Turenne) [Wikipedia biography=>1635]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1629 [22nd May] The Treaty of Lübeck: This treaty brings the Danish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1625] to a formal conclusion. Drafted by von Wallenstein [1628<=>1632] it requires little more of Christian IV [<=1628] than a solemn undertaking to leave the Germans to their own wars. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1629 [17th June] The Battle of Honigfeldt/Trzciana: This battle is fought as part of the Polish-Swedish War [<=1626] between a Swedish army under Gustavus II Adophus [1627<=>1630] and Wrangel [<=1627] and a Polish army under von Arnim-Boitzenburg [1628<=>1631]. The outcome is a Polish victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1629 [25th September] The Peace of Altmark: This treaty brings to an end the Polish-Swedish War [<=1626], with Livonia and the port/city of Riga being ceded to Sweden. The agreement has been brokered by representatives of Cardinal Richelieu [1627<=>1633] who take the opportunity, working to the overriding principle that what is bad for the Habsburgs is automatically good for France, to offer to fund a Swedish army in any future action against the Holy Roman Empire. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1629 [20th November] A fourth son is born to George of Brunswick-Lüneberg [Wikipedia biography] and his consort, Anne of Hesse-Darmstadt [Wikipedia biography], and named Ernest Augustus [Wikipedia biography]. [1660 (28th May)] [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1630 [8th April] The Winthrop Fleet: John Winthrop [<=1629] leads 700 like-minded Puritans to New England in an 11-ship fleet crammed with tools and supplies. They land at Salem and then move out to create their own village on the Shawmut Peninsula at the mouth of the Charles River, some 20 miles to the southwest. It will be renamed "Boston" on 7th September, after Boston, Lincolnshire, hometown of many of the settlers involved. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1630 [26th June] The Swedish-Led Campaign, 1630-1635: This campaign is part of the Thirty Years War [<=1618] and is fought between a Swedish/Protestant Union army (heavily subsidised by the French [<=1629]) led by Gustavus II Adolphus [1629<=>next] and including MacKay's Regiment1 [1626<=>next] and the Holy Roman Empire under Archduke Ferdinand II [1625<=>1635]. The main events are ...

 

·         The Invasion of Peenemünde, 1630

·         The Brandenburg Involvement, 1631

·         The Siege/Sack of Magdeburg, 1631

·         The First Battle of Breitenfeld, 1631

·         The Battle of Lützen, 1632

·         The Battle of Nördlingen, 1634

·         The Treaty of Prague, 1635

 

The outcome of this phase of the broader war is both the military and political exhaustion of Sweden, and their consequent replacement as anti-Habsburg champions by France. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1ASIDE: Grant (1889 online) notes as follows ...

 

"[Gustavus] had at one time no less than four field-marshals, four generals, three brigadiers, 27 colonels, 51 lieutenant-colonels, 14 majors, and an unknown number of captains and subalterns, all Scotsmen, besides seven regiments of Scots that lay in Sweden and Livonia, and six elsewhere" (pp174-175).

 

1630 [26th June] The Invasion of Peenemünde [map]: Gustavus II Adolphus [preceding<=>next] lands a Swedish army at Peenemünde on the Baltic coast to consolidate his forces in Pomerania. MacKay's Regiment [preceding<=>1631] is amongst the units committed. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1630 [13th November] The Siege of Kolberg/Kolobrzeg [map]: This battle is fought as part of the Swedish Campaign of the Thirty Years War [<=1618] between an Imperial column under Hieronymus von Colloredo-Waldsee [no convenient biography] and a Swedish army under Gustavus II Adolphus [preceding<=>1631]. The outcome is a Swedish victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  A STUART-HANOVER LINK  **********

1630 [14th October] A fifth daughter [12th child] is born to Frederick V [1622<=>1632] and his consort Elizabeth Stuart [<=1620], and named Sophia, Countess Palatine (Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneberg) [Wikipedia biography=>1658]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1631 [13th January] The Treaty of Bärwalde: This treaty establishes a (short-lived) military alliance between Sweden and France, with France funding a 36,000 man Swedish army in return for Swedish backing for France's politicking against the Habsburgs on other fronts. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1631 [9th March] The Storming of Neubrandenburg: This battle is fought as part of the Swedish Campaign of the Thirty Years War [<=1630] between an Imperial army under Tilly [1627<=>20th March] and the heavily outnumbered Swedish-Scottish garrison at Neubrandenburg. The outcome is a successful Imperial assault followed by the massacre of many surrendering defenders1. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

                                                      

1ASIDE: The war cry "Remember Neubrandenburg!" will be heard on many Protestant lips over the coming months as opportunities for revenge present themselves [e.g., =>13th April].

 

1631 [20th March-20th May] The Siege of Magdeburg [map]: This siege is fought out as part of the Swedish Campaign of the Thirty Years War [<=1630] between a Spanish Habsburg army under Tilly [9th March<=>17th September] and Gottfried Heinrich, Count of Pappenheim [1627<=>17th September] and the Swedish/Protestant Union garrison at Magdeburg. The city is finally stormed on 20th May ... [continued 20th May]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1631 [13th April] The Battle of Frankfurt-an-der-Oder: This battle is fought as part of the Swedish Campaign of the Thirty Years War [<=1630] between a Swedish-Scottish army under Gustavus II Adolphus [1630<=>19th June], Sir John Hepburn [Wikipedia biography=>17th September], and Robert Munro of Foulis [1628<=>17th September], and the Imperial garrison at Frankfurt-an-der-Oder. The outcome is a successful assault, followed by a tit-for-tat massacre in reprisal for that at Neubrandenburg [<=9th March]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1631 [20th May] The Sack of Magdeburg: [Continued from 20th March] ... whereupon an estimated 25,000 out of its 30,000 inhabitants are massacred in tit-for-tat reprisal for that at Frankfurt-an-der-Oder [<=preceding]. Tilly's only regret, it will later be recorded, is that his Emperor could not have been there to observe the spectacle! [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1631 [30th May] The Treaty of Fontainbleu: This treaty provides for France to recognise Maximilian I's [<=1622] rights to the Upper Palatinate [<=1621] in return for a Bavarian promise not to side with the Holy Roman Empire should it go to war with France. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1631 [19th June] With the Swedish army on his doorstep, George William, Elector of Brandenburg and King of [East] Prussia [1619<=>1633] has little choice but to align himself with Gustavus II Adolphus [1630<=>17th September]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1631 [??th September] Tilly's Saxony Offensive: This offensive takes place as part of the Swedish Campaign of the Thirty Years War [<=1630] between a Spanish Habsburg army under Tilly [20th March<=>next] and a Saxon army under John George I, Elector of Saxony [Wikipedia biography=>next]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1631 [17th September] The First Battle of Breitenfeld [map]: This battle is fought as part of the Swedish Campaign of the Thirty Years War [<=1630] between a Swedish-Saxon army under Gustavus II Adolphus [19th June<=>next], John George I [preceding<=>1632], Gustav Horn of Björnborg [Wikipedia biography=>1634], Johann Banér [Wikipedia biography=>1636], von Arnim-Boitzenburg [<=1629], and Thurn [1627<=>1632], and a significantly larger Imperial army under Tilly [??th September<=>1632] and Gottfried Heinrich, Count of Pappenheim [20th March<=>1632]. MacKay's Regiment [<=1630] forms part of the Scottish Brigade under James Lumsdaine [no convenient biography], and Robert Munro of Foulis's [13th April<=>1632] regiment forms part of Sir John Hepburn's [13th April<=>1633] "Green" Brigade. The battle ends as a resounding victory for the Protestants, and is noteworthy in the present context (a) for demonstrating the ability of just a few minutes of concentrated rapid artillery fire to break the cohesion of the unit on the receiving end, and (b) for demonstrating the value of the three-pounder field gun, especially when attached to infantry formations, and especially when firing canister shot. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1632 [15th April] The Battle of the River Lech: This battle is fought as part of the Swedish Campaign of the Thirty Years War [<=1630] between a Swedish-led Protestant army under Gustavus II Adolphus [preceding<=>next] and an Imperial army under Tilly [1631<=>dies this day]. The outcome is a Protestant victory and the death from wounds of Tilly. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1632 [6th November] The Battle of Lützen: This battle is fought as part of the Swedish Campaign of the Thirty Years War [<=1630] between a Swedish-led Protestant army under Gustavus II Adolphus [preceding<=>dies this day] and Saxe-Weimar [1627<=>1634] and an Imperial army under von Wallenstein [1629<=>1633] and Gottfried Heinrich, Count of Pappenheim [1631<=>dies this day]. Robert Munro of Foulis [<=1631] leads Gustavus' Scottish division. The outcome is a victory for the Protestants, but the deaths on the battlefield of Gustavus and Pappenheim. Gustavus' throne now passes to his six-year-old daughter Princess Christina [Wikipedia biography] under the Regency of the Swedish Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna [Wikipedia biography=>1633]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1632 [29th November] Upon the death of Frederick V [<=1630] his in-exile titles pass to his oldest surviving son, Charles Louis [Wikipedia biography=>1638]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1633 [26th January] Charles I of Englandetc [1629<=>1637] authorises the hero of the Battle of Breitenfeld, Sir John Hepburn [1631<=>??th August], to raise his battle-depleted Green Brigade back to a full regiment, to which he gives the honorary name "The Royal Regiment of Foot" [regimental history=>1636]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE - THE ROYAL REGIMENT OF FOOT IN WW1: The Royal Regiment of Foot was reconstituted as the 1st (Royal) Regiment of Foot in 1751, then again as the 1st Royal Scots in 1812, and then again as the Royal Scots (Lothian Regiment) in 1881, in which latter form it will be part of the British Regular Army in 1914. The 2nd Battalion arrived in France on 14th August and took part in the Retreat from Mons [=>1914 (23rd August)]. The other peacetime battalion - the 1st Battalion - arrived back from India shortly afterward. A further 22 battalions were raised by the end of 1914, and 13 more by the end of the war. Between them these battalions suffered 11,000 dead and 40,000 wounded during the war as a whole, and earned six Victoria Crosses. [Check out today's regimental website.]

 

1633 [23rd April] The Heilbronn League: As part of France's strategy of bolstering Protestantism, but only where it hurts the Habsburgs, a mutual defence agreement is brokered between Sweden under Oxenstierna [<=1632], France under Cardinal Richelieu [1629<=>next], and the Protestant princes of North Germany (including the Brandenburgers under their Elector, George William [1631<=>1634] but not the Saxons under John George I [1632<=>1635]). [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1633 [31st August] Richelieu Punishes Lorraine: As a stand-alone local war Cardinal Richelieu [preceding<=>1634] sends an army under Sir John Hepburn [26th January<=>1636] into Lorraine to punish Charles IV of Lorraine [Wikipedia biography=>1634] for having supported Gaston d'Orléans [Wikipedia biography=>1636] in a 1632 conspiracy against him. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE - STRATEGIC THINKING: Imagine that it is 1633 and that you are Cardinal Richelieu, First Minister of France. The following exercise will help you understand the plan of action you and Louis XIII of France are putting together in order to improve France's standing in the world ...

 

1. Print yourself this map of the modern French "Départments" and "Régions".

 

2. Using a heavy coloured pen add the following explanatory captions to the map ...

 

·         across 75 PARIS write the word "ME"

·         sloping upwards from 59 NORD to BELGIQUE write "FLANDERS (SPANISH)"

·         across 66 PYRÉNEES-ORIENTALE write "SPANISH"

·         across ESPAGNE write "SPANISH"

·         across ALLEMAGNE write "SWEDES AND PROTESTANT GERMANS"

·         along the top half of the right hand margin (best to turn the page on its side) write "HOLY EMPIRE GERMANY"

·         across SUISSE write "MOUNTAINS"

·         add the port of Genoa, just off the end of the map by Nice in 06 ALPES-MARITIMES

 

3. The SPANISH and the HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE are known jointly as "THE HABSBURGS". The Habsburgs are your enemies. Unfortunately many French-speaking Regions are ruled by princes and dukes who for various reasons - treaty, marriage, etc. - are on the side of the Habsburgs. You need to know where these are, so add the following captions to your map ...

 

·         write "HOSTILE" across all four Departments of LORRAINE, also LUXEMBOURG, also the three Departments of FRANCHE-COMTÉ, also the two Departments of ALSACE, also ITALIE

·         mark the four Departments of BOURGOGNE as "NOT ALWAYS FRIENDLY" [we explain why this should be so at 1636 (29th May) [ASIDE]]

 

4. With a blue pen mark the River Rhine.

 

5. With a red pen draw an arrow from Genoa to Strasbourg in 67 BAS-RHIN, and another from Strasbourg to BELGIQUE. Mark this "THE SPANISH ROAD (MAJOR SUPPLY ROUTE)".

 

6. The capital city of the Holy Roman Empire is Vienna, but this is too far away to show on this map. Draw a pencil line between 75 PARIS and the edge of the page, so that it passes through Strasbourg in 67 BAS-RHIN. Then draw a signpost in the margin pointing along this line, reading "VIENNA - 397 MILES".

 

7. Given enough resources to invade one of the hostile territories, would you, as the real Cardinal Richelieu did, select LORRAINE?

 

WAR ART: The French artist Jacques Callot [Wikipedia biography] follows the war on behalf of the King and records what he sees in a portfolio of etchings entitled Les Grandes Misčres et Malheurs de la Guerre - see specimens.

 

1633 [31st August-20th September] The Siege of Nancy: This siege is fought out as part of the France-Lorraine War [<=preceding] between a French army under Louis XIII of France [1627<=>1635] and the Lorrainois garrison at Nancy [see STUDENT EXERCISE above]. The outcome is a negotiated surrender. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1633 [11th October] The Battle of Steinau/Ścinawa [map]: This battle is fought as part of the Swedish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1630] between an Imperial army under von Wallenstein [1632<=>dies 1634] and the Swedish-Saxon base at Steinau/Ścinawa under Thurn [<=1632]. The outcome is an expensive defeat for Thurn, and leaves von Wallenstein free to take up positions along the River Oder to threaten Brandenburg. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1633 [13th November] The First Battle of Regensburg: This battle is fought as part of the Swedish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1630] between a Swedish army under Saxe-Weimar [1632<=>1634] and the Imperial garrison at Regensburg. The city duly falls to the Swedes. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1634  Improving upon previously unimpressive trials of exploding munitions [<=1596], the English-born French artillery officer Francis Malthus [no convenient biography] devises an acceptably reliable technique for using hollow mortar bombs filled with gunpowder as exploding projectiles. [THREAD = WW1 ARTILLERY]

 

1634 [19th January] Following his defeat at Nancy, Charles IV of Lorraine [1633<=>17th September] abdicates his dukedom and becomes a field-marshal in Imperial service. He is briefly replaced as Duke by his younger brother Nicholas II [Wikipedia biography], but he too will abdicate during the summer leaving the title empty. [We show him henceforth as Charles (IV of Lorraine)IN EXILE]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1634 [??th March-26th July] The Sieges of Bitche/Bitsch and La Mothe-en-Bassigny: These sieges are fought out as part of the French campaign in Lorraine [<=1633] between a French army under Jacques Nompar de Caumont, Duke of La Force [Wikipedia biography=>17th September] and the Lorrainois garrisons at Bitche/Bitsch and La Mothe-en-Bassigny. Bitche/Bitsch falls on 18th May and La Mothe on 26th July. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: These two towns are in 57 MOSELLE and 52 HAUTE-MARNE, respectively. Research their location online and dot them in on your map.

 

1634 [22nd July] The Second Battle of Regensburg: This battle is fought as part of the Swedish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1630] between an Imperial/Bavarian army under Archduke Ferdinand III of Hungaryetc (Holy Roman Emperor)1637 [Wikipedia biography=>6th September] and the now-Swedish defenders of Regensburg. The city is duly retaken by the Imperials. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  THE SWEDES ARE BROUGHT DOWN A PEG  **********

1634 [6th September] The Battle of Nördlingen [map]: This battle is fought as part of the Swedish-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1630] between a Swedish-led Protestant army under Gustav Horn of Björneborg [<=1631] and Saxe-Weimar [1633<=>9th October] and an Imperial army under the Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria [Wikipedia biography=>1635], (his cousin) Archduke Ferdinand III of Hungaryetc [preceding<=>1637], and (replacing von Wallenstein after his assassination) Matthias Gallas [Wikipedia biography=>1635]. The outcome is a decisive Imperial victory, with highly disproportionate Protestant casualties and with Horn taken as a prisoner-of-war. The defeat also breaks up the Heilbronn League [<=1633], with the Elector of Brandenburg, George William [1633<=>1637], immediately making peace with the Emperor; indeed those who benefit most from the battle are the French, who were not even there [see next entry]. The battle is noteworthy in the present context as a high point in the history of the Spanish Empire under Philip IV of Spain [1629<=>1635]. Nevertheless it is to the Swedes' great credit that they will rebuild their war machine enough to avenge this setback at the Battle of Wittstock [=>1636]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1634 [17th September-9th October] Richelieu Threatens the Spanish Road: As part of his preparations for out-and-out war against Spain [=>1635 (20th May)], Cardinal Richelieu [1633<=>1635] persuades the dukes and bishops of Lower and Upper Alsace [see STUDENT EXERCISE 1633] to shelter Saxe-Weimar's [6th September<=>1635] recently mauled army. He also quickly replaces Swedish troops with French in strongholds on/east of the Rhine such as Mainz and Speyer/Spiers (they try for Heidelberg as well, but the Imperials get there first [=>next]). He also sends an army under La Force [<=??th March] eastward from 02 AISNE to continue his punitive campaign against Charles (IV of Lorraine)IN EXILE [19th January<=>1635], taking towns such as Remiremont, Hagenau, Saverne/Zabern [=>1636], and St. Mihiel [=>1635]. These actions cut the Spanish Road [<=1613]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1634 [16th November-23rd December] The Battle for Heidelberg: After the collapse of the Swedish Army after the Battle of Nördlingen, Johann von Werth [Wikipedia biography=>1636] dashes westward and quickly installs Imperial garrisons at Heidelberg, Phillipsburg, and Trier. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Heidelberg is in ALLEMAGNE. Research its location online and dot it in on your map (it will be just off the eastern edge of the map).

 

1635 Belief Systems [VII - Superstition, Witchcraft, and Magic (Hocus Pocus)] : [Continued from  1612 (27th July)] Drawing heavily on the work of Scot [<=1584] (but forgivably so for that work had been difficult to get hold of having been banned during his reign by the witch-believer James I of England [<=1603 (24th March)]) one Henry Dean [no convenient biography] publishes "Hocus Pocus Junior: The Anatomy of Legerdemain" [see the website!!]. Included in the secrets revealed are that of stage "decollating", that is to say, the (ideally reversible) separating of a man's head from his body [sub-thread continues at next entry ...]. [THREAD = THE BATTLE FOR HEARTS AND MINDS]

 

1635 Belief Systems [VIII - Superstition, Witchcraft, and Magic (Schwenter)]: [Continued from preceding entry] The German mathematician-inventor Daniel Schwenter [Wikipedia biography] publishes "Delicia Physico-Mathematicae" [full text online], a "potpourri of puzzles and tricks in physics and mathematics" (Beck, 1974 [<=1589]) [sub-thread continues at 1664 (Matthew Hopkins) ...]. [THREAD = THE BATTLE FOR HEARTS AND MINDS]

 

1635 [??th April] The Imperial Spring Offensive: This attempt to reopen the Spanish Road [<=1634] is made by an Imperial army under Matthias Gallas [1634<=>17th July], and results in a widespread occupation of the Palatinate territories, the capture of Kaiserslautern [=>17th July], the reinforcement of Heidelberg [<=1634], and the besieging of Mainz [=>4th July]. However the land itself is now so barren (after the departure of those who once farmed it) that Gallas is unable to maintain his occupation in any strength. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  FRANCE FLEXES HER MUSCLES  **********

**********  WAR IN FLANDERS AGAIN  **********

1635 [20th May] The Franco-Habsburg War, 1635-1659: This war is fought between France (initially) under Louis XIII of France [1633<=>2nd October] and Spain (initially) under Philip IV of Spain [1634<=>1661] - Bourbon and Habsburg, respectively - in a French effort to weaken Habsburg influence within the Spanish Netherlands to their north and the Franche-Comté to the east. The French also support the German Protestants and Sweden in the ongoing Thirty Years War [<=1630]. The main military figures (in order of appearance) are ...

 

·         Louis de Bourbon, Duc d'Enghien (Prince of Condé)1646 [Wikipedia biography=1636] [henceforth just "d'Enghien" before 1646 or "d'Enghien/Condé" after that date, commander of the French army in Flanders, 1643-1644, Germany, 1644-1646, Flanders, 1646-1648, Paris Fronde, 1648-1649; Fronde rebel, 1650-1652; Spanish service, 1652-1659; inactive, 1659-1668; Franche-Comté Campaign, 1668-1672; Dutch War, 1672-1675; retirement, 1675-1686]

·         Marshall of France Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne (Vicomte de Turenne) [1629<=>1636] [henceforth just "Turenne", infantry captain in Dutch service, 1626-1629; colonel in French army, 1629-1634; Marshal in French army, 1634-1643; Marshal of France, 1643-1648; in exile, 1648-1649; Fronde Rebel, 1650-1651; Fronde Loyalist, 1651-1652; service against Spain, 1652-1659; Marshal-General to Louis XIV, 1659-1672; Dutch War, 1672-1673; German War, 1672-1675 (killed in action)]

 

The war progresses slowly through a number of campaigns in three major phases as shown below (events in start date order within campaign). The first phase of the war lasts for 13 years from 1635 to 1648 and consists of four more-or-less coordinated directional thrusts, namely (I) along France's northern frontier with the Spanish Netherlands, (II) along France's north-eastern frontier with the Holy Roman Empire, (III) along France's south-eastern frontier with the Italian states, and (IV) along France's south-western frontier with Spain.

 

ASIDE: Note that the first 13 years of the Franco-Habsburg War run parallel to the closing 13 years of the Thirty Years War [<=1618]. Note also that England is allied with France against the Spanish between 1654 and 1659 (albeit the main English contribution is at sea). Rather than record a separate Anglo-Spanish War, we include the main naval actions below. The war is particularly noteworthy in the present context because the WW1 Western Front followed much the same line in 1914 as frontiers I and II did in 1635!

 

The Peace of Westphalia [=>1648] is then followed by the two Fronde Rebellions. These begin as a popular uprising against excessive taxation, but then evolve into a deeply divisive civil war. The Closing Phase of the war emerges rather subtly out of the second as the French dissidents resolve their differences and start to bring their parallel campaigns to individually satisfactory conclusions. Here are the most significant events ...

 

THE PARALLEL CAMPAIGNS (I - FLANDERS, 1635-1648)

The Battle of Les Avins, 1635; The Siege of Leuven, 1635; The Siege of Le Catelet, 1635; The Spanish Offensive in Picardy, 1636; The Siege of Saverne, 1636; The Crossing of the Somme, 1636; The Battle of Compičgne, 1636; The Battle of St. Omer, 1638; The Battle of Rocroi, 1643

THE PARALLEL CAMPAIGNS (II - THE SPANISH ROAD, 1635-1648)

The Siege/Relief of Mainz, 1635; The 1636 Spanish Road and Franche-Comté Campaigns; The Siege of Dole, 1636; The 1637 Spanish Road and Franche-Comté Campaigns; The 1638 Spanish Road and Franche-Comté Campaigns; The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, 1642; The Battle of Freiburg, 1644; The Battle of Herbsthausen/Mergentheim, 1645; The Battle of Allerheim/Nördlingen, 1645; The Battle of Lens, 1648

THE PARALLEL CAMPAIGNS (III - ITALY, 1639-1646)

The Siege of Turin, 1640; The Battle of Orbetello, 1646

THE PARALLEL CAMPAIGNS (IV - CATALONIA, 1640-1659)

The Corpus Christi Uprising, 1640; The Battle of Montjuďc, 1641; The Siege of Perpignan, 1641-1642; The Battle of Barcelona, 1642; The Treaty of the Pyrenees, 1659

THE PEACE OF WESTPHALIA, 1648 [*** THE THIRTY YEARS WAR ENDS ***]

THE FRONDE REBELLIONS, 1648-1653

THE CLOSING PHASE, 1654-1659

The Champaign Offensive, 1649-1650; The Siege of Arras, 1654; The Siege of Clermont-en-Argonne, 1654; The Capture of Jamaica, 1655; The Siege of Valenciennes, 1656; The Battle of the Dunes, 1658; The Treaty of the Pyrenees, 1659

 

The outcome is general exhaustion on both sides, but, overall, a French victory. The war also diverts Spanish resources away from their war against the Dutch, resulting eventually in their abandoning the Spanish Netherlands altogether. Flanders is duly partitioned into a French-speaking south and a Dutch-speaking north by the Treaty of the Pyrenees [=>1659].  [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1635 [20th May] The Battle of Les Avins: This battle is fought as part of the Flanders Theatre operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=preceding] between an attacking French army under Marshals Urbain de Maillé-Brézé [Wikipedia biography=>24th June] and Gaspard III de Coligny, Maréchal de Châtillon [Wikipedia biography=>24th June] and a defending Spanish army less than half its size under Thomas Francis of Savoy, Prince of Carignano [Wikipedia biography=>1636]. The French are trying to join up with a Dutch Republican army coming down from the north and the Spanish have placed themselves across their line of advance at the hamlet of Les Avins, some 20 miles west of Ličge. The outcome is a with-the-odds French victory, with highly disproportionate Spanish casualties. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Les Avins is in BELGIQUE. Research its location online and dot it in on your map (it will be just off the eastern edge of the map).

 

1635 [30th May] The Treaty of Prague: This treaty between Archduke Ferdinand II [1630<=>1637] and the Elector of Saxony, John George I [1633<=>1636] brings peace to central Germany. Henceforth the Germans will prefer to fight with outsiders, rather than with each other. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1635 [24th June-4th July] The Siege of Leuven: This siege is fought out as part of the Flanders Theatre operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=20th May] between a besieging French/Dutch coalition army under Urbain de Maillé-Brézé [<=20th May], de Châtillon [20th May<=>1638], and Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange [1629<=>1637], and the Spanish defenders at Leuven under (in the city) Anthonie Schetz, Baron of Grobbendonck [Wikipedia biography] and (in the field) Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria [1634<=>1636] and Ottavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi [Wikipedia biography=>1638]. The defenders are well led and have had plenty of time to prepare themselves, and repulse many assaults on their walls. The siege will eventually be lifted upon the arrival of the Cardinal-Infante and Piccolomini on 4th July. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1635 [4th July-8th August] The Relief of Mainz: Cardinal Richelieu [1634<=>1636] responds to the Imperial Spring Offensive [<=??th April] by instructing Louis de Nogaret de La Valette [Wikipedia biography=>1636] to advance eastward out of Lorraine, join forces with Saxe-Weimar [1634<=>1636], and together threaten the Imperial besiegers at Mainz. The siege is duly raised but the victory will only be short-lived because Mainz remains perilously deep in enemy territory, and there follows a difficult French retreat westward to Metz in Lorraine. Nevertheless Richelieu is pleased with the successful joint action with Saxe-Weimar, and starts negotiations to fund his entire army. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1635 [17th July] The Sacking of Kaiserslautern: This battle takes place as part of the Spanish Road operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a besieging 7000-man Imperial army under Matthias Gallas [??th April<=>1636] and the residual Swedish garrison at Kaiserslautern. The assault is led by Gallas' Croatian Brigade who, as soon as they have created a breach in the walls, unleash the so-called Kroatensturm [= "Croat Storm"] upon the defenders, putting some 1500 to the sword. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Kaiserslautern is in ALLEMAGNE. Research its location online and dot it in on your map.

 

1635 [12th September] The Treaty of Stuhmsdorf: This treaty finally brings the Polish-Swedish War [<=1626] to a formal end. It provides for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to regain most of the territory it had lost, but gives Sweden peace in the eastern Baltic so that it can concentrate on its war with the Holy Roman Empire. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1635 [??th September-24th June 1636] The Siege of Hanau: This nine-month siege is fought out as part of the Spanish Road operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between an Imperial army under Wilhelm von Lamboy [no convenient biography] and the garrison at Hanau [map] under Sir James Ramsay [Wikipedia biography], a Scottish captain who has made his reputation in Swedish service over the preceding five years [continues at 1636 (24th June) ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1635 [2nd October] The Battle of St. Mihiel: This battle is fought as part of the French campaign in Lorraine [<=1633] between a French army under Louis XIII of France [20th May<=>1636] and a Lorrainois army garrison at St. Mihiel [map] under Charles (IV of Lorraine)IN EXILE [1634<=>1636]. The outcome is a French victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: St. Mihiel is in 55 MEUSE. Research its location online and dot it in on your map.

 

ASIDE - ST. MIHIEL IN WW1: St. Mihiel fell to the German Fifth Army in the Battle of Flirey [=>1914 19th September)], thereby creating a distinct dogleg salient in the Western Front south of Verdun. It then remained a relatively quiet sector until selected for salient reduction by the fresh troops of the American Expeditionary Force in September 1918 [=>1918 (12th September)].

 

1636 [3rd March] River Colony: This New England colony is founded by the migration from Massachussetts Bay of a hundred or so settlers under Thomas Hooker [Wikipedia biography] and John Haynes [Wikipedia biography]. They settle at Hartford and are joined shortly afterward by a second group under John Davenport [Wikipedia biography] at New Haven. These settlements will be consolidated as the "Colony of Connecticut" in 1638 and Haynes will be elected as Connecticut's first governor on 11th April 1639. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1636 [29th May-??th August] The Sieges of Salins and Dole: These sieges are fought out as part of the Franche-Comté Campaign of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between French armies under Henry of Bourbon, Prince of Condé [Wikipedia biography], (his son) d'Enghien [1635<=>??th September], Louis de Bourbon, Count of Soissons [Wikipedia biography=>5th August], La Valette [??th May<=>4th June], and La Porte [Wikipedia biography=>1639], and the (at the time not totally French1) Burgundian garrisons at Salins and Dole. As things turn out, however, the issue will be put on the back burner once the Spanish launch their offensive in Picardy in July and the French are forced to switch their armies across to the northern front to help stabilise things there. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1ASIDE - THE BURGUNDIANS AS FRENCH: We have already explained the emergence of Burgundy as a fiercely independent state-within-a-state to the three-way division of the Frankish Empire in the Divisio Imperii [<=843]. They certainly have little love or respect for the French court following the assassination of John (the Fearless), Duke of Burgundy in the early 15th century [<=1419]. [This is why our map shows BOURGOGNE as "NOT ALWAYS FRIENDLY".]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Salins and Dole are in 39 JURA. Research their location online and dot them in on your map.

 

1636 [4th June-14th July] The Siege of Saverne/Zabern: This 40-day siege is fought out as part of the Spanish Road operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a besieging French army under Saxe-Weimar [1635<=>1637], La Valette [29th May<=>??th August], Turenne [1635<=>1638], and Sir John Hepburn [1633<=>dies during this operation], and an Imperial garrison under Matthias Gallas [1636<=>??th August]. After much house-to-house fighting in through the lower town, the high citadel finally surrenders on 14th July. Hepburn is killed on 28th June while visiting the front line [? bad luck or good sniper] and replaced as commander of France's Scottish Division [<=1633] by (his nephew) Lord James Douglas [Wikipedia biography]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Saverne is in 67 BAS-RHIN. Research its location online and dot it in on your map.

 

ASIDE - FRENCH REGIMENTAL NUMBERING: It is customary in modern military writings in English to identify French infantry units as "R.I." [= "Régiment d'Infanterie"], prefixed by a numeric identifier in the form ne [the superscript being short for the morphemes "-iere", "-ieme", etc., just as in the English "-st", "-nd", "-rd", and "-th", abbreviate "first", "second", "third", "fourth", etc.]. Thus 147e R.I. should be read as "Cent-Quarante-Septičme Régiment d'Infanterie" and translated as "147th Regiment of Infantery". As with the Roman Legions [<=43CE (ASIDE)] a verbal cognomen may also be parenthesised. The designations "R.I.C." (colonial regiment), "R.I.F." (fortification regiment), "R.I.L." (light infantry regiment), and "R.I.A." (alpine regiment), may also be encountered.

 

ASIDE - THE TROISIČME REGIMENT IN WW1: The 3e (Piémont) R.I., one of the oldest regiments in the French Army, counts Saverne/Zabern, Bray-sur-Somme [=>next], Corbie [=>7th August], Rocroi [=>1643], and the Dunes [=>1658] amongst its 17th century battle honours. It also fought in WW1 at Morhange and Woëvre in 1914, and then in the Battle of Verdun [=>1916 (21st February)].

 

1636 [24th June] The Relief of Hanau: [Continued from 1635 (??th September)] This siege is now brought to an end by a relieving column under William V of Hesse-Cassel [Wikipedia biography] and Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven [henceforth just " Lord Leven "] [Wikipedia biography=>4th October]. Unfortunately the town will fall again the following year.  [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1636 [??th June] The Spanish Offensive in Picardy (Preparations): Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria [1636<=>4th July] starts to assemble troops around Mons [map] in preparation for a major push southward [next]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Mons is in BELGIQUE. Research its location online and dot it in on your map.

 

ASIDE - MONS IN WW1: Mons was selected as a major strategic waypoint in the Schlieffen Plan [=>1905] and was duly overrun by the German Second Army as that Plan started to unfold in August 1914. After the Retreat from Mons [=>1914 (23rd August)], the city remained behind German lines until their final surrender in 1918.

 

1636 [4th July] The Spanish Offensive in Picardy: This offensive is fought out as part of the Flanders Theatre operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a Spanish invasion army under Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria [??th June<=>7th August], Carignano [1635<=>5th August], and von Werth [1634<=>7th August], and the French garrisons and field armies of Picardy. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1636 [4th July] The Sieges of La Capelle and Le Catelet: These sieges are fought out as part of the Spanish Offensive in Picardy [<=preceding] between the Spanish siege train and the French defenders of La Capelle and Le Catelet. The outcome in both cases is a rapid capitulation once the besieging artillery opens up, thanks to the morale-shattering effect of Malthus' new exploding mortar bombs [<=1634] when used against "unhardened" [= not properly dug in] targets. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: These two towns are both in 02 AISNE. Research their location online and dot them in on your map.

 

ASIDE - La Capelle and Le Catelet in WW1: Both towns fell to the German Second Army in the 1914 German advance and remained behind their lines until their final surrender in 1918.

 

1636 [5th August] Crossing the Somme: This minor battle takes place at Bray-sur-Somme as part of the Spanish offensive in Picardy [<=4th July] between the Spanish army under Carignano [4th July<=>7th August] and the French army under Louis de Bourbon, Count of Soissons [??th May<=>7th August]. The outcome is a French collapse, leaving Carignano free to advance on Corbie, 10 miles downstream in the direction of Amiens, and Roye, 16 miles to the south on the road to Paris. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Bray-sur-Somme, Corbie, and Roye are in 80 SOMME. Research their location online and dot them in on your map.

 

ASIDE - BRAY-SUR-SOMME AND ROYE IN WW1: Bray-sur-Somme is six miles southeast of Albert, the tactical focus of the entire Somme Battlefield. Roye is on the south bank of the Somme, and was taken by the Germans on 30th August 1914. Roye New British Cemetery is sited adjacent to where once stood the treatment tents of the 53rd Casualty Clearing Station in 1918, and contains 565 British and Commonwealth graves or memorials.

 

1636 [7th August-9th November] The Siege and Recapture of Corbie: This battle takes place as part of the Spanish offensive in Picardy [<=4th July] between a Spanish army under Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria [4th July<=>??th September], Carignano [5th August<=>1638], and von Werth [4th July<=>next], and a somewhat larger French army under (in the town) Maximilien de Belleforičre, Marquis de Soyécourt [no convenient biography] and (in the vicinity from time to time) Louis XIII of France [1635<=>1638], (his younger brother) Gaston d'Orléans [<=1633], and Louis de Bourbon, Count of Soissons [5th August<=>1641]. Belleforičre surrenders the town on 15th August and Carignano quickly installs his own garrison. The French field armies then put the town under siege themselves in early October and recapture it on 14th November. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE - CORBIE IN WW1: Corbie is 10 miles southwest of Albert, the tactical focus of the entire Somme Battlefield. During the 1916 Battle of the Somme it lay 13 miles behind the British lines and was the base for the 5th and 21st Casualty Clearing Stations. Two years later is was involved in the last ditch defence of Amiens during the 1918 German Spring Offensive [=>1918 (21st March)]. The part played by Australian troops in this battle is commemorated just south of Corbie at the Villers-Bretonneux Australian National Memorial [Australian Government webpage] [carefully note the bullet-holes left when the memorial was strafed by a German fighter in WW2 because they add rather disturbingly to our understanding of Humankind at war - Ed.].

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Le Hamel and Villers-Bretonneux are in 80 SOMME. Research their location online and dot them in on your map.

 

1636 [7th August<=>14th October] The Siege and Recapture of Montdidier: Montdidier lies some 18 miles to the south of Corbie and seven miles to the west of Roye. It is therefore attacked from time to time, mainly by von Werth [preceding<=>1637], as part of the supply system for these other towns. The defence is directed by Jacques de Maurepas [no convenient biography] and the siege is raised once Louis XIII of France moves northward to relieve Corbie. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Mondidier is in 80 SOMME. Research its location online and dot it in on your map.

 

ASIDE - MONTDIDIER IN WW1: Montdidier was a typical WW1 ville martyre, one of hundreds of French rural communities through whose fields and cellars ran the Western Front. It was rebuilt in the 1930s.

 

**********  A MOUSE THAT ROARED  **********

1636 [??th August-2nd/3rd November] The Siege of St.-Jean-de-Losne: This siege is fought out as part of the Spanish Road operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between the Imperial besiegers at St. Jean-de-Losne [map] under Matthias Gallas [<=4th June], Charles (IV of Lorraine)IN EXILE [1635<=>1637], and von Mercy [Wikipedia biography=>1643], and a garrison consisting of 150 trained troops under Claude Rochefort d'Ailly de Saint-Point [no convenient biography] and some 400 armed civilians but tolerably well defended by fortifications and natural features. The Imperial assaults begin in earnest on 25th October but are repeatedly driven off. Even the women of the town attend the ramparts to hurl stones and tiles down onto the attackers below. Finally, on the night of 2nd/3rd November the Imperials silently withdraw, having received reports that a relief column will be arriving imminently. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: St.-Jean-de-Losne is in 21 CÔTE D'OR (BOURGOGNE). Research its location online and dot it in on your map.

 

1636 [??th September] The Battle of Compičgne: This battle is fought as part of the Spanish offensive in Picardy [<=4th July] between the Spanish invasion army under Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria [7th August<=>1637] and the French garrison at Compičgne, massively supported by just about every spare man Cardinal Richelieu [1635<=>1642] has been able to gather together for the defence of Paris, along with the army transferred from the Franche-Comte under d'Enghien [29th May<=>1643]. The outcome is that the besiegers abandon Compičgne and slow down the French advance by allowing garrisons at Corbie, Roye, etc. to become besieged themselves. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Compičgne is in 60 OISE Research its location online and dot it in on your map.

 

ASIDE - COMPIČGNE IN WW1: Compičgne was a major strategic waypoint in the Schlieffen Plan [=>1905] and was duly overrun by the German First and Second Armies on 1st September 1914. It was then retaken as the line of the Western Front stabilised during the First Battle of the Marne [=>1914 (5th September)], and spent the rest of the war as a major French command centre for the defence of Paris 50 miles further south. The most famous event of all is the signing of the Armistice there [=>1918 (11th November)].

 

1636 [4th October] The Battle of Wittstock [map]: This battle is fought as part of the French-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a Swedish army under Johan Banér [<=1631], supported by a German/Scottish/English army under Lord Leven [14th June<=>1639] and James King, (1st Lord Eythin)1642 [Wikipedia biography=>1638], and an Imperial/Saxon army under Melchior von Hatzfeldt [Wikipedia biography<=>1638] and the Elector of Saxony, John George I [<=1635] (now fighting for the Imperials, of course, as required by the Treaty of Prague [<=1635]). The outcome is a Habsburg rout. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1637  The  Covenanter Wars, 1637-1640: In an attempt to get the English and Scottish churches singing (quite literally) from the same hymn-sheet, Charles I of Englandetc [1629<=>1639] instructs that both should implement an "episcopalian" model of worship, that is to say, one which is structured around a cadre of bishops. This is an alien system to the "Presbyterian" Scots, who reject bishops in favour of church governance "from the presbytery", that is to say, by relatively local councils of church elders answering to a central synod. They therefore convene a General Assembly to decide the best course of action, and decide to denounce the new "Booke of Common Prayer" [extracts online]. Riots now take place where the King persists in demanding its use, so the Presbyterians carefully set out their position and demands in a "National Covenant", thereby earning themselves the nickname "Covenanters". Feelings run so high that two short wars result ...

 

·         The First Bishops' War, 1639

·         The Short Parliament, 1640

·         THE SECOND BISHOPS' WAR, 1640 [See separate indexing entry =>1640]

 

... which are themselves antecedents of the First English Civil War [=>1642]. [THREADS = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE and RELIGION AND WAR]

 

1637  The Chinese encyclopaedist Song Yingxing [Wikipedia biography] describes the use of naval mines fired by hidden observers to catch passing vessels unawares [just as with 21st century IEDs]. [THREAD = THE WW1 SURFACE NAVIES]

 

1637  Following his defeat in the Battle of Nordlingen [<=1634] the Elector of Brandenburg, George William [1634<=>1640] retires his court from Berlin in Brandenburg to Königsberg in Prussia. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE (PRUSSIA)]

 

1637 [15th February] Upon the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Archduke Ferdinand II [<=1635] his titles pass to his son Ferdinand III of Hungaryetc [1634<=>1640]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1637 [29th March-??th August] The 1637 Spanish Road and Franche-Comté Campaigns: This campaign is fought out as part of the Spanish Road operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between three converging French armies under Saxe-Weimar [1636<=>22nd June], the Duke of Longueville [Wikipedia  biography], and Marquis de Grancey [no convenient biography]. Charles (IV of Lorraine)IN EXILE [1636<=>22nd June] is defending a stronghold at Besançon. All operations take place in a land made barren by plague and famine. The campaign culminates in Saxe-Weimar's crossing the Rhine at Rheinau and his subsequent defeat of von Werth [1636<=>1638] at Ettenheim [map]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1637 [21st June/22nd July] The Capture of Le Cateau-Cambrésis and Landrecies: These assaults take place as part of the Flanders campaign of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a French army under La Valette [<=1636] and the Spanish garrisons at the towns in question. The outcome is that Le Cateau-Cambrésis falls on 21st June and Landrecies on 22nd July. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: These two towns are both in 59 NORD. Research their location online and dot them in on your map.

 

ASIDE - LE CATEAU-CAMBRÉSIS AND LANDRECIES IN WW1: Like Mons [<=1636] and Compičgne [<=1636], Le Cateau sits at a strategically important road junction for any right-outflanking movement out of Belgium. This made it an ideal spot for the British Expeditionary Force to blunt the enemy's advance with a 24-hour rear-guard action in strength - see the Battle of Le Cateau [=>1914 (26th August)]. The city then remained behind German lines until their final surrender in 1918. Landrecies is only seven miles east of Le Cateau, and so shares its neighbour's strategic value. However the Battle of Landrecies [=>1914 (25th August)] was not just a sideshow to the Battle of le Cateau, but rather the distinct first half of that larger event, and one of the early engagements for the Coldstream Guards. And by a strange coincidence, George Monck, the person destined to create the Coldstream Guards in 1650 [=>1650 (13th August)], was, during the 1637 battle at Landrecies, fighting at the Siege of Breda [see next entry but one].

 

WAR ART: Check out William Wollen's (1915) "The Coldstream Guards at Landrecies" at http://www.allposters.co.uk/-sp/The-Coldstream-Guards-at-Landrecies-August-1914-Posters_i4053921_.htm.

 

1637 [22nd June] The Battle of Ray-sur-Saône: This battle is fought as part of the Franche-Comté operations of the France-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a French army under Saxe-Weimar [29th March<=>1638] and an Imperial army under Charles (IV of Lorraine)IN EXILE [<=29th March]. The outcome is a solid French victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1637 [21st July<=>11th October] The Recapture of Breda: This siege is fought out as part of the Eighty Years War [<=1566] between a Dutch Republic army under Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange [1635<=>1640] and the Spanish garrison at Breda - occupied since 1625 - under Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria [1636<=>1640] and Gomar de Fourdin [no convenient biography]. The outcome is a Dutch victory. The recapture is noteworthy in the present context for the excellence of its siege engineering [more on this]. A young English officer named George Monck (1st Duke of Albemarle)1660 [Wikipedia biography=>1642] [henceforth just "George Monck"] (of whom a lot more in due course) performs with distinction in one of the assaults. [THREADS = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE and WW1 MILITARY ENGINEERING]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Breda is in PAYS-BAS. Research its location online and dot it in on your map.

 

1638 [??th February] The 1638 Spanish Road and Franche-Comté Campaigns: This campaign is fought out as part of the Spanish Road Campaigns of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a French army under Saxe-Weimar [1637<=>18th August] and an Imperial/Bavarian army some twice its strength under von Werth [1637<=>1644]. The campaign begins when Saxe-Weimar crosses the Rhine and engages von Werth in the First (28th February) and Second (3rd March) Battles of Rheinfelden. The outcome is an against-the-odds French victory, with von Werth taken as prisoner-of-war. The Imperial fortress at Breisach [map], some 30 miles upstream, holds steady for the moment [continues at 18th August ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1638 [26th May-17th July] The Siege of St. Omer: This siege is fought out as part of the Flanders Theatre operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=20th May] between a besieging French army under de Châtillon [1635<=>1640] and the Spanish garrison at St. Omer under Lancelot de Grobbendonck [no convenient biography], also (from 8/9th June) a Spanish field army under Carignano [<=1636], and also (from 12th July) another Spanish field army under Piccolomini [1635<=>1642]. Carignano successfully gets supplies and reinforcements into the town on 8/9th June and the arrival of Piccolomini on 12th July forces the French to lift the siege on 17th July. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: St. Omer is in 62 PAS-DE-CALAIS. Research its location online and dot it in on your map.

 

ASIDE - ST. OMER IN WW1: St. Omer played a major part in WW1, being sufficiently far behind the lines to be out of artillery range but sufficiently close (around 30 miles at its closest point) to execute effective command and control. It was also equidistant from Ypres and Arras and only a little bit further from Albert, and generally well-placed for the main cross-channel ports. The town was therefore General Headquarters of the B.E.F. from October 1914 to March 1916, as well as a major hospital, logistics, and communications centre.

 

1638 [18th August-17th December] The Siege of Breisach: This siege is fought out as part of the Spanish Road operations of the broader Franco-Habsburg War [<=20th May] between a French army under Saxe-Weimar [??th February<=>1639] and (just arrived) Turenne [1635<=>1643], the Imperial garrison at Breisach under Hans Heinrich von Rheinach [Wikipedia biography], and an 18,500-man Imperial field army in the Breisgau [coordinates] under (von Werth's replacement) Johann von Götz [no convenient biography]. The outcome is that the Imperials are consistently out-thought and out-fought resulting in the garrison being successfully starved into surrendering by a tightly applied encirclement. Saxe-Weimar will die of the plague the following year. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Breisach is in ALLEMAGNE. Research its location online and dot it in on your map. It is one of the few available Rhine crossings along the border with Alsace.

 

1638 [5th September] A son is born to (the House of Bourbon) Louis XIII of France [1636<=>1639] and his queen Anne of Austria [1615<=>1643], and named Louis (XIV of France) [Wikipedia biography=>1643]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1638 [17th October] The Battle of Vlotho: This battle is fought as part of the French-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a Palatinate army under Charles Louis, Elector of the Palatinate [<=1632] and an Imperial army under Melchior von Hatzfeldt [<=1636]. As at Wittstock [<=1636] the Palatinate has available an English/Scottish Expeditionary Division, this time under William Craven, 1st Earl of Craven [Wikipedia biography] and James King (1st Lord Eythin)1642 [1636<=>1643]. The outcome is a convincing Imperial victory, with the 19-year-old Prince Rupert [1620<=>1642], already commanding a cavalry regiment, being taken as prisoner-of-war (along with Craven) and spending the next three years at the Emperor's pleasure. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1639 [??th March] The First Bishops' War, 1639: This war is fought as part of the broader Covenanter Wars [<=1637] between a Royal army under Charles I of Englandetc [1637<=>1640] and Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex [1636<=>1642] [henceforth just "Lord Essex"] and a Covenanter army under James Graham, 1st Marquis of Montrose [Wikipedia biography] and the highly experienced Lord Leven [1636<=>1640]. There are a number of minor skirmishes, but the Royalists soon realise that they are totally outclassed by Leslie's professionals and (wisely) avoid a major engagement. In the end Charles agrees to a new General Assembly and the armies stand down to await the outcome. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1639 [??th May-29th June] The Siege of Hesdin: This battle is fought as part of the Flanders operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a French army under La Porte [1636<=>1640] and the Spanish garrison at Hesdin. The outcome is a French victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Hesdin is in 62 PAS-DE-CALAIS. Research its location online and dot it in on your map.

 

1639 [16th September-21st October] The Battle of the Downs: This naval battle is fought as part of the Eighty Years War [<=1566] between a 75-ship Spanish troop convoy and its armed escorts under Antonio de Oquendo [Wikipedia biography] and an (initially small) defending United Provinces fleet under Maarten Tromp [Wikipedia biography=>1643]. The Spanish are heading for Dunkirk ...

 

ASIDE: Since the cutting of the Spanish Road by the French advances in 1634 and 1635, the Spanish Netherlands has been dependent upon supply by sea. This means following the route of the 1588 Spanish Armada [<=] and offloading at the port of Dunkirk.

 

... but the Dutch (just) manage to fend them off in a preliminary encounter on 16th September. The Spanish ships then take anchorage off the Kentish coast, while the Dutch take advantage of the breathing space to gather every ship they can. The final battle then takes place on 31st October and results in a Spanish defeat with heavily disproportionate Spanish losses. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1639 [9th October] Louis XIII of France [1638<=>1643] confirms the continuation of funding arrangements with Johann von Erlach [Wikipedia biography] following the death of Saxe-Weimar [<=1638] from the plague. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1640      The Top Forge ironworks at Wortley [<=1624] is now equipped with a power-hammer, a finery hearth, and a chafery hearth, together with the necessary bellows. It specialises in high-specification wrought iron ...

 

KEY VOCABULARY - WROUGHT IRON: The English word "wrought" is an adjectival past participle of the verb "to work", in the sense of beating something into shape. "Wrought iron" articles are therefore fabrications such as hinges, flanges, tools, chains, and such, whose defining characteristic is that they may have been re-heated, split, and hammered, but they have not been melted. "Cast iron" articles, on the other hand are artefacts which have been poured as liquid metal into suitably prepared hollowed out refractory moulds. We have already sketched in the operating principles of a bloomery furnace [<=350BCE (ASIDE)]. The technology has now evolved so as to separate out the smelting of iron from its original ore, and its subsequent working into end product. A "finery" hearth, as its name suggests, is a furnace which "makes fine", and a "chafery" is for re-heating prior to hammering.

 

Top Forge also commands a wide network of ancillary operations in the surrounding countryside, not least charcoal burning and mining the iron ore. [THREAD = THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION]

 

1640 [13th April] The Short Parliament, 1640: After 11 years of personal rule [<=1629] Charles I of Englandetc [1639<=>next] is finally forced to recall Parliament because he needs money to put down the rebellion in Scotland [<=1637]. Parliament, however, sets too many conditions on their compliance and is re-dissolved after only three weeks on 5th May. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE: Constitutionally speaking the Short Parliament is actually a continuation of the Parliament of 1625, separated by the 11 years of the Personal Rule [<=1629].

 

1640 [7th June] The Corpus Christi Uprising: This regional rebellion takes place as part of the Catalonia Theatre operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between the Catalonian "Miquelet" militia and a Castilian government army under Pedro Fajardo [Wikipedia biography]. The unrest will endure until brought to an end by the Treaty of the Pyrenees [=>1659]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1640 [13th June-9th August] The Siege of Arras: This siege is fought out as part of the Flanders Theatre operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a French/United Provinces army under de Châtillon [1638<=>1641], La Porte [1639<=>1641], and Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange [1637<=>1647], and the Spanish garrison at Arras under Owen Roe O'Neill [Wikipedia biography] supported by a Spanish field army under Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria [<=1637]. The outcome is a well-fought French victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Arras is in 62 PAS-DE-CALAIS. Research its location online and dot it in on your map.

 

ASIDE - ARRAS IN WW1: Arras will achieve WW1 fame as early as the First Battle of Arras [=> 1914 (1st-4th October)], when the French Tenth Army and the German Sixth Army exhaust themselves trying to find each other's north-western flank during the so-called "Race for the Sea". It then became the central bastion in the British section of the Western Front, being involved in the eight separate battles comprising the Battle of Arras [=>1917 (16th May)], the best remembered of which is the Battle of Vimy Ridge [=>1917 (9th April)]. The Wellington Quarry heritage museum is well worth a visit [tourist website] as is the open air (and underground) Canadian Museum up on the Ridge [tourist website].

 

1640 [20th August] The Second Bishops' War, 1640: This war is fought as part of the broader Covenanter Wars [<=1637] between Charles I of Englandetc [preceding<=>26th October] and the Covenanters under Lord Leven [1639<=>next]. The main events are the Battle of Newburn Ford, 1640, the Treaty of Ripon, 1640, the Long Parliament, 1640, and the Treaty of London, 1641. The overall outcome is a humiliating defeat for the English. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1640 [28th August] The Battle of Newburn Ford: This battle is fought as part of the Second Bishops' War [<=preceding] between a south-bound Covenanter army under Lord Leven [preceding<=>1642] and a Royal army under Edward Conway, 2nd Viscount Conway [Wikipedia biography] trying to prevent them crossing the River Tyne at Newburn. Leslie's artillery commander, Alexander Hamilton [no convenient biography], is, like Leslie himself, a veteran of the Scottish involvement in the Swedish Campaign of the Thirty Years War [<=1618], and the Royal defences on the south bank of the Tyne are soon abandoned under his bombardment. Leslie's infantry includes Wauchtoun's Regiment under its sponsor-commander Sir Patrick Hepburn of Wauchtoun [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is a successful river crossing under fire - no easy feat - followed by the occupation of the strategically important city of Newcastle. [THREADS = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE and WW1 ARTILLERY]

 

1640 [13th September] The Diet of Regensburg/Ratisbon: The Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke Ferdinand III of Hungary [1637<=>1657] calls his Electors and Dukes together to discuss where to go next with the war (the northern half of his empire lying in ruins and the southern half under constant threat from the Ottomans). Even the Protestant Amalia Elisabeth of Hanau-Münzenburg [Wikipedia biography] sends delegates. The sessions will continue until October the following year. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1640 [26th October] The Treaty of Ripon: This treaty brings the Second Bishops' War [above] to a provisional end. The Covenanters receive major concessions of territory in the English north-east and Charles I of Englandetc [20th August<=>3rd November] gets a daily bill for reparations. Further concessions and arrangements will be made in the Treaty of London the following year [=>1641]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1640 [3rd November] The Long Parliament, 1640-1653: Unable to pay the reparations required under the Treaty of Ripon [<=preceding] Charles I of Englandetc [26th October<=>1642] recalls Parliament again, trading off a number of constitutional concessions for the monies involved. A certain William Lenthall [Wikipedia biography=>1642] is appointed Speaker of the House. The Long Parliament will not be dissolved for 13 years. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE: Constitutionally speaking the Long Parliament is actually a continuation of the Parliament of 1625, separated by the 11 years of the Personal Rule [<=1629].

 

**********  THE "GREAT ELECTOR" COMES TO POWER  **********

**********  BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA ON THE ROAD TO RECOVERY  **********

**********  TO BE REALLY GERMAN IS HENCEFORTH TO BE PRUSSIAN  **********

1640 [1st December] Upon the death of the Elector of Brandenburg, George William [<=1637], his titles pass to his son Frederick William I [Wikipedia biography=>1656], who sets about strengthening Brandenburg and Prussia as a single - albeit geographically non-contiguous [check out Wikipedia map] - nation after its suffering in the Swedish Campaign of the Thirty Years War [<=1630]. His victory at the battles of Warsaw [=>1656] and Fehrbellin [=>1675] mark what Holborn (1982) will later describe as "the beginning of Prussian military history". [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE (PRUSSIA)]

 

1640 [18th December] The Long Parliament [<=3rd November] passes an impeachment motion by John Pym [Wikipedia biography=>1642] accusing the Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud [Wikipedia biography] of high treason. His case will be heard after Christmas and on 1st March 1641 Laud is incarcerated in the Tower of London. He will eventually be executed on 4th January 1645. THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1641 [16th January] The Battle of Montjuďc: This battle is fought just outside Barcelona as part of the Catalonian Theatre operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a French/Catalan army under Henri de Serignan [no convenient biography] and a Spanish army under Pedro Fajardo [<=1640]. The outcome is a Spanish defeat with heavily disproportionate losses. THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1641 [6th July] The Battle of La Marfée: This battle is fought as part of the Sedan operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a French army under de Châtillon [<=1638] and an Imperial/Sedanais army under Louis de Bourbon, Count of Soissons [1636<=>dies this day] and Frederick, Duke of Bouillon, Prince of Sedan [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is a French defeat with heavily disproportionate casualties and the death (by assassin, as vengeance for past treacheries against Cardinal Richelieu) of Soissons on the battlefield. THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1641 [23rd October] The Irish Rebellion, 1641-1653: Led by Phelim O'Neill [Wikipedia biography], the Irish Catholic nobility leads a popular uprising in protest against English Protestant rule. The English respond by mobilising an army under Charles Coote [Wikipedia biography=>1650] and William St. Leger [Wikipedia biography]. There follows a number of tit-for-tat sectarian atrocities over the winter of 1641-1642 ... [continued 1642 (10th May]. THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1641 [4th November-9th September 1642] The Siege of Perpignan: This 10-month siege is fought out as part of the Catalonian Theatre operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a besieging French/Catalan army under La Porte [<=1640] and the Spanish crown garrison at Perpignan under Pedro de Zúńiga [no convenient biography]. The outcome is that the city eventually falls to the French/Catalans (and will stay French when Roussillon is awarded to France by the Treaty of the Pyrenees [=>1659]). THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Perpignan is already shown on your map in 66 PYRENEES-ORIENTALE - check it out.

 

1641 [7th December] The Militia Ordinance: Sir Arthur Haselrig [Wikipedia biography=>1642] places a bill before Parliament proposing that "Lord-General" should be appointed to raise and command a national militia, to levy money to pay for it, and to execute martial law when necessary [continues 1642 (15th March) ...]. THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1642  The 19-year-old French mathematician Blaise Pascal [Wikipedia biography] builds a prototype Pascaline, a cog-wheeled calculating machine with a "tens carry" system, which can record an eight-digit running total [Wikipedia image]. Numbers are inserted by rotating the appropriate "column" wheel (units, tens, hundreds, etc.) with a stylus, and then added to by onward rotation by cognate column from right to left. The built-in carry system takes take care of turning as many as necessary of the dials to the left of the one being moved manually. [THREAD = WW1 CYBERNETICS, COMPUTATION, AND FIRE CONTROL]

 

1642 [6th January] The House of Commons Incident: Charles I of Englandetc [1640<=>15th March] arrives at the House of Commons to arrest John Pym [1640<=>4th July] and four others for treason. They have been forewarned, however, and have made good their escape. Charles then demands of the Speaker of the House, William Lenthall [1640<=>1653], that he should state their whereabouts. Lenthall bravely refuses to identify them on the grounds that he is a servant of Parliament, not the Crown. [THREAD = THE ENGLISH CIVIL WARS (ANTECEDENTS)]

 

1642 [10th January] One Philip Skippon [Wikipedia biography=>23rd April], a veteran of 18 years' service in the continental wars, is charged with putting "London's Trained Bands" on a war footing. Within hours this action will have effectively secured London as a Parliamentarian stronghold. [THREAD = THE ENGLISH CIVIL WARS (ANTECEDENTS)]

 

1642 [15th March] The Militia Ordinance: [Continued from 1641 (7th December)] Charles I of Englandetc [6th January<=>next] refuses to give Royal Assent to the Militia Ordinance Bill, provoking Parliament to declare that it is law nonetheless. The nation is immediately polarised into those who back the King and those who back Parliament. [THREAD = THE ENGLISH CIVIL WARS (ANTECEDENTS)]

 

ASIDE - THE CATCH-22 OF ROYAL ASSENT: No English Act of Parliament could then (nor normally still can) become law without Royal Assent. It is naturally difficult therefore to lawfully depose Monarchs, for they need simply to refuse to sign off the paperwork!

 

1642 [23rd April] The English Civil Wars, 1642-1651: This nine-year succession of three distinct civil wars and two intervals for bitter politicking is fought between the English Parliament and the Royal House of Stuart. Charles I of Englandetc [preceding<=>next but one] leads the Royalists for the first two wars and the first interval, and his son, Charles II of Scotland [and England]1660 [Wikipedia biography=>23rd October] takes over upon his father's execution in the second interval. The main military figures (in order of (re-)appearance) are ...

 

·         Lord Essex [1639<=>4th July] [Veteran of the continental wars, 1620-1639; Commander of the Royal army in the First Bishops' War, 1639; Commander-in-Chief of the Parliamentarian army, 1642-1645]

·         Sir William Waller [Wikipedia biography=>4th July] [Veteran of the continental wars, 1617-1621; M.P., 1640-1661 on and off; Parliamentarian regimental commander, 1642-1644; Committee for Both Kingdoms, 1645-1647; Presbyterian in exile 1647-1652; Campaigner for the Restoration, 1659-1660]

·         Prince Rupert [1638<=>??th August] [Royalist cavalry unit commander 1642-1644; Commander of the Royalist armies in the Northwest Counties, 1644-1646; in exile, 1646-1648; Admiral, Royal Navy, 1648-1653; abroad, 1653-1660; Admiral, Royal Navy, 1660-1673; Lord High Admiral, 1673-1679]

·         Sir Thomas Fairfax (3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron)1648 [Wikipedia biography=>1643] [henceforth just "Sir Thomas Fairfax", Parliamentarian cavalry commander, 1642-1645; Commander-in-Chief of the New Model Army, 1645-1646; Lord General of Commonwealth Land Forces, 1649-1650]

·         Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Lord Fairfax of Cameron [Wikipedia biography=>1643] [henceforth just "Lord Fairfax", commander of the Parliamentarian forces in Yorkshire, 1642-1645]

·         Philip Skippon [10th January<=>12th November] [Veteran of the continental wars, 1620-1638; commander of the London Militia, 1642-1645; Major-General of the New Model Army, 1645-1651; MP, 1654-1658]

·         Sir Ralph Hopton [Wikipedia biography=>1643] [Veteran of von Mansfeld's army, 1630s; Commanding general of the Royalist Southwestern Counties, 1642-1646]

·         William Cavendish, Earl (later 1st Duke) of Newcastle [Wikipedia biography=>1643] [henceforth just "Lord Newcastle",  commanding general of the Royalist Northern Army, 1642-1644]

·         Edward Montague (2nd Earl of Manchester)1642 [Wikipedia biography=>1643] [henceforth just "Lord Manchester", Parliamentarian regimental commander, 1642-1643; commanding general of the Parliamentarian Eastern Association armies, 1643-1644]

·         Sir Arthur Haselrig [1641<=>1643] [Parliamentarian cavalry commander, 1642-1646; commander Newcastle garrison, 1647-1648; MP 1654-1661]

·         Lord Leven [1640<=>1643] [Veteran of the continental wars, 1636-1638; Bishops' Wars, 1639-1641; Commander-in-Chief of the Scottish Covenanters Army, 1639-1644; ditto Scottish Army, 1650]

·         George Monck [1638<=>1643] [Veteran of the continental wars, 1626-1638; First Bishops' War, 1640; Invasion of Ireland, 1641; Royalist regimental commander, 1642-1644; prisoner-of-war, 1644-1646; Parliamentarian divisional commander in Ireland, 1646-1649; ditto in Scotland, 1650; Commander-in-Chief in Scotland, 1650-1659; Naval commander in the First Anglo-Dutch War, 1652-1654; Leader of the Coldstream March, 1660; M.P., 1660; ennobled as Duke of Albermarle, 1661; Admiral, 1661-1667]

·         Oliver Cromwell [1629<=>1643] [M.P., 1628-1629 and 1640-1645; Parliamentarian cavalry commander, 1642-1645; Second-in-Command of the New Model Army, 1645-1653; Regicide, 1649; Field Marshall in Irish Campaign, 1649; ditto Scottish Campaign, 1650; Lord Protector of England, 1653-1658; dies of natural causes, 1658; dug up and "executed" 1661]

 

Here is a campaign map, and here are the main events ...

 

·         THE FIRST ENGLISH CIVIL WAR, 1642-1646 (Plus Two) [see separate indexing entry =>next]

·         THE SECOND ENGLISH CIVIL WAR, 1648-1649 [see separate indexing entry =>1648]

·         THE THIRD ENGLISH CIVIL WAR, 1649-1651 [see separate indexing entry =>1649]

 

The wars are noteworthy in the present context for many things, including ...

 

·         war widows

·         pamphlets as instruments of dissent

·         discipline

·         campaign medals [e.g., for the Battle of Dunbar, 1650]

·         politicians versus the military versus vested interest (both religious and non-religious)

 

The overall outcome of the wars is a military victory for Parliament (first war), the execution of Charles I (second war) and the alienation of Scotland and Ireland, and the beginning of an interesting socio-political experiment with a king-less England (third war). [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE - PROPAGANDA TECHNIQUES IN THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR: Taylor (1990) devotes the whole of Chapter 14 to propaganda in the English Civil War, noting "a massive flow of news-sheet propaganda" (p99). Also, more ominously, no little government censorship to keep said material on message.

 

1642 [23rd April] The First English Civil War, 1642-1646 (Plus Two): This is the first phase of the broader English Civil Wars [<=preceding]. It begins with several months of "phoney" war, with none of the Parliamentarians keen to risk his neck in a trial for treason by being the first to move. It then explodes across the country with each town and city declaring its support for one side and promptly getting besieged by the other. Only as the marauding [to understand the precise meaning of "to maraud" see 1648 (24th October) [ASIDE]] armies get bigger and better do the various regional campaigns start to draw to an end. Here are the main events (including a two-year follow-up phase entitled "Bickerings and Intrigues") ...

 

THE PHONEY WAR PHASE, JANUARY-SEPTEMBER 1642

The House of Commons Incident, 1642 [<=6th January (casus belli ante)]; The Militia Ordinance, 1642 [<=15th March (casus belli ante)]; The First Siege of Kingston-upon-Hull, 1642; The Committee of Safety, 1642; The Parliamentary Army, 1642; The Nottingham Declaration, 1642

THE SHOOTING WAR, 1642-1646

The Battle of Powick Bridge, 1642; The Battle of Edgehill, 1642; The Battles of Brentford and Turnham Green, 1642; The Battle of Leeds, 1643; The Bridlington Convoy, 1643; The First Battle of Middlewich, 1643; The Battle of Seacroft Moor, 1643; The Battle for Reading, 1643; The Battle of Stratton, 1643; The Battle of Wakefield, 1643; The Battle of Adwalton Moor, 1643; The Battle of Lansdown Hill, 1643; The Battle of Roundway Down, 1643; The Battle of Gainsborough, 1643; The Second Siege of Kingston-upon-Hull, 1643; The First Battle of Newbury, 1643; The Solemn League and Covenant, 1643; The Battle of Horncastle/Winceby, 1643; The Second Battle of Gainsborough, 1643; The Second Battle of Middlewich, 1643; The Battle of Nantwich, 1644; The Siege of Newark-on-Trent, 1644; The Siege of York, 1644; The First Siege of Oxford, 1644; The Battle of Marston Moor, 1644; The Second Battle of Newbury, 1644; The Second Siege of Oxford, 1645; The Battle of Naseby, 1645; The Battle of Langport, 1645; The Battle of Bridgewater, 1645; The Battle of Bristol, 1645; The Battle of Stow-on-the-Wold, 1646; The Third Siege of Oxford, 1646; The King Surrenders, 1646

POST-WAR BICKERINGS AND INTRIGUES, 1647-1648

Saffron Walden, 1647; "The Apologie of the Common Soldiers", 1647; "A Solemne Engagement of the Army", 1647; "The Case of the Armie Truly Stated", 1647; The Putney Debates, 1647; "The Engagement", 1647; The Plotting, 1648

 

The overall outcome is a military victory for Parliament, followed by a short politically disturbed peace, followed by a second war [=>1648]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1642 [23rd April-10th July] The First Siege of Kingston-upon-Hull: This siege is fought as part of the First English Civil War [above] between a Royalist army under Charles I of Englandetc [preceding<=>??th August] and the Parliamentarian garrison at Kingston-upon-Hull under Sir John Hotham [Wikipedia biography]. The siege begins quietly when Hotham closes the gates of the city to the King, although little actual fighting take place for many weeks. The siege is raised 10th July when the Royalists withdraw. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1642 [10th May] The "Irish Confederation": [Continued from 1641 (23rd October)] The Irish rebels now declare an "Irish Confederation" to legitimise their uprising. This step toward secession will not be significantly challenged while England is distracted by the English Civil War but will come back to the top of the Parliamentarian agenda when the Irish Confederation starts offering safe haven and joint military operations with fugitive Royalists [=>1649 (2nd August)]. THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1642 [29th June-3rd July] The Battle of Barcelona: This naval battle takes place as part of the Catalonian Theatre operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a French fleet under Jean Armand de Maillé-Brézé [Wikipedia biography] and a Spanish crown fleet under Juan Idiáquez [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is a French victory (despite the own goal of setting fire to their own flagship). THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Barcelona is in ESPAGNE. Research its location online and dot it in on your map.

 

1642 [4th July] The Committee of Safety: The English Parliament votes to establish a 15-man [ten members from the Commons, five from the Lords] Committee of Safety, charged with bringing together the separate local militias under a unified command and logistical structure. Amongst the peers is Lord Essex [23rd April<=>next] and amongst the ordinary members are John Pym [<=6th January], John Hampden1 [Wikipedia biography=>1643], and Sir William Waller [23rd April<=>1643]. The committee will sit until February 1644, when it will be replaced by the Committee of Both Kingdoms [=>1644] (which will in due course itself be replaced by a new Committee of Safety [=>1647]). [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1ASIDE: Both Hampden Park, Glasgow, and Hampden County, Massachussetts, are named after John Hampden.

 

1642 [12th July] The Parliamentary Army: The English Parliament now resolves as follows ...

 

"That an army shall be forthwith raised, for the Safety of the King's Person, the Defence of both Houses of Parliament, and of those who have obeyed their Orders and Commands, and for the Preservation of the true Religion, of the Laws, Liberties, and Peace of the Kingdom, they will live and die with the Earl of Essex whom they have nominated General in this Cause" (House of Commons Journal, 12th July 1642 online).

 

Lord Essex [preceding<=>23rd October] will remain Parliamentarian Commander-in-Chief until a command reshuffle in early 1645 occasions his retirement. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1642 [??th August] Prince Rupert [23rd April<=>23rd September] and his younger brother Prince Maurice [Wikipedia biography=>1644] arrive by ship at Newcastle from the Netherlands and make their way to join Charles I of Englandetc [23rd April<=>next] at Leicester. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1642 [22nd August] The Nottingham Declaration: Charles I of Englandetc [preceding<=>23rd October] raises his standard at Nottingham, symbolically escalating his stand-off with Parliament to a formally recognised war. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  "WHERE ENGLAND'S SORROWS BEGAN"  **********

[cf. =>1651 (3rd September)]

1642 [23rd September] The Battle of Powick Bridge: This skirmish is fought as part of the First English Civil War [above] between a Royalist cavalry unit under Prince Rupert [23rd April<=>23rd October] and a Parliamentary cavalry column under Nathaniel Fiennes [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is a Royalist victory thanks to good luck [both columns were making camp but only Royalist scouts discovered their enemy's presence] and the speed of Prince Rupert's decision making in organising an attack at short notice. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1642 [23rd October] The Second Battle of Breitenfeld: This battle is fought as part of the French-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a Swedish army under Lennart Torstenson [Wikipedia biography] and a considerably larger Imperial army under Leopold William of Austria [Wikipedia biography=>1648] and Prince Ottavio Piccolomini [<=1638]. The outcome is a convincing Swedish victory, with disproportionate Imperial casualties. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1642 [23rd October] The Battle of Edgehill: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [above] between a Parliamentarian army under Lord Essex [12th July<=>next] and a Royalist army under Charles I of Englandetc [22nd August<=>12th November], Prince Rupert [23rd September<=>12th November], Sir Henry Wilmot (1st Earl of Rochester)1652 [Wikipedia biography=>1643], John, Lord Byron [Wikipedia biography=>1643], Sir Arthur Aston [Wikipedia biography=>1643], and Sir Jacob Astley1 [Wikipedia biography=>1643]. A 12-year-old Charles, Prince of Wales (the future Charles II of Englandetc [23rd April<=>1648]) is present on the field as part of his royal education. The outcome is inconclusive, with broadly balanced casualties. The battle is noteworthy in the present context primarily as a sharp learning experience for all who were lucky enough to survive it. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

                                                                                                           

1ASIDE: Astley's eve-of-battle prayer went viral at the time and has since become legendary. Here it is: "Oh Lord, Thou knowest how busy I must be this day. If I forget Thee, do not forget me! March on, Boys!"

 

1642 [4th November-25th April 1643] The Siege of Reading: This siege is fought out as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a besieging Parliamentarian army under Lord Essex [preceding<=>next] and the Royalist garrison at Reading under Sir Arthur Aston [preceding<=>1643]. Essex blockades the town loosely over the winter and does not move in for the kill until the following Spring ... [continues 1643 (13th April)]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1642 [12th-13th November] The Battles of Brentford and Turnham Green: These battles are fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentary army under Lord Essex [preceding<=>1643] (including the "London Trained Bands" of Philip Skippon [23rd April<=>1643]) and a Royalist army about half its size under Charles I of Englandetc [23rd October<=>1643] and Prince Rupert [23rd October<=>1643]. The outcome at Brentford is a Royalist victory, but at Turnham Green the Royalists find themselves facing some 24,000 Parliamentarians and soon decide to abandon their advance on London and fall back instead onto Oxford. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1642 [4th December] Cardinal Richelieu [<=1636] dies, and is replaced as First Minister by Cardinal Jules Mazarin [Wikipedia biography=>1643]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE - A NOTE OF CAUTION: Leathes (1934) remarks as follows on the relationship between politicians and generals ...

 

"... Richelieu was afraid of his generals. He divided their commands, he hampered them with instructions. Any great enterprise required the presence of Richelieu and the King, which meant that no risks would be taken, and overwhelming forces would be used to achieve some ostensible success. Military operations were always controlled by political considerations; and political considerations meant the unchallenged supremacy of the Cardinal. In these circumstances it is not surprising that no great general had appeared before the Cardinal's death. Turenne and [d'Enghien/Condé] were trained in these wars; but they held no independent commands until after his death" (Leathes, 1934 online; emphases added).

 

1643 [23rd January] The Battle of Leeds: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentary army under Sir Thomas Fairfax [1642<=>30th March] and the Royalist garrison at Leeds under Sir William Savile [Wikipedia biography=>11th October]. The outcome is a Parliamentarian victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [22nd February] The Bridlington Convoy: A Dutch fleet under Maarten Tromp [1639<=>1652] smuggles Henrietta Maria [<=1625], Lord Eythin [1638<=>1644], and a consignment of bullion (to help pay for the war) and munitions (to help fight it), at Bridlington, 20 miles up the coast from Kingston-upon-Hull. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [13th March] The First Battle of Middlewich: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Sir William Brereton [Wikipedia biography=>26th December], en route to secure Cheshire, and a recently recruited Royalist army under Sir Thomas Aston [Wikipedia biography]. The Royalists' inexperience shows itself and their main body is roundly defeated and taken as prisoners-of-war. Brereton's control over the county will be tested again at Second Middlewich [=>26th December] and Nantwich [=>1644]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [30th March] The Battle of Seacroft Moor: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Lord Fairfax [1642<=>30th June] and Sir Thomas Fairfax [23rd January<=>20th May] and a Royalist army under Lord George Goring [Wikipedia biography<=>20th May]. The outcome is a humiliating Parliamentarian defeat, thanks to the superiority of Goring's cavalry over Fairfax's inexperienced militia. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [11th April] The Battle of Ancaster Heath: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Royalist army under Sir Charles Cavendish [no convenient biography=>13th May] and Sir John Henderson [Wikipedia biography=>13th May] and a Parliamentarian army under Lord Willoughby of Parham [Wikipedia biography=>13th May]. The outcome is a Parliamentarian rout. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [13th-26th April] The Battle for Reading: [Continued from 1643 (4th November)] The final fortnight of this five-month siege is fought out as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Lord Essex [1642<=>20th September] and the Royalist garrison at Reading under Sir Arthur Aston [1642<=>1649]. The outcome is a Royalist surrender, with Aston being taken as prisoner-of-war. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [13th May] The Battle of Grantham: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Lord Willoughby of Parham [11th April<=>16th July], reinforced since the Battle of Ancaster Heath by Oliver Cromwell [1642<=>16th July], and the Royalist Newark army under Sir Charles Cavendish [11th April<=>16th July] and Sir John Henderson [11th April<=>11th October]. The outcome is a Parliamentarian victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [14th May] Upon the death of Louis XIII of France [<=1639] the throne passes to his four-year-old son Louis XIV of France [1638<=>1661], with power residing during the child's minority in his mother Anne of Austria [1638<=>1648] as Regent, closely advised by her First Minister Cardinal Jules Mazarin [1642<=>1648]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [16th May] The Battle of Stratton: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Henry Grey, 1st Earl of Stamford [Wikipedia biography] and a South-Western Command Royalist army under Sir Ralph Hopton [1642<=>5th July] and Sir John Berkeley [Wikipedia biography=>1645]. The outcome is a hard-fought Royalist victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  WORRYING SETBACK FOR SPAIN  **********

1643 [19th May] The Battle of Rocroi: This battle is fought as part of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635] between a French army under (22-year-old) d'Enghien [1636<=>1644] and a Habsburg Spanish army under General Francisco de Melo [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is a significant French victory. The battle is noteworthy in the present context as a major setback in the fortunes of the Spanish Empire. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

WAR VIDEO: Scenes re-enacting the Battle of Rocroi are included in Agustin Yanes' (2006) movie "Alatriste" [20th Century Fox]. Note the cohesiveness of the tercio formation [<=1547 (INSET)] but also its vulnerability to artillery [check it out on YouTube].

 

1643 [20th May] The Battle of Wakefield: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a raiding column of Parliamentarians under Sir Thomas Fairfax [30th March<=>next] and the Royalist garrison at Wakefield under Lord George Goring [30th March<=>1644]. The outcome is an against-the-odds Parliamentarian victory, with Goring being taken as prisoner-of-war. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [18th June] The Battle of Chalgrove: This battle consists of a number of skirmishes fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Royalist column under Prince Rupert [1642<=>20th September] and the Parliamentarian forces around Chalgrove, ten miles southeast of Oxford, under Sir Philip Stapleton [Wikipedia biography=>20th September] and John Hampden [<=1642]. The outcome is a Royalist victory, with the death of Hampden from a wound received on the battlefield. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [30th June] The Battle of Adwalton Moor: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a 10,000-strong Royalist army under Lord Newcastle [1642<=>2nd September], threatening Bradford from the southeast, and a smaller Parliamentarian army blocking their road under Lord Fairfax [30th March<=>2nd September] and Sir Thomas Fairfax [preceding<=>11th October]. The outcome is a Royalist victory, with the Parliamentarians falling back in some disarray onto the makeshift defences at Bradford (not a walled town), and thence, on 1st July, onward to Hull. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [5th July] The Battle of Lansdown Hill: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Sir William Waller [1642<=>next] and Sir Arthur Haselrig [1642<=>next] and a larger Royalist army under Sir Ralph Hopton [16th May<=>next]. The outcome is a day-long firefight resulting in Waller being forced to retreat. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [13th July] The Battle of Roundway Down: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Sir William Waller [preceding<=>13th December] and Sir Arthur Haselrig [preceding<=>13th December] and a Royalist army under Sir Ralph Hopton [preceding<=>13th December], Sir Henry Wilmot [1642<=>1644], John, Lord Byron [1642<=>20th September], and Ludovic Lindsay, 16th Earl of Crawford [Wikipedia biography=>13th December]. The outcome is a decisive Royalist victory, thanks to successful cavalry charges by Wilmot and Byron. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1ASIDE: Haselrig's regiment of cuirassiers were equipped with distinctive articulated-plate neck protection, leading to them becoming known as "Haselrig's lobsters" [image].

 

1643 [16th/28th/31st July] The Battle of Gainsborough: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Lord Willoughby of Parham [<=13th May] and the Royalists at Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, under Robert Pierrepont, 1st Earl of Kingston-upon-Hull [Wikipedia biography]. Parham takes the town in a surprise attack on 16th July, whereupon the Royalists despatch a relief column under Sir Charles Cavendish [<=13th May]. This, however, is intercepted by Parliamentarian reinforcements under Sir John Meldrum [Wikipedia biography=>1643] and Oliver Cromwell [13th May<=>11th October] and a battle takes place at Foxby Hill nearby in which Cavendish is killed. The Parliamentarians are then driven back into Lincoln by the main Royalist army in the region under Lord Newcastle [30th June<=>2nd September]. The battles are noteworthy as the beginning of Oliver Cromwell's rise to military stardom. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [2nd September-11th October] The Second Siege of Kingston-upon-Hull: This siege is fought as part of the First English Civil War [above] between a Royalist army under Lord Newcastle [16th June<=>1644] and the Parliamentarian garrison at Kingston-upon-Hull now under Lord Fairfax [30th June<=>1644]. The siege begins with an artillery exchange and then becomes a duel of military engineering works - battery building and battery reduction. Finally a sortie in strength by the defenders on 11th October destroys Newcastle's main siege works and captures many of his guns and Newcastle abandons the operation. The siege is noteworthy in the present context for Fairfax's deliberate inundation of low-lying land beside the River Humber in order to deny its use to the enemy [compare <=1427 (Siege of Montargis) and =>1914 (Battle of the Yser)]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [20th September] The First Battle of Newbury: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Lord Essex [16th April<=>1644], Philip Stapleton [<=18th June], and Philip Skippon [1642<=>1644], and a Royalist army under Charles I of Englandetc [1642<=>1644], Prince Rupert [1642<=>1644], Sir William Vavasour [no convenient biography], Sir Jacob Astley [1642<=>1645] and John, Lord Byron [13th July<=>26th December]. The outcome is a decisive Parliamentarian victory, followed by a Royalist retreat into Oxford. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [25th September] The Solemn League and Covenant: This agreement permits and encourages Scottish Presbyterian Protestants to join with the English and Welsh Parliamentarians in fighting the Catholic Royalists, promising in return to promote Presbyterianism in England. Command of the Scottish Covenanter army is given to Lord Leven [1642<=>1644]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [11th October] The Battle of Horncastle/Winceby: This battle is fought as an adjunct to the Second Siege of Kingston-upon-Hull [<=2nd September] between the Eastern Association Parliamentarian army under Lord Manchester [1642<=>1644], Oliver Cromwell [16th July<=>1644], and Sir Thomas Fairfax [30th June<=>20th December], and a Royalist cavalry brigade out of their stronghold at Newark-on-Trent under Sir John Henderson [<=13th April] and Sir William Savile [<=23rd January]. After a tidal exchange of cavalry charges1, the outcome is a decisive Parliamentarian victory with disproportionate Royalist casualties. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1ASIDE: Cromwell was a gentleman-farmer turned cavalry commander, and had learned his new trade well. His troopers were drilled until they could charge "knee-to-knee", for maximum disruptive effect to those on the receiving end with minimum loss of formation. There was no automatic pursuit, no heat of the moment free-for-all unless and until specifically ordered.

 

1643 [24th November] The Battle of Tuttlingen: This battle is fought as part of the Alsace Campaign of the French-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1635 (20th May)] between an Imperial/Bavarian army under Franz von Mercy [1636<=>1644] and a French army under Josias Rantzau [no convenient biography]. The outcome is a decisive Bavarian victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [13th December] The Battle of Alton: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between the Parliamentarian army under Sir William Waller [13th July<=>1644] and Sir Arthur Haselrig [13th July<=>1644] and an overwintering Royalist garrison in the area under Sir Ralph Hopton [13th July<=>1644] and Ludovic Lindsay, 16th Earl of Crawford [<=13th July]. Caught by surprise, the Royalists suffer a crushing defeat, with heavily disproportionate losses. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [19th December] Turenne [1638<=>1644] is promoted Marshal of France for distinguished service in the Italian Theatre of Operations of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635], and sent to rebuild the French army in Alsace after its mauling at Tuttlingen [<=preceding]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [20th December] The Second Battle of Gainsborough: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between the Parliamentarian army under Sir Thomas Fairfax [11th October<=>1644] and Sir John Meldrum [16th July<=>1644] and the Royalist garrison at Gainsborough. The garrison is outnumbered and unprepared and offers no substantive resistance. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1643 [26th December] The Second Battle of Middlewich: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between the Parliamentarian army in Cheshire under Sir William Brereton [13th March<=>1644] and a Royalist column under John, Lord Byron [20th September<=>1644]. Byron has been tasked with clearing the roads1 so that a large force of troops under George Monck [1642<=>1644], recently arrived back from Ireland, can make their way south. Brereton's job is to stop this happening. The outcome is a Royalist victory (although control of the region will be lost at the Battle of Nantwich the following month [=>]). [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1ASIDE: The main ports for troops arriving from Ireland are Liverpool in Lancashire and Chester at the mouth of the River Dee. Today troops landing at the ports would travel east on the M62 and M56, respectively, turning south onto the M6 at J20/21a. The best place to block both routes with a single force is therefore soon after they have turned south, that is to say, in the Middlewich/Nantwich/Crewe area [=>25th January].

 

1644 Belief Systems [IX - Superstition, Witchcraft, and Magic (The Witchfinder General)]: The British inn-keeper Matthew Hopkins [Wikipedia biography] takes it upon himself to cleanse East Anglia (and later further afield) of witchcraft at a (starting) fee of "twenty shillings a town". Amongst his screening techniques are the Swimming Test (where you are thrown into a pond tied to a chair and judged guilty if you float) and the Devil's Mark (where any mole, wart, or other skin blemish is deemed a "witch's tit" for the devil to drink from). In 1647 Hopkins will summarise his successes in the book "The Discovery of Witches" [Project Gutenberg full text online] [sub-thread continues at 1651 ...]. [THREAD = THE BATTLE FOR HEARTS AND MINDS]

 

1644 [16th January] The Committee of Both Kingdoms: The English Parliament establish a 25-man War Committee in order to improve liaison between itself and the Scottish Parliament. The committee includes seven members of the English House of Lords, including Lord Essex [1643<=>28th May] and Lord Manchester [1643<=>22nd April], 14 members of the House of Commons, including Oliver Cromwell [1643<=>2nd July] and Sir William Waller [1643<=>28th March], and four Scottish representatives. The committee will eventually be dissolved in favour of the 1647 Committee of Safety [=>1647]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [11th-25th January] The Siege/Battle of Nantwich: This siege/battle is fought out as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642]. It begins when a Royalist army under John, Lord Byron [1643<=>22nd April] besieges the Parliamentarian defenders at Nantwich, Cheshire, under Sir William Brereton [1643<=>1646]. The Parliamentarians hold out for a fortnight and are then relieved by the main Parliamentarian army under Sir Thomas Fairfax [1643<=>11th April]. The outcome is a clear Parliamentarian victory, and amongst the prisoners of war is the Royalist George Monck [1643<=>1650], destined (after spending two years in the Tower of London) to switch his allegiance from the King to Parliament. Byron withdraws his survivors to safety in Chester [continues at 1645 (27th January) ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [30th January] The Battle of Ochmatów: This battle is fought as part of the Tartar incursions against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between a Commonwealth army under Koniecpolski [<=1627] and a Tartar army under Mirza Tughai Bey [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is a Commonwealth victory, with highly disproportionate Tartar casualties. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [3rd February-19th October] The Siege of Newcastle-upon-Tyne: This siege is fought out as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Scottish Covenanters' army under Lord Leven [1643<=>22nd April] and the Royalist garrison at Newcastle-upon-Tyne under Lord Newcastle [1643<=>22nd April] and Lord Eythin [1643<=>22nd April]. The outcome is a Scots victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [21st February] Following the Royalist defeat at Nantwich [<=25th January] Charles I of Englandetc [1643<=>28th May] puts his nephew Prince Rupert [1643<=>8th March] in charge of Royalist forces in the Northwest of England, and promotes Sir Henry Wilmot [1643<=>29th June] to take over Prince Rupert's old job as commander of the Royalist cavalry. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [8th-21st March] The Siege of Newark-on-Trent: This siege is fought out as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Sir John Meldrum [1643<=>11th April] and the Royalist garrison at Newark-on-Trent under Richard Byron [Wikipedia biography]. A relief column is sent under Prince Rupert [21st February<=>22nd April] and maintains its momentum by attacking with minimal delay. Meldrum is caught unprepared and forced across the Trent onto Kelham Island where his besiegers suddenly become the besieged. The outcome is a humiliating negotiated surrender in which the Parliamentarians exchange all their weapons and equipment for the privilege of being able to tell the tale. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [10th March] The Battle of Carew Castle: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between the Parliamentarian Governor of Pembroke Castle, one John Poyer [Wikipedia biography=>1648] and the Royalist enclave at Carew Castle. The castle duly falls [see the ruins]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  THE TIPPING POINT  **********

1644 [29th March] The Battle of Cheriton: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Royalist army under Patrick Ruthven, 1st Earl of Forth [Wikipedia biography] and Sir Ralph Hopton [1643<=>1646] and a Parliamentarian army under Sir William Waller [16th January<=>28th May] and Sir Arthur Haselrig [1643<=>1659]. The outcome is a clear Parliamentarian victory. The battle is noteworthy in the present context as the point where the Royalists came off the offensive and onto the defensive. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

WAR VIDEO: YouTube offers a video of an English Civil War Society re-enactment of aspects of this battle - check it out.

 

1644 [11th April] The Battle of Selby: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Lord Fairfax [1643<=>22nd April], Sir Thomas Fairfax [25th January<=>2nd July], Sir John Meldrum [<=8th March], and John Lambert [Wikipedia biography=>1645], and a Royalist army under John Belasyse [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is a Parliamentarian victory, thereby threatening the Royalist stronghold at York 13 miles to the north. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [22nd April-1st July] The Siege of York (First Phase): This siege is fought out as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between the Northern and Eastern Association Parliamentary armies under Lord Fairfax [<=11th April] and Lord Manchester [16th January<=>2nd July], respectively, assisted by a Scottish Covenanters army under Lord Leven [3rd February<=>2nd July], and the Royalist garrison at York under Lord Newcastle [3rd February<=>1st July] and Lord Eythin [<=3rd February]. The siege-works are temporarily abandoned on 30th June when word reaches Fairfax that a relief column led by Prince Rupert [8th March<=>2nd July] and John, Lord Byron [25th January<=>2nd July] is preparing to attack. Leaving behind their heaviest artillery, the Parliamentarians decamp and head off toward Marston Moor in field formation. Rupert avoids them for the moment in order to reinforce himself with most of Eythin's infantry, and on 2nd July leads his army southward to give battle at Marston Moor ... [continues 2nd July]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [28th May-8th June] The First Siege of Oxford: This siege is fought out as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentary army under Sir William Waller [29th March<=>29th June] and Lord Essex [16th January<=>13th August] and the Royalist garrison at Oxford under Charles I of Englandetc [21st February<=>29th June]. The Parliamentarians abandon the siege after a week once it emerges that the King has slipped out of the town unnoticed on 3rd June. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [??th June] Turenne [1643<=>3rd July] crosses the Rhine at Breisach with his newly rebuilt army, and heads for Freiburg/Fribourg, 13 miles further east [continues at 3rd July ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [12th June] The Parliamentarian army under Lord Essex [28th May<=>13th August] passes through Blandford, Dorsetshire, threatening the Royalist army under Prince Maurice [1642<=>27th October] presently besieging Lyme Regis on the coast 45 miles to the west. [THREADS = THE WW1 ARMIES and THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [29th June] The Battle of Cropredy Bridge: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Royalist army under Charles I of Englandetc [28th May<=>13th August] and Sir Henry Wilmot [<=21st February] and a Parliamentarian army under Sir William Waller [28th May<=>2nd July]. The outcome is a Royalist victory. The battle is noteworthy in the present context for a seriously high rate of Parliamentarian desertion, which Waller reports is because his recently enlisted Londoners are reluctant to fight far from home. They see their cause as being to defend their homes, not a broader way of life, and have made no commitment beyond that. Waller therefore starts to lobby the Parliamentarians for a less provincial approach to recruitment, specifically one which enlists men to defend a principle - a broader "cause" of some sort - rather than simply running with the herd. [THREADS = THE WW1 ARMIES and THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  HISTORICALLY PIVOTAL BATTLE  **********

1644 [2nd July] [Continued from 22nd April] The Battle of Marston Moor: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Lord Manchester [22nd April<=>27th October] and Sir Thomas Fairfax [11th April<=>1645], assisted by a Scottish Covenanters army under Lord Leven [22nd April<=>1650], and a Royalist army under Prince Rupert [22nd April<=>1645], Lord George Goring [1643<=>27th October], and John, Lord Byron [22nd April<=>1645]. Leven's second-in-command is David Leslie (1st Lord Newark) [Wikipedia biography=>1651]. The aforementioned Oliver Cromwell [16th January<=>27th October] now commands the Parliamentarian cavalry. The outcome is a decisive Parliamentarian victory, not least of Cromwell's cavalry over Goring's. The battle is noteworthy in the present context for securing northern England for Parliament and thus splitting Scottish and southern English Royalists. It also earns Cromwell the nickname "Old Ironsides" after his opponent, Prince Rupert, is heard referring to him after this fashion. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

WAR ART: Check out John Joseph Barker's "Battle of Marston Moor".

 

1644 [3rd-16th July] [... continued from 22nd April] The Relief of York (Second Phase): Following the Royalist debacle at Marston Moor [<=2nd July] Prince Rupert [2nd July<=>1645] gathers his survivors in York and then leads them off to Oxford, leaving behind a token garrison under Sir Thomas Glemham [Wikipedia biography]. Now heavily outnumbered, Glemham duly negotiates an honourable surrender and marches out of the city on 16th July. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [3rd July-9th August] The Siege/Battle of Freiburg/Fribourg: [Continued from ??th June] This siege/relief takes place as part of the French-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1635 (20th May)] between an Imperial/Bavarian army under von Mercy [1643<=>1645] and von Werth [1638<=>1645] and the French-sponsored German garrison at Freiburg/Fribourg.  The Imperials take the city on 29th July, just before a relieving French army under Turenne [??th June<=>1645] and d'Enghien [1643<=>1645] arrives on the scene. The French then spend the next 10 days fighting to get it back, mounting three major assaults. The outcome is indecisive at the time, but the assaults leave von Mercy weakened enough to order a general Imperial withdrawal to the east, leaving the French in command of that part of the Rhineland. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [8th July] The First Taking of Taunton: This battle takes place as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian column under Sir Robert Pye [Wikipedia biography] and Robert Blake [Wikipedia biography=>1645] and the Royalist garrison at Taunton, Somerset, under Reeves [no convenient biography]. Reeves has been caught unprepared and surrenders the town as soon as asked. The Royalist commander at nearby Bridgewater, Sir Edmund Wyndham [Wikipedia biography], has to divert a substantial force to invest Taunton in order to prevent Blake emerging at will to disrupt Royalist communications within the county [continues at 1645 (23rd April) ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [13th/21st August/1st September] The Battle of Lostwithiel: This battle takes place as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Lord Essex [12th June<=>27th October] and Philip Skippon [1643<=>next] and a Royalist army under Charles I of Englandetc [29th June<=>27th October]. Essex has taken his two-month campaign into the West Country too far and has been pushed back against Lostwithiel and the port of Fowey, Cornwall, and are awaiting seaborne evacuation. The Royalists are trying to break them before they can make good their escape. The outcome is a negotiated surrender of 6000 Parliamentarian infantry and the capture of all the army's artillery. Essex escapes by boat and his cavalry by surprise break-out; his infantry - once they have been disarmed - are simply shown the road back to London. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1644 [27th October] The Second Battle of Newbury: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War  [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Lord Essex [13th August<=>1645], Sir William Waller [2nd July<=>1645], Lord Manchester [2nd July<=>1645], and Oliver Cromwell [2nd July<=>1645], and a considerably smaller Royalist army under Charles I of Englandetc [13th August<=>1645], Prince Maurice [12th June<=>1645], and Lord George Goring [2nd July<=>1645]. The outcome is tactically inconclusive, with the Royalists falling back onto their stronghold at Oxford, but a moral defeat for the Parliamentarians for failing to make better use of their numerical superiority. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1645 [13th January] The Self-Denying Ordinance: With moves afoot to create a New Model Army, Parliament passes a bill drafted by Oliver Cromwell [1644<=>3rd April] to make it unlawful for any member of either the Upper or Lower House to hold military command unless specifically requested. Following their defeats at Lostwithiel and Second Newbury, both Lord Essex [<=1644] and Lord Manchester [<=1645] resign their commands. Cromwell, on the other hand, cleverly resigns his seat in the House of Commons leaving himself second only to Sir Thomas Fairfax [1644<=>3rd April] when the army is eventually formed. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1645 [27th January-19th February] The Siege of Chester: [Continued from 1644 (11th January)] This siege is fought out as part of the First English Civil War  [<=1642] between a besieging Parliamentarian army under Sir William Brereton [1644<=>13th March] and the Royalist garrison at Chester under John, Lord Byron [1644<=>13th March]. The Royalists hold out until a Royalist relief column under Prince Maurice [<=1644] arrives on 19th February, whereupon Brereton has to disperse his troops into the surrounding countryside [continues at 13th March ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1645 [13th March-18th May] The Second Siege of Chester: [Continued from 27th January] This siege is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a besieging Parliamentarian army under Sir William Brereton [27th January<=>18th May] and the now-strengthened Royalist garrison at Chester under John, Lord Byron [27th January<=>20th September]. Brereton will maintain the siege until 18th May [continues at 18th May ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

********** THE ENGLISH HALF OF THE BRITISH ARMY IS BORN  **********

1645 [3rd April] Responding to Sir William Waller's observations [<=1644], the British parliament formally establishes the "New Model Army", and appoints Sir Thomas Fairfax [1644<=>21st May] as its "Captain-General". In June Oliver Cromwell [1644<=>14th June] will be put in charge of the cavalry with the rank of Lieutenant-General. Fairfax is replaced as commander of the northern armies by John Lambert [1644<=>1646]. The initial army establishment is to be 11 regiments of cavalry - known popularly as Cromwell's "Ironsides" - each of six "troops" of 100 men, 12 regiments of infantry, each of 1200 men, and one 1000-man regiment of dragoons (mounted infantry). Pay is 8d [= old pence] per day for the infantrymen and 2s [= old shillings] per day for the cavalrymen (they get more because they have to provide their own horses). Although individual recruits are expected to be Protestants, the new army is theoretically a non-political extension of political decision-making, that is to say, it does as it is told by Parliament and has no views of its own. It is also permanent and professional, that is to say, neither a militia nor a territorial force. [=>1645 (14th June)] [THREAD = THE WW1 ARMIES]

 

ASIDE: For details of the regimental establishment and senior officers, see Temple (1986 online).

 

1645 [23rd April] The Battle for Taunton: [... continued from 1644 (8th July)] Having been loosely under siege since they first captured the town, the Parliamentarians in Taunton under Robert Blake [1644<=>11th May] now face a full-scale Royalist assault led by Sir Richard Grenville [Wikipedia biography] and Sir John Berkeley [<=1643]. By 9th May the defenders have been driven back into Taunton Castle and are desperately short of food. On 30th May Sir Thomas Fairfax [3rd April<=>21st May], then at Dorchester, detaches a relief column (four infantry regiments and one of cavalry) under Ralph Weldon [Wikipedia biography=>11th May] to lift the siege [continues at 11th May ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1645 [2nd May] The Battle of Herbsthausen/Mergentheim: This battle is fought as part of the French-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a French army under Turenne [1644<=>3rd August] and a Bavarian army under von Mercy [1644<=>3rd August]. The outcome is a crushing French defeat. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1645 [8th May] The Royalists hold a council-of-war at Stow-on-the-Wold, attended by Charles I of Englandetc [1644<=>29th May], Prince Rupert [1644<=>29th May], and Lord George Goring [1644<=>11th May]. After due consideration Goring is sent west with his cavalry corps to put additional pressure on the Parliamentarian stronghold at Taunton, whilst Charles and Rupert take the main army northward to relieve the siege at Chester. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1645 [11th May-29th June] The Relief of Taunton: [... continued from 23rd April] Ralph Weldon's relief column [<=23rd April] reinforces Robert Blake's [23rd April<=>1652] garrison at Taunton, although with Lord George Goring's [8th May<=>14th June] arrival in the vicinity a week later the town will remain loosely under siege until after the Battle of Naseby [=>14th June], whereupon the Parliamentarians will be strong enough to mount a fuller offensive into the south-western counties. Goring will abandon his siege on 29th June. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1645 [18th May] The Second Relief of Chester: [... continued from 13th March] Learning that the main Royalist army is moving north through Worcestershire in his direction, Sir William Brereton [13th March<=>1646] again abandons his siegeworks around Chester [continues at 20th September ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1645 [21st May-5th June] The Second Siege of Oxford: This siege is fought out as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Sir Thomas Fairfax [23rd April<=>29th May] and the Royalist garrison at Oxford. As with the First Siege [<=1644] this one is not pressed home once it is determined that no senior Royalists are present in the city.  [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1645 [26th May] The Battle of Evesham: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian column out of Gloucester under Edward Massie [Wikipedia biography=>1647] and the Royalist garrison at Evesham. The outcome is a relatively straightforward Parliamentarian victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1645 [29th-31st May] The Battle of Leicester: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Royalist army under Charles I of Englandetc [8th May<=>14th June], Prince Rupert [1644<=>8th May], and Sir Marmaduke Langdale [Wikipedia biography=>20th September], and the Parliamentarian garrison at Leicester under Sir Robert Pye [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is a methodically executed Royalist victory. When this news reaches the siege lines at Oxford it prompts Sir Thomas Fairfax [21st May<=>14th June] to abandon that siege for the time being and to lead his army northward. The Royalists move south to meet him halfway ... [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

********** HISTORICALLY PIVOTAL BATTLE  **********

1645 [14th June] The Battle of Naseby: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War  [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Sir Thomas Fairfax [29th May<=>10th July], Oliver Cromwell [3rd April<=>10th July], Philip Skippon [1644<=>1646], and the up-and-coming (and about to become Cromwell's son-in-law) Henry Ireton [Wikipedia biography=>1646], and a somewhat smaller Royalist army under Charles I of Englandetc [31st May<=>20th September], Prince Rupert [31st May<=>21st August], Sir Jacob Astley [1643<=>1646], and Lord George Goring [11th May<=>10th July]. The newly appointed Comptroller of Artillery, Richard Deane [Wikipedia biography=>1648], commands the Parliamentarian artillery. The outcome is a decisive Parliamentarian victory, with disproportionate Royalist casualties, the loss of its artillery, and the death of many of its most experienced officers. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE - NASEBY AS A HERITAGE SITE: Click here to learn about the work of the Naseby Battlefield Project.

 

1645 [10th July] The Battle of Langport: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Sir Thomas Fairfax [21st May<=>23rd July] and Oliver Cromwell [14th June<=>13th July] and the last surviving Royalist army of any consequence under Lord George Goring [14th June<=>1648]. The outcome is a Royalist rout thanks in no small part to successful Parliamentarian cavalry charges by Cromwell's divisional commanders, Majors Christopher Bethel [no convenient biography] and (Cromwell's brother-in-law) John Desborough [Wikipedia biography]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1645 [13th-23rd July] The Battle for Bridgewater: This brief siege is fought out as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Sir Thomas Fairfax [10th July<=>10th September] and Oliver Cromwell [10th July<=>21st August] and the Royalist garrison at Bridgewater under Sir Hugh Wyndham [no detailed biography]. The outcome is a Royalist surrender. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1645 [3rd August] The Battle of Allerheim/Nördlingen: This battle is fought as part of the French-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a French army under d'Enghien [1644<=>1646] and Turenne [2nd May<=>1648] and an Imperial/Bavarian army under von Mercy [2nd May<=>dies this day] and von Werth [<=1644]. The outcome is a nominal French victory, made sweeter by the death of von Mercy on the battlefield. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1645 [21st August-11th September] The Battle of Bristol: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Sir Thomas Fairfax [23rd July<=>1646] and Oliver Cromwell [13th July<=>1648] and the Royalist garrison at Bristol under Prince Rupert [14th June<=>1648]. The main assault takes place on 10th September and the defences are soon penetrated in several places. Rupert negotiates an honourable surrender and his troops march out of the city the next day with their colours flying, but leaving their weapons behind. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1645 [20th September] The Assault on Chester and the Battle of Rowton Heath: [Continued from 18th May] This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Michael Jones [Wikipedia biography] and the Royalist garrison at Chester under John, Lord Byron [13th March<=>1648]. The assault has been timed to come to the attention of a north-bound Royalist army out of the Welsh Marches under Charles I of Englandetc [14th June<=>1646] and Charles does indeed take the opportunity to lead a detached column to Byron's assistance, but closely shadowed by a Parliamentarian column under Sydenham Poyntz [Wikipedia biography]. The King enters the city with one of his brigades on 23rd September, leaving three other brigades under Sir Marmaduke Langdale [29th May<=>1648] camped near Rowton Heath, just over a mile to the southeast of the city. Poyntz and Langdale then meet in battle on 24th September and Langdale is eventually driven into the city in disorder. Sensing a lost cause, Charles leads his survivors back east the following day. The Parliamentarian assault is then renewed and the city finally surrenders on 3rd February 1646. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  TWO VERY INTERESTING IDEAS  **********

1645 [??th October] "England's Lamentable Slaverie": One William Walwyn [Wikipedia biography] publishes an open letter entitled "England's Lamentable Slaverie" [full text online] which blames England's present predicament and suffering not just on the known failings of Kings, Parliaments, and Priests, but also [and, indeed, ultimately] on the "simplicitie, carelesnesse, and cowardlinesse of People". Walwyn seems to have been a member of a popular political protest group called (pejoratively to start with, then by all) "Levellers" [=>1647 (??th March)], one of whose interesting positions is that a Parliament should be answerable to the people who elected it. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1646 The German polymath1 Athanasius Kircher [Wikipedia biography] publishes a textbook of optics under the title "Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae" [= "The Great Art of Light and Shadow"], in which he features (amongst many other things) details of the "magic lantern" [Wikipedia factsheet], a more portable version of the earlier camera obscura [<=1604], in which the desired image is projected outwards from the apparatus rather than into it. He also experimented with micro-puppetry in the plane of the image to be projected so that the final projection was of a moving scene. [THREAD = HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY] [THREAD = HISTORY OF CINEMA]

 

1ASIDE: Kircher will later be described as "The Last Man who Knew Everything" (Findlen, 2004).

 

1646 [18th January] The Battle of Dartmouth: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Sir Thomas Fairfax [1645<=>16th February] and the Royalist garrison at Dartmouth, Devon. The outcome is a Parliamentarian victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1646 [16th February] The Battle of Torrington [map]: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between the last remaining Royalist army in the Southwest under Sir Ralph Hopton [<=1644] and a hounding-down Parliamentarian army twice its size under Sir Thomas Fairfax [18th January<=>30th March]. The outcome is a with-the-odds Parliamentarian victory, with Hopton being taken as a prisoner-of-war. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  THE LAST FIELD BATTLE OF THE WAR  **********

1646 [21st March] The Battle of Stow-on-the-Wold: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Sir Thomas Morgan [Wikipedia biography] and Sir William Brereton [<=1645] and a Royalist army under Sir Jacob Astley [<=1645]. The outcome is a Parliamentarian victory, with Astley being taken as prisoner-of-war. With the loss of the last Royalist field army it now only remains to deal with the two remaining city strongholds, namely Oxford [=>next] and Newcastle [=>next but two]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  THE LAST SIEGE BATTLE OF THE WAR  **********

1646 [30th March-25th June] The Third Siege of Oxford: This battle is fought as part of the First English Civil War [<=1642] between a Parliamentarian army under Sir Thomas Fairfax [16th February<=>1647], Philip Skippon [1645<=>1647], Henry Ireton [1645<=>1647], and John Lambert [1645<=>1647] and a Royalist army under Charles I of Englandetc [1645<=>13th May]. The outcome is a negotiated Parliamentarian victory, and a "safe passage" evacuation of the Royalist defenders. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1646 [13th May] The King Surrenders: Having slipped away from Oxford, but hotly pursued by a Royalist column, Charles I of Englandetc [30th March<=>1647] arrives at Newark-on-Trent and seeks sanctuary with the Scottish Covenanters army. He is taken into Newcastle-upon-Tyne where he will remain in Scottish custody for the following nine months [=>1647(30th January)]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1646  The Worcester County Committee appoints a retired Parliamentary army officer named Andrew Yarranton [Wikipedia biography=>1665] to extract reparations from those local "delinquents" who had supported the Royalists. He uses his share of the proceeds to buy into the local iron industry. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1646 [9th October] The Long Parliament [<=1640 (3rd November)] formally proscribes prelacy [= rule by bishops] in the Church of England. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1646 [7th September-11th October] The Battle of Dunkirk: This battle is fought as part of the French-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a besieging French army under d'Enghien [1645<=>1648] and the Spanish garrison at Dunkirk under Ferdinand de Solis [no convenient biography]. The outcome is a French victory (although the Spanish will win the city back in 1652). [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [30th January] Upon finally reaching a compensation agreement with the English Parliament, the Scottish commanders at Newcastle withdraw from that city, leaving their prisoner Charles I of Englandetc [1646<=>31st May] in his lodgings (reportedly playing chess). The Governor, Philip Skippon [<=1646], duly mounts an English guard. The king will be transferred to Holdenby House near Northampton on 3rd February. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE: The Parliamentarians now face up to the question of what to do next. Do they, for example, have a king in custody or a criminal? Has he been fighting a legal war against them, or an illegal one? Is he guilty of war crimes? Should he be put on trial for his life, or re-acclaimed as king and all past deeds forgotten? Etc., etc.

 

1647 [??th March] Saffron Walden: The New Model Army gathers some 21,000 strong in encampments and billets centred on Saffron Walden, Essex, from where they are to be paid off and demobilised. The resulting inactivity and indecision allows grievances to surface, not least the desire to see the king properly punished after so many of their comrades had died. What, they demanded to know, had they been dying for if the king was now simply to be reinstated on his throne! These grievances first surface in the form of petitions from the rank-and-file soldiery. A "Soldiers' Council" is then set up at which each regiment appoints two "Agitators" [= representatives elected from the ranks] to discuss issues with senior officers and - through them - with Parliament. Unfortunately it will transpire (a) that the senior officers are not themselves of one mind on these issues, (b) that they themselves are faced with a generally hostile Parliament, and (c) that the Agitators are often uncomfortably close to the civilian Levellers [<=1645], whose agenda matches that of the troops in many respects [continues 30th April ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE: The reason the Long Parliament was heavily Presbyterian at this time is that most of those with Episcopalian leanings had been Royalists, and had already withdrawn to fight for that cause.

 

1647 [14th March] Upon the death of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange [<=1637] his title passes to his son William II, Prince of Orange [Wikipedia biography=>1650]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [30th April] "The Apologie of the Common Soldiers": [Continued from ??th March] On behalf of his troops a New Model Army cavalry officer named Edward Sexby [Wikipedia biography=>15th October] helps draft a pamphlet under this title [full text online]. It begins by listing their good efforts during the war years, only then to note that "oppression is as great now as ever, if not greater". It complains also that their earlier statements of grievance [<=??th March] simply got them branded as "enemies of the state". Four things are then requested: (1) that the enemies of the state slur should be withdrawn, (2) that soldiers should be indemnified "for all things done in time and place of war"1, (3) that their widows and disabled should be cared for, and (4) that their outstanding pay should be handed over. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1ASIDE: If the army in which you serve is retrospectively declared unlawful then it is easy for your past deeds - committed in good faith and within the "rules of war" (such as they are) - suddenly to be re-presented in a dangerously different light. Your acts of legitimate foraging suddenly become acts of theft, your acts of interrogation become acts of assault, your participation in a firing squad after a lawful-at-the-time Court Martial becomes murder, etc., etc.

 

1647 [31st May] George Joyce [Wikipedia biography] leads a strong force to Oxford to place the army's artillery train under armed guard and thereby to prevent it falling into the wrong hands. From there he goes on to Holdenby House [<=30th January] and does likewise to Charles I of Englandetc [30th January<=>22nd July], conducting him to Army Headquarters at Newmarket [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [4th June] The Army Council: Following the grumblings in March [<=], and in order to keep Parliament properly briefed as to the opinion of the New Model Army Sir Thomas Fairfax [1646<=>1st August] establishes an Army Council. Each regiment contributes two rank-and-file representatives and two officers, with Fairfax and his generals taking notes and preparing committee papers. The army's grievances are set out in a paper entitled "A Solemne Engagement of the Army" and read out to the units on 5th June. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [8th June] "A Solemne Engagement of the Army": As promised, the new Army Council [<=4th June] duly submits its paper of 5th June [<=] to Parliament for formal consideration. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [16th June] The Eleven Members: The Army Council names 11 Presbyterian members as plotters not to be trusted. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [11th July] The Second Committee of Safety: [See firstly 1642 (Committee of Safety) and 1644 (Committee for Both Kingdoms] Concerned at the growing military threat from the increasingly vocal New Model Army only 60 miles to their north, the Presbyterian Faction in Parliament establishes a reconstituted Committee of Safety, which it then directs to call out the London militia under the Presbyterian Edward Massie [1645<=>1st August]. However the Militiamen by-and-large sympathise with the army, and recruitment into the London Trained Bands is low [continues 1st August ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  THE KING'S FATAL ERROR  **********

1647 [22nd July] The "Prodigious Treason": Around this time, and encouraged by the stand-off between the New Model Army and Parliament, Charles I of Englandetc [31st May<=>11th November] starts to make secret overtures to known sympathisers, not least the Scots, the Irish Rebels, and his loyal commanders. When this treachery eventually comes to light there will be many amongst Charles' former enemies who will finally run out of patience with the man. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [1st August] "The Heads of the Proposals": On behalf of the New Model Army, Henry Ireton [1646<=>1648] and John Lambert [1646<=>1648] submit to Parliament a set of proposals in the name of Sir Thomas Fairfax [4th June<=>15th October] under the title "Heads of the Proposals Offered by the Army" [full text online]. In this document the authors set out a possible solution to the Army-Parliament issue. However these proposals will turn out to be neither radical enough to placate the Levellers at Saffron Walden nor conventional enough for the Presbyterian Faction in Parliament. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [2nd-6th August] The March on London: Presbyterian mobs in London drive Independent M.P.s such as Henry Vane [Wikipedia biography=>1648] north to safety with the New Model Army. The Army, meanwhile, has been creeping ever closer to London over the past few weeks and now sends four regiments straight into the City and Westminster. The Presbyterian commander of the London Militia, Edward Massie [<=11th July], flees to the Netherlands. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [26th August] Army Headquarters relocates to Putney. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [??th October] "The Agreement of the People" (Draft Version): A Leveller (possibly a certain Robert Everard [Wikipedia biography]) produces the first draft of a political constitution based on biennial elections. It will be debated at the Putney Debates [=>28th October] and the Whitehall Debates [=>1648], and finally published for general consumption in May 1649 [=>]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [15th October] "The Case of the Armie truly Stated": Sir Thomas Fairfax [1st August<=>1648] receives a pamphlet [full text online at the Online Library of Liberty] from John Wildman [Wikipedia biography=>next] and Edward Sexby [<=30th April] which restates the grievances first aired at Saffron Walden in March [<=] and offers a number of solutions, not least regular elections, broader suffrage, and less tax on beer. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [28th October-8th November] The Putney Debates: The New Model Army holds a series of debates on its constitutional principles set out in the latest of the pamphlets, that is to say, "The Heads of the Proposals" [<=1st August] versus "The Agreement of the People" [<=??th October]. John Wildman [<=preceding] and Thomas Rainsborough [Wikipedia biography], both influential Levellers [<=1645], are amongst the speakers. The biggest stumbling block with the latter document is that it proposes a system of universal male suffrage in which "... every Man that is to live under a Government ought first by his own Consent to put himself under that Government". The senior commanders promise to draw up a Manifesto over the coming days and call the proceedings to a close on 8th November.  [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [11th-13th November] The Escape: Charles I of Englandetc [22nd July<=>1648] escapes from Hampton Court and makes his way to the Isle of Wight, where, reportedly having misjudged a possible ally, he is imprisoned again, this time in Carisbrooke Castle in the custody of Robert Hammond [Wikipedia biography]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [11th November] The Manifesto: As promised at Putney [<=28th October], the Army Council presents its Manifesto to the troops attached to a declaration of loyalty. This is done at three separate gatherings, the first of which is at Corkbush Field, Ware, Hertfordshire, where some of the troops refuse to sign and are arrested for mutiny. One of the leaders, a Private Richard Arnold, is executed, prompting a good response rate thereafter. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [7th December] "The Humble Representation of the General Council of the Army": The Army Council presents a petition under this title to Parliament, asking to be paid but steering well clear of constitutional issues. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1647 [28th December] "The Engagement": Charles I of Englandetc [??th August<=>1648] negotiates a secret treaty with the Scots whereby they agree to send a 20,000 man army into England to restore him to his throne provided that he henceforth takes a softer line with his Presbyterian subjects. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  THE NETHERLANDS BECOME INDEPENDENT  **********

1648 [30th January] The Treaty of Münster: After seven years in negotiation, this treaty between Spain and the Dutch Republic provisionally brings the Eighty Years War [<=1566] to an end. Full peace between the other warring nations will follow later in the year [=>24th October]. The stage is now set for a period of Dutch commercial expansion worldwide, and for much military bickering in support of that expansion. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [done in secret but presumably in place by April] The Plotting: Charles I of Englandetc [1647<=>1st December] uses his web of loyal contacts to co-ordinate uprisings across England and Wales with the planned invasion by the Scots [<=1647]. These include the loyalists John Poyer [1644<=>6th May], Rowland Laugharne [Wikipedia biography=>6th May], and Rhys Powell [Wikipedia biography=>12th May] in South Wales, John, Lord Byron [<=1645] in North Wales and Ireland, Sir Charles Lucas [Wikipedia biography=>1st June] and Sir George Lisle [Wikipedia biography=>28th August] in Essex, and Sir Marmaduke Langdale [1645<=>17th August] in Cumberland [=modern Cumbria]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [4th May] The Second English Civil War, 1648-1649: This one-year flare-up is fought between rested and reorganised Royalist elements across England and Wales, assisted by a Scottish invasion army in the north. Here are the main events ...

 

The Plotting, 1648 [<=preceding]; The Battle of St. Fagans, 1648; The Engager Invasion, 1648; The Siege of Pembroke, 1648; The Battle of Maidstone, 1648; The Battle of Preston, 1648; The Siege of Colchester, 1648; Pride's Purge, 1648; The Regicide, 1649

 

The overall outcome is that both the Scots and the Royalist English are bested militarily and a new peace follows. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [4th-8th May] The Battle of St. Fagans: This battle is fought as part of the Second English Civil War [<=preceding] between a Parliamentarian column under Thomas Horton [Wikipedia biography=>8th May] and a larger but makeshift Royalist force under the disaffected Parliamentarian, Rowland Laugharne [??th April<=>11th July]. The outcome is an easy Parliamentarian victory. Laugharne takes his survivors to join up with John Poyer [??th April<=>11th July] at Pembroke. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [12th-31st May] The Siege of Tenby: This battle is fought as part of the Second English Civil War [<=6th May] between a Parliamentarian column under Thomas Horton [6th May<=>1649] and a Royalist force under the Rhys Powell [<=??th April]. The outcome is a Parliamentarian victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [17th May] The Battle of Zusmarschausen: This battle is fought as part of the French-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a Swedish/French army under Carl Wrangel [Wikipedia biography], d'Enghien/Condé [1646<=>20th August], and Turenne [1645<=>1650], and an Imperial/ Bavarian army less than half its size under Raimondo Montecuccoli [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is a with-the-odds victory for the Swedish/French. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [1st June] The Battle of Maidstone: This battle is fought as part of the Kent Uprising of the Second English Civil War [<=6th May] between a Parliamentarian army under Sir Thomas Fairfax [1647<=>7th November] and a Royalist army half its size under Lord George Goring [<=1645]. Fairfax capitalises upon his years of experience (he attacks the junction between two units, where command cohesion is traditionally difficult) and his superior numbers, and storms the town without softening up the defences first. The surviving Royalists retreat across the Thames to join forces with Sir Charles Lucas [??th April<=>28th August] for a final stand at Colchester. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [8th July] The Engager Invasion: The Scottish Engager Army crosses into England (three months later than agreed and less than half its promised strength) and makes its way down the line of the modern M6 motorway towards Preston. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [11th July] The Siege of Pembroke: This siege is fought out as part of the Second English Civil War [<=1648] between a Parliamentarian army under Oliver Cromwell [1645<=>17th August] and the Royalist garrison at Pembroke under John Poyer [<=4th May] and Rowland Laugharne [<=4th May]. The outcome is a Parliamentarian victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [25th July-1st November] The Siege of Prague: This siege is fought out as part of the French-led phase of the Thirty Years War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a Swedish army under Hans Königsmarck [Wikipedia biography] and the Imperial garrison at Prague under Count Rudolf Colloredo-Wallsee [Wikipedia biography=>1650]. The outcome is that the Peace of Westphalia [=>24th October] intervenes to prevent a final military conclusion. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [17th-19th/25th August] The Battles of Preston and Winwick Pass: These battles are fought as part of the Second English Civil War [<=1648] between a Parliamentarian army under Oliver Cromwell [11th July<=>1649], John Lambert [1647< =>1650], and Richard Deane [1645<=>1649], and a Scottish Engager/English Royalist coalition army under James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton [Wikipedia biography=>1649] and Sir Marmaduke Langdale [<=April]. At Preston on 17th August Cromwell directs his main thrust asymmetrically onto Langdale's English Royalists, routing them with highly disproportionate casualties. The Scots then make a break southward toward Wigan but have abandoned most of their artillery and supplies and are constantly harassed by Cromwell's cavalry. They make a final stand at Winwick Pass just outside Warrington, but are forced to retreat even further southward, finally surrendering at Uttoxeter on 25th August. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [20th August] The Battle of Lens: This battle is fought in the Flanders Campaign of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635] between a French army under d'Enghien/Condé [17th May<=>next] and a Habsburg Spanish army under the Holy Roman Emperor's younger brother, Leopold William of Austria1 [1642<=>1654]. The outcome is a significant French victory. The battle is noteworthy in the present context for establishing an independent Netherlands. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1ASIDE: Not to be confused with (his nephew) Archduke Leopold I of Austria (Holy Roman Emperor)1658. The Spanish Netherlands included modern Holland, Belgium, and Luxembourg. We shall be looking in due course at how the defence of these lands interacted with the defence of France [»especially 1839 (Treaty of London) and 1894 (Schlieffen Plan)].

 

1648 [20th August] The First Fronde Rebellion, 1648-1649: This rebellion is part of the "quiet" middle phase of the broader Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635] and is fought between Cardinal Jules Mazarin [1643<=>24th October] - presently Chief Minister to the nine-year-old Louis XIV of France [1643<=>1650] - and the "anti-Cardinalist" citizens of Paris. The Parisian "Frondeurs" ...

 

ASIDE - FRONDEURS: The everyday French word fronde means "catapult" or "slingshot", and a frondeur is therefore one who uses such a weapon. In the present context, however, the Frondeurs were the Parisian rebels generally, because when they took to the streets they used slingshots to bombard palaces and government buildings.

 

... take their protest against taxation levels and state corruption onto the streets, and force Mazarin and the Queen Regent, Anne of Austria [1643<=>1650] to make various concessions. Mazarin puts d'Enghien/Condé [preceding<=>1649], hero of the Battle of Lens [<=preceding], in charge of restoring order in the city, and by 20th March 1649 things have gone quiet again. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [2nd July-27th August] The Siege of Colchester: This siege is fought out to end the Second English Civil War [<=1648] between a Parliamentarian army under Sir Thomas Fairfax [1st June<=>20th November] and the Royalist garrison at Colchester under Sir Charles Lucas [1st June<=>dies this day] and Sir George Lisle [??th April<=>dies this day]. The Royalists surrender on 27th August and Lucas and Lisle are executed by firing squad the same day. Charles, Prince of Wales [1642<=>1649] flees to the Netherlands and Prince Rupert [<=1645] to Portugal. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [18th September-27th November] The Treaty of Newport: A team of Parliamentarian negotiators arrives at Carisbrooke Castle, near Newport, Isle of Wight, and begins ten weeks of negotiations with Charles I of Englandetc [??th April<=>29th November], painstakingly submitting suggestions back and forth to London for comment. Their noble efforts will be wasted, however, because their final agreement will be set aside by the hostile Rump Parliament a fortnight later [=>6th December]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [3rd October] The Second Ormonde Peace: James Butler, Marquis of Ormonde [Wikipedia biography] begins to negotiate with the Irish Confederates for a Royalist alliance. The final signing takes place on 17th January 1649. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  THE THIRTY YEARS WAR ENDS  **********

*****  SWITZERLAND AND THE NETHERLANDS BECOME INDEPENDENT  *****

**********  FRANCE AND SPAIN FIGHT ON  **********

1648 [24th October] The Peace of Westphalia: Following the Treaty of Münster [«30th January] and a further eight months of negotiations led by the French Chief Minister Cardinal Jules Mazarin [20th August<=>1649], the final touches are put to the agreements by which the Eighty Years War [<=1566] and the Thirty Years War [<=1618] are brought to an end. The signatories duly agree to an independent Switzerland, French territorial gains in Lorraine and Alsace, and territorial gains by Brandenburg-Prussia. The signatories also specifically re-approve the Treaty of Augsburg [<=1555] to the effect that a nation's religion is a matter for the legitimate government of that nation, free of outside influence. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE - THE MARAUDERS: All armies from this period in history had to live off the land most of the time, sleeping in barns and cottages and eating whatever the locals had been slow to conceal. Needless to say, those on the receiving end of this sort of conduct often saw little difference between friendly armies and hostile ones - all stole, all threw their weight about, all impregnated. Philip I of Mérode [no convenient biography], a minor nobleman from the House of Mérode in what is now Belgium, allowed his regiment's foraging to get out of hand, thereby giving his family name to the practice of "marauding". A demobilised German infantryman named Hans Grimmelshausen [Wikipedia biography] described the resulting excesses in the fictionalised memoir "Simplicius Simplicissimus" (1668). Here is an indicative extract ...

 

"And so you must understand this name [i.e., marauder], that will last as long as Germans do make war: and this was the beginning of it: when this gentleman (Merode) first brought a newly raised regiment to the army his recruits proved [weak and crazy] so that they could not endure the marching and other fatigues to which a soldier must submit in the field, for which reason their brigade soon became so weak that it could hardly protect the colours, and wherever you found one or more sick and lame in the market-place [and] asked "Of what regiment?", the answer was well-nigh always "Of Mérode". Hence it arose that at length all that, whether sick or sound, wounded or not, were found straggling off the line of march or else did not have their quarters in the field with their own regiment, were called 'Mérode-brothers' [...] for not only do they straggle round the army in front, in the flanks, in the middle, as it pleases them, but also they be like the gypsies in manners and customs. For you can see them huddled together (like partridges in winter) behind the hedges [or] lying round a fire smoking tobacco and idling [...]. Here again goes a pack of them pilfering alongside the line of march, while many a poor soldier is ready to sink under the weight of his arms. They plunder all they can find before, behind, and beside the army [...] And though they do march together and lodge together, fight and make common cause, yet they have no captain to order them [...] They keep no watch, they dig no trenches, they serve on no forlorn hope1 [...] The basest of horse-boys, that doth naught but forage, is worth to the general more than one thousand such ..."

 

1 An Anglicisation of Verloren Hoop, or "lost detachment", a commonly used term for those unlucky enough to be manning a forward outpost with little hope of successful withdrawal.

 

1648 [15th November] Parliament votes to allow the King back to London and restore his estates to him. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [20th November] "The Remonstrance of General Fairfax": The Army Council restates its demands in a paper submitted to Parliament in the name of Sir Thomas Fairfax [2nd July<=>1650], but in all likelihood the work of Henry Ireton [1647<=>1649]. It includes the requirement that "the King be brought to justice as the capital cause of all". The paper will be "resolved in the Negative by near 90 votes" on 30th November1. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1ASIDE: Basically Parliament has heard it all before and does not wish to prejudice its ongoing discussions with the King.

 

1648 [29th November-23rd December] Charles I of Englandetc [18th September<=>1st December] is taken from custody in Carisbrooke Castle [<=1647] (where he has been a prisoner of Parliament) to Windsor Castle (where he is a prisoner of the army). [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [30th November-2nd December] The Declaration: Following the vote against the Remonstrance [<=7th November], the New Model Army finally takes its grievances into its own hands and marches into London again. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [1st December] The Promise of Restoration: The heavily Presbyterian Long Parliament votes by 129 to 83 to restore Charles I of Englandetc [29th November<=>1649] to his throne subject to a token reduction in his powers. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [6th-13th December] Pride's Purge and the "Rump Parliament": Thomas Pride [Wikipedia biography=>1650] is ordered to blockade the House of Commons, and to exclude all those 129 members who voted for Restoration on 1st December. This has the effect of reducing the chamber to 83. The residual Parliament is known to historians as the "Rump", using that word to indicate "residual". On 13th December the Rump formally breaks off negotiations with the King. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1648 [11th-14th December] The Whitehall Debates: The Army Council meets with Levellers and other interested parties at Whitehall, Westminster, to discuss progress with the final version of "The Agreement of the People" [1647<=>1649]. A copy will be presented to Parliament on 20th January 1649, but never processed. It will be published as a political tract in May 1649. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1649 [20th-27th January] The Trial: The trial of Charles I of Englandetc [1648<=>30th January] begins in front of a Court of 78 carefully selected1 hostile judges and 13 Court officials. The accused's position from the outset is that no court has jurisdiction over a Monarch, because kingship is God-given. "A King", he argues, "can do no wrong". Parliament's position, on the other hand, is that the King stands accused of "wicked designs, wars, and evil practices" for personal interest, thereby breaching the implicit rules of good kingship. The Court sentence him to death, the warrant being signed by 59 of the judges, including Thomas Horton [<=1648], Henry Ireton [1648<=>2nd August], and Richard Deane [1648<=>1649], along with the Fifth Monarchists2 Thomas Harrison [Wikipedia biography=>1651] and John Carew [Wikipedia biography] [see full Wikilist]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1ASIDE: By Pride's Purge the month before [<=].

 

2ASIDE - THE FIFTH MONARCHIST FACTION: The Fifth Monarchists were a Protestant fundamentalist movement.

 

1649 [30th January] The Regicide: Charles I of Englandetc [20th January<=>dies this day] is beheaded. Oliver Cromwell [1648<=>2nd August] summarises the justice behind this act by quoting a text from Numbers 35(33): "The land cannot be cleansed of the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it". The execution then raises a complex constitutional problem in that Charles had simultaneously been king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and for their part the Scottish Parliament immediately proclaims Charles' son, Charles, Prince of Wales [1642<=>henceforth under new name] as Charles II of Scotland [=>2nd August], even though he is presently in exile in Holland.

 

TO THE EXTENT THAT THIS MOVE IS ACCEPTED AS VALID ALL SCOTTISH TROOPS IN ENGLISH PARLIAMENTARIAN SERVICE ARE NOW "ROYALISTS" THEMSELVES, WITH NOW HAVE SPLIT LOYALTIES

 

The English Parliament, meanwhile, already has the younger Charles in exile, and now formally strips him of the title "Prince of Wales". The Irish Parliament has, of course, been non-existent since the Irish Rebellion. On 6th February the Rump votes to abolish the House of Lords and on 7th February foreswears an English Monarchy altogether. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1649 [??th February] The New Model Army bans the submission of any more petitions to Parliament. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1649 [9th March] James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton [<=1648] and other ring-leaders of the Second English Civil War are beheaded. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1649 [11th March] The Treaty of Reuil: This treaty between Cardinal Mazarin [1648<=>1650] and d'Enghien/Conté [1648<=>1650] brings the First Fronde Rebellion [<=1648] to an end. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1649 [??th April-17th May] The Bishopsgate and Banbury Mutinies: Angry that the Army Council is no longer listening to their demands, the troops stationed in Bishopsgate, London, stage a mutiny. This act of disobedience serves only to get one of their number, a Private Robert Lockier, executed by firing squad. A similar mutiny follows at Banbury, this time with three mutineers executed. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1649 [29th May] The Commonwealth: Parliament passes an Act declaring England to be a "Commonwealth", and redefines treason as disloyalty to the House of Commons alone. The Commonwealth will rule until replaced by the Protectorate four years later [=>1653 (12th December)]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1649 [2nd August] The Third English Civil War, 1649-1651: This third and final of the English Civil Wars [<=1642] begins with the promise of the restoration of the English Monarchy under Charles II of Scotland [30th January<=>1650] and consists of two coincidentally overlapping military campaigns, one in Scotland and the other in Ireland. Here are the main events ...

 

·         The Invasion of Ireland, 1649-1653

·         Charles II Lands in Scotland, 1650

·         The Battle of Dunbar, 1650

·         The Battle of Worcester, 1651

 

The overall outcome of the war is a crushing Royalist defeat, which delays the eventual Restoration until 1660. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1649 [2nd August] The Invasion of Ireland, 1649-1653: [See firstly 1641 (23rd October)] This campaign is fought as a deemed-to-be-necessary follow-on to the Second English Civil War [<=1648] in order to prevent fugitive British Royalists from using Ireland as a base from which to plot the restoration of the British monarchy. The not unreasonable Parliamentarian fear is that the British Royalists will get assistance from a sympathetic Irish Confederation [<=1642 (10th May)]. The campaign is led by Oliver Cromwell [30th January<=>3rd September] and Henry Ireton [20th January<=>1650] and may conveniently be considered under the following subheadings ...

 

·         The Battle of Rathmines, 1649

·         The Siege of Drogheda, 1649

·         The Sacking of Wexford, 1649

·         The Battle of Scarrifholis, 1650

·         The Siege of Waterford, 1650

·         The First and Second Sieges of Limerick, 1650-1651

·         The Siege of Galway, 1651-1652

 

The war is noteworthy in the present context (a) for a number of mutual atrocities, (b) for the use of a scorched earth policy, (c) more ethnic cleansing [cf. 1622 (Siege of Négrepelisse)]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1649 [2nd August] The Battle of Rathmines: This battle is fought as part of the Invasion of Ireland [<=preceding] between a Royalist-Irish Confederation alliance army under James Butler, Marquis of Ormonde [Wikipedia biography] and the Parliamentarian defenders of the port and city of Dublin. The outcome is a surprisingly easy victory for the Parliamentarians. The battle is noteworthy in the present context (a) for guaranteeing the Parliamentarians a bridgehead into Ireland, and (b) for exposing serious technical problems with both the Royalist and Confederation elements of the Irish alliance army. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1649 [3rd-11th September] The Siege of Drogheda: This battle is fought as part of the Invasion of Ireland [<=2nd August] between a Parliamentarian army under Oliver Cromwell [2nd August<=>next] and the Royalist-Irish garrison at Drogheda under Sir Arthur Aston [<=1643]. Cromwell spends several days directing his siege artillery against weak points in the town walls and then on 10th September, once two breaches have been made, calls upon the defenders to surrender. Aston refuses to surrender and Cromwell's final assault takes place on 11th September. Although the defence is fierce the town is soon taken. The siege is most noteworthy, however, for what happens next, for Cromwell now both permits, nay orders, and encourages (and will subsequently defend himself for so doing) a number of massacres, including ...

 

·         Beating Aston's brains out with his own wooden leg

·         refusing to accept the surrender of enemy soldiers [up to 2000]

·         killing prisoners-of-war [up to 200]

·         killing Catholic priests [several]

 

Cromwell will subsequently defend his actions as "a righteous judgement of God". [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1649 [2nd-11th October] The Sacking of Wexford: This battle is fought as part of the Invasion of Ireland [<=2nd August] between a Parliamentarian army under Oliver Cromwell [preceding<=>1650] and the Royalist-Irish garrison at Wexford under David Sinnot [no convenient biography]. After a week of fruitless negotiations the siege guns finally open fire on 10th October. Wexford Castle then surrenders on 11th October whereupon the town walls are abandoned. The outcome is a Parliamentarian victory, followed, as at Drogheda [<=preceding], by a number of atrocities, including ...

 

·         hunting down civilians [up to 1500]

·         killing Catholic priests

·         refusing to accept the surrender of enemy soldiers [up to 2000]

 

Cromwell's subsequent report to Parliament is unapologetic, placing the blame for any collateral loss of life squarely at Sinnot's door. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1650  [See firstly 1596 (Sebastian Halle)] The Polish-Lithuanian gunsmith-artilleryman Kazimierz Siemienowicz [Wikipedia biography] publishes Artis Magnae Artilleriae [= "The Great Art of Artillery" - full text online], in which, amongst many other devices, he gives detailed instructions how to fit an explosive shell with an impact fuse using an internal flint striking mechanism (p238 op. cit.). [THREAD = WW1 ARTILLERY]

 

ASIDE - THE MORALITY OF POISON MUNITIONS: Siemienowicz was particularly clear on the use of "poisoned balls" and "venomous bullets", both those which produced noxious vapours and those which produced suppurating wounds. Such weapons, he argues, are "unworthy of a brave man and a true soldier" (p289 op.cit.).

 

1650  Around this time Dudd Dudley [1622<=>1661] extends his ironworks in Dudley. [THREAD = THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION]

 

1650  The Welsh scholar Robert P. Vaughan [Wikipedia biography] flourishes around this time, and pursues a lifetime interest in early Welsh history and literature, gradually acquiring a large number of priceless manuscripts in his library at Hengwrt, near Llanelltyd. The collection will remain in his family for the ensuing 200 years, until bequeathed by a later Sir Robert Vaughan to the Wynne family of Peniarth [=>1859 (William Wynne)]. [THREAD = ARTHURIAN LEGEND]

 

1650 [14th January] The Second Fronde Rebellion, 1650-1653: This rebellion is part of the middle, relatively peaceful, major phase of the broader Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635] and is fought between Cardinal Mazarin [1649<=>next] - presently Chief Minister to the 11-year-old Louis XIV of France [1648<=>1657] - the Queen Regent, Anne of Austria [1648<=>next], and a loose alliance of disaffected French provincial noblemen, not least d'Enghien/Condé [1649<=>next] and Turenne [1648<=>next]. Unlike the First Fronde Rebellion [<=1648], which was essentially a popular uprising, the second includes an outright attempt to overthrow Mazarin. Turenne changes sides back to a loyalist - a frondeur repenti - in early 1651. Here are the main events ...

 

·         The Arrest of the Princes, 1650 [Turenne and Condé allied]

·         The Battle of Blanc-Champ/Rethel, 1650 [Turenne and Condé opposed]

·         The Battle of Bléneau, 1652 [Turenne and Condé opposed]

·         The Battle of the Faubourg St. Antoine, 1652 [Turenne and Condé opposed]

 

The overall outcome is a victory for Mazarin, together with a growing sense that regional princedoms can at times serve to weaken the nation as a whole. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1650 [14th January] The Arrest of the Princes: Irritated by their constant intriguing against Cardinal Mazarin [preceding<=>1658] the Queen Regent of France Anne of Austria [<=preceding] signs arrest warrants for d'Enghien/Condé [preceding<=>1651] and his followers. Turenne [preceding<=>15th December] raises an army to force their release. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1650 [1st May] The Treaty of Breda: This treaty between Charles II of Scotland [and England]1660 [1649<=>23rd June] and the Scottish Covenanters re-activates the "Engagement" of 1647 [<=]. Charles will land in Scotland seven weeks later [=>23rd June]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1650 [21st June] The Battle of Scarrifholis: This battle is fought as part of the Invasion of Ireland [<=1649] between a Parliamentarian army under Charles Coote [1641<=>1651] and the Irish Confederation's Catholic Ulster Army under Heber MacMahon [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is an against-the-odds victory for the Parliamentarians, with such heavy losses amongst the Ulster nobility that the north of Ireland now falls easily to the English. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1650 [23rd June] Charles II Lands in Scotland: As provided for by the Treaty of Breda [<=1st May] Charles II of Scotland [and England]1660 [1st May<=>1651] arrives in Scotland and joins forces with the Covenanters. The ageing Lord Leven [<=1644] is appointed Commander-in-Chief of the new Royal army, with David Leslie [1644<=>3rd September] as his Lieutenant-General. When the news reaches Sir Thomas Fairfax [1648<=>7th August] resigns his command rather than lead an army against Scotland. Oliver Cromwell [preceding<=>next] is promoted to replace him, with Sir Charles Fleetwood [Wikipedia biography=>1st September] as his deputy, John Lambert [1648<=>1st September] as his cavalry general, George Monck [1644<=>13th August] as his infantry general, and Richard Deane [1649<=>1651] as his fleet commander. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1650 [19th July] Fresh back from Ireland, Oliver Cromwell [preceding<=>next] assembles his army [<=23rd June] at Berwick-on-Tweed, crossing northward into Scotland three days later and occupying the port of Dunbar as a forward supply point. Ahead of him lies a line of prepared defences across the road to Edinburgh. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1650 [13th August] Oliver Cromwell [preceding<=>next] puts George Monck [23rd June<=>3rd September] in charge of his own regiment, to be known as Monck's Regiment of Foot and later to be renamed the Coldstream Guards [regimental history]. [THREAD = THE WW1 ARMIES]

 

ASIDE - THE COLDSTREAM GUARDS IN WW1: As already noted [<=1637 (21st June) [ASIDE]], we first meet the Coldstream Guards in a WW1 context at the Retreat from Mons [=>1914 (23rd August)].

 

1650 [1st-3rd September] The Battle of Dunbar: This battle is fought as part of the Third English Civil War [<=1649] between a Parliamentarian army under Oliver Cromwell [preceding<=>1651], George Monck [preceding<=>1651], Sir Charles Fleetwood [23rd June<=>1651], John Lambert [23rd June<=>1651], and Thomas Pride [<=1648], and a Scottish Covenanter army under David Leslie [23rd June<=>1651]. The Scots have taken up positions on the hills above Dunbar and have also cut the road southward. The Parliamentarians lack the numbers necessary to attack these prepared positions and are contemplating an evacuation by sea. The Scots, however, are cruelly exposed to the weather and on 2nd September come down from the heights. The battle proper begins at 4am. on 3rd September, lasts a mere two hours, and results in a decisive Parliamentarian victory with massively disproportionate Scottish casualties. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1650 [??th October] The First Siege of Limerick: This brief siege is fought out as part of the Invasion of Ireland [<=1649] between a Parliamentarian army under Henry Ireton [1649<=>1651] and  an Irish Confederacy army under Hugh Dubh O'Neill, 5th Earl of Tyrone [Wikipedia biography=>1651]. Bad weather prevents the siege being pursued until the following year. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1650 [27th October] Upon the death of William II, Prince of Orange [1647<=>4th November] the passing of his title is deferred for eight days to allow his pregnant consort Mary Stuart, Princess Royal [Wikipedia biography=>next] to deliver him a son and heir. [THREAD = THE WW1 ARMIES]

 

1650 [4th November] A son is successfully born to the late William II, Prince of Orange [<=preceding] and Mary Stuart, Princess Royal [preceding<=>1652] and named William Henry, Prince of Orange (William III of Englandetc) [Wikipedia biography]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1650 [15th December] The Battle of Blanc-Champ/Rethel: This battle is fought as part of the Second Fronde Rebellion [<=14th January] between the Frondeur army under Turenne [14th January<=>1652] and the Royal army under Caesar du Plessis-Praslin, Duke of Choiseul [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is a Royal victory, followed, after some serious apologising, by the rehabilitation of Turenne to the King's cause. D'Enghien/Condé [1650<=>1652] is released from Royal captivity around the same time. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1651 Belief Systems [X - Superstition, Witchcraft, and Magic (Agrippa Again)]: [Continued from 1644] After 120 years of comparative obscurity Agrippa von Nettesheim's [<=1531] De Occulta Philosophia appears in English as "Occult Philosophy" [sub-thread continues at 1692 (February) ...]. [THREAD = THE BATTLE FOR HEARTS AND MINDS]

 

RECOMMENDED READING: Whitehead's (1897) re-edited text is readily available in a Dover Publications facsimile [Amazon entry].

 

1651 [1st January] Charles II of Scotland [and England]1660 [1650<=>7th August] is formally crowned King of Scotland. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1651 [??th June-27th October] The Second Siege of Limerick: This five-month siege is fought out as part of the Invasion of Ireland [<=1649] between a Parliamentarian army under Henry Ireton [1650<=>26th November] and an Irish Confederacy army under Hugh Dubh O'Neill, 5th Earl of Tyrone [<=1650]. The outcome is an eventual Parliamentarian victory. Ireton dies of illness on 26th November. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1651 [7th August] Hearing that Charles II of Scotland [and England]1660 [1st January<=>3rd September] has crossed into England, the English Council of State mobilises city militias across the country. Over the coming weeks, Parliamentarian armies will assemble at Banbury under (soon to be Cromwell's son-in-law) Sir Charles Fleetwood [1650<=>3rd September], Newcastle-upon-Tyne under Thomas Harrison [<=1649], Yorkshire under (dragged out of retirement) Sir Thomas Fairfax [<=1650], and Leith under John Lambert [1650<=>3rd September]. As during the Nantwich Campaign of 1644 [<=], the Lancashire, Cheshire, and Staffordshire militias gather around the (modern) A49/M56/M6 interchange to block the west coast road south. George Monck [1650<=>1653] is left in East Lothian to control the Edinburgh-Newcastle east coast road south. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1651 [??th August-12th May 1652] The Siege of Galway: This nine-month siege is fought out as part of the Invasion of Ireland [<=1649] between a Parliamentarian army under Charles Coote [<=1651] and an Irish Confederacy army under Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara [Wikipedia biography]. The outcome is an eventual Parliamentarian victory. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

**********  "WHERE ENGLAND'S SORROWS WERE HAPPILY ENDED"  **********

[cf. <=1642 (23rd September)]

1651 [3rd September] The Battle of Worcester: This battle is fought as part of the Third English Civil War [<=1649] between a Parliamentarian army under Oliver Cromwell [1650<=>1653] and John Lambert [7th August<=>1653] and a Royalist army not much more than half its size under Charles II of Scotland [and England]1660 [1st January<=>1656] and David Leslie [<=1650]. The Royalists have spent the preceding month pushing southward along the line of the modern M6/M5, and have stopped over at Worcester to gather recruits. The Parliamentarians are drawn up in force to the east and south of the city, Richard Deane [1650<=>1653] is tasked with taking the Teme crossing at Powick Bridge (four miles south of the city centre, and the place where the war had started back in 1642), Sir Charles Fleetwood [7th August<=>26th November] and Cromwell are astride the Severn near its confluence with the Teme (where engineers have prepared their way with pontoon bridges), and Lambert is deployed north-south in front of Perry Wood. The battle begins with attempted crossings of the Teme by Deane and Fleetwood, but both assaults are hotly and effectively contested. Cromwell therefore moves his reserves across the Severn to assist them, leaving a gap (and the river) between himself and Lambert's troops on Red Hill. This encourages a Royalist advance on Lambert's positions but the Parliamentarians' greater numbers soon prevail and a well-timed and technically difficult counter-attack on the Royalist redoubt at Fort Royal produces a Royalist collapse and rout. Charles II escapes by the skin of his teeth and flees to France. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1651 [26th November] Upon the death from fever of Henry Ireton [<=??th June], Sir Charles Fleetwood [3rd September<=>1659] is appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1652  Around this time the Quaker preacher George Fox [Wikipedia biography=>1689] starts to foreswear the use of "carnal weapons" in favour of "spiritual weapons" such as insight and forgiveness. [THREAD = RELIGION AND WAR]

 

1652 [3rd March] The Dutch Parliament authorises an expansion of its battle-fleet, but not yet the construction as standard of bigger men-of-war capable of carrying more and heavier guns. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1652 [7th April] The Battle of Bléneau: This battle is fought as part of the Second Fronde Rebellion [<=1650] between a Spanish-backed Frondeur army under d'Enghien/Condé [1650<=>2nd July] and a French Royalist army under Turenne [1650<=>2nd July]. The outcome is a tactical draw. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1652 [29th May] The Battle of the Goodwin Sands: This naval battle is the trigger event for the First Anglo-Dutch War [=>next]. It is fought between an English fleet under the hero of the Battles of Taunton, "General at Sea" Robert Blake [1645<=>8th October], and a Dutch fleet under Maarten Tromp [1643<=>10th December]. The outcome on the day is a tactical draw, followed by a full-scale war [=>10th July]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1652 [2nd July] The Battle of the Faubourg St. Antoine: This battle is the closing event in the Second Fronde Rebellion [<=1650]. It is fought between a French Royalist army under Turenne [7th April<=>1654] and Parisian rebels fronted by d'Enghien/Condé [7th April<=>1654]. There is a heavy fire-fight in the shadows of the Bastille but eventually Turenne is forced to withdraw by the superior rebel artillery. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1652 [10th July] The First Anglo-Dutch War, 1652-1654: This two-year trade war is fought between Cromwellian England and the Dutch Republic, both now keen to pick up what they can from the Portuguese and Spanish overseas possessions and trading opportunities. The English are also concerned that many fugitive Royalists are living in the Netherlands, clustered loosely around the widowed Mary Stuart, Princess Royal [<=1650]. The Dutch are angry at English privateering against their trade routes in the Caribbean. Here are the main events ...

 

·         The Battle of the Goodwin Sands, 1652 [casus belli ante]

·         The Battle of the Kentish Knock, 1652

·         The Battle of Plymouth, 1652

·         The Battle of Portland, 1653

·         The Battle of Scheveningen, 1653

 

The outcome is largely inconclusive, although the Dutch lost the more ships. [THREAD = THE WW1 SURFACE NAVIES]

 

WAR ART: Check out Jan Abrahamsz-Beerstraten's (1654) "The Battle of Scheveningen".

 

1652 [26th August] The Battle of Plymouth: This naval battle is fought as part of the First Anglo-Dutch War [<=preceding] between an English fleet under George Ayscue [Wikipedia biography] and a markedly smaller Dutch fleet under Michiel de Ruyter [Wikipedia biography=>8th October]. The outcome is an against-the-odds victory for the Dutch, thanks to sloppy management of his resources by Ayscue. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1652 [8th October] The Battle of the Kentish Knock: This naval battle is fought as part of the First Anglo-Dutch War [<=10th July] between a 68-ship English fleet under Robert Blake [29th May<=>10th December] and a 62-ship United Provinces fleet under Michiel de Ruyter [26th August<=>1653]. The outcome is that the Dutch are forced back to port, having learned the hard way that they need to start building larger men-of-war capable of carrying more and heavier guns. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

ASIDE: Of late the Dutch have preferred converting merchant ships to warships, rather than building them explicitly for that purpose. This produces quick results, can never be entirely successful because ton for ton the end products are invariably difficult to equip with guns and are more lightly timbered.

 

1652 [10th December] The Battle of Dungeness: This naval battle is fought off Dungeness Point, Kent, as part of the First Anglo-Dutch War [<=10th July] between a Dutch fleet under Maarten Tromp [29th May<=>1653] and an English fleet under Robert Blake [8th October<=>1653]. The outcome is a Dutch victory, due in part to individual English ships detaching themselves from the main battle-line(s) in order to exploit opportunities to capture prize ships. Blake accordingly takes steps to have the Admiralty outlaw this practice. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1653  The British poet [and probable Parliamentarian spy-provocateur] Andrew Marvell [Wikipedia biography] publishes a pamphlet-poem entitled "The Character of Holland" [full text online], in which aspersions are cast against all things Dutch - their army, their beliefs, their sobriety, their language, their womenfolk, etc. [THREADS = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE and PROPAGANDA]

 

1653 [10th-12th March] The Battle of Portland: This naval battle is fought as part of the First Anglo-Dutch War [<=preceding] between an English fleet under Robert Blake [1652<=>12th June] and Richard Deane [1651<=>12th June] and a Dutch fleet under Maarten Tromp [1652<=>29th March] and Michiel de Ruyter [<=1652]. The outcome is a Dutch defeat in both the number of warships lost and the number of merchantmen captured. Again the Dutch admirals call for the building of heavier warships. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1653 [29th March] Robert Blake [10th March<=>12th June] issues his ships' commanders with updated "Sailing and Fighting Instructions", a treatise on tactical ship management, signals, and formation keeping, in which great emphasis is placed upon maintaining a "line of battle". [THREAD = THE WW1 SURFACE NAVIES]

 

1653 [20th April] The Rump Parliament Dissolved: Oliver Cromwell [1651<=>29th April] summarily and with physical force expels William Lenthall [1642<=>1654] (Speaker of the House since 1640 (albeit with a short break in 1647)) from the House of Commons, dissolves the Rump Parliament [<=1648 (6th December)], and dismisses the Council of State. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1653 [29th April] Cromwell's Council of State: Oliver Cromwell [20th April<=>4th July] establishes a 13-man Council of State with John Lambert [1651<=>12th December] as Lord President. The first meeting will be held on 4th July and on 12th July the Council declares itself the new Parliament. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1653 [12th-13th June] The Battle of the North Foreland: This naval battle is fought as part of the First Anglo-Dutch War [<=1652] between a 100-ship English fleet under George Monck [1651<=>8th August], Richard Deane [10th March<=>dies this day], and Robert Blake [<=10th March], and a United Provinces fleet under Maarten Tromp [10th March<=>10th August] and Witte de With [Wikipedia biography=>8th August]. The English successfully use their new line-of-battle discipline [<=29th March] which the Dutch have not yet adopted. The outcome is a heavy Dutch defeat, with the loss of six ships sunk and 11 captured. Deane is killed in action. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1653 [4th July] The Little Parliament: [A.k.a. (1) "Barebone's Parliament", after a certain Praise-God Barebone, one of its most colourful members; a.k.a. (2) the "Nominated Assembly"] Oliver Cromwell [29th April<=>15th December] personally nominates all 140 members of a new Parliament. Technically still part of the Long Parliament [explanation], this Parliament will be dissolved on 12th December [continues at 12th December ...]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1653 [8th-10th August] The Battle of Scheveningen: This naval battle is fought as part of the First Anglo-Dutch War [<=1652] between a blockading English fleet under George Monck [12th June<=>1659] and a fractionally larger Dutch fleet under Maarten Tromp [12th June<=>dies this day] and Witte de With [<=12th June]. The outcome is a victory on the day for the English in terms of damage inflicted, and the death in action of Tromp. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1653 [12th/15th/16th December] The Protectorate: After some clever political manoeuvring fronted by John Lambert [29th April<=>1655], the Little Parliament is constrained upon to sign its own dissolution, and to approve in its place "The Government of the Commonwealth of England" [<=4th July] - "The Instrument" for short - a republican constitution drafted by Lambert himself, and incorporating many elements of the earlier "Heads of the Proposals" [<=1647]. Seven officers, including Lambert, are named and Oliver Cromwell [14th July<=>1654] is formally installed as Lord Protector on 16th December. The Instrument will be replaced after four years by the "Humble Petition and Advice" [=>1657]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1654 [28th June-29th July] The Siege of Stenay: This siege is fought out as part of the Closing Phase of the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between a French loyalist army under Abraham de Fabert [Wikipedia biography=>23rd August] and a Spanish garrison at Stenay under d'Enghien/Condé [1652<=>next]. The outcome is a victory for the French crown. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Stenay is in 55 MEUSE. Research its location online and dot it in on your map.

 

ASIDE - STENAY IN WW1: Stenay is some 40 miles north of the city of Verdun, and therefore eminently suitable as a behind-the-lines headquarters town for the Germans. It will be Crown Prince William's Fifth Army Headquarters for much of the Battle of Verdun [=>1916 (21st February)].

 

1654 [23rd-25th August] The Siege/Relief of Arras: This siege takes place during the Closing Phase of the broader Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635] between a Spanish army under Archduke Leopold William of Austria [<=1648] d'Enghien/Condé [preceding<=>1656] and the French loyalist garrison at Stenay. The siege is quickly (and decisively) raised by a French loyalist army under Turenne [1652<=>1656], Henri de la Ferté-Senneterre [Wikipedia biography=>1656] and Abraham de Fabert [<=28th June]. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

ASIDE - ARRAS IN WW1: See 1640 (13th June) [ASIDE].

 

1654 [3rd September] The First Protectorate Parliament: The Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell [1653<=>1655] now proclaims the first Parliament of his Protectorate, with William Lenthall [1653<=>1659] as Speaker of the House. The members busy themselves debating the 84 bills so far prepared by the Council of State [<=29th April] but support for the bills, Cromwell, and perhaps even the Protectorate itself, is lukewarm. None of the bills become law and the Parliament will be dissolved on 22nd January 1655. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1654 [??th November] The Siege of Clermont-en-Argonne: This siege takes place during the Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635], and is noteworthy in the present context merely for the fact that a young soldier named Sébastian de Vauban [Wikipedia biography=>1655], having assisted in the defensive fortification of that very town the year before, now has to undo his own good works by attacking it! [=>1655] [THREAD = WW1 ARTILLERY]

 

STUDENT EXERCISE 1633 EXTENSION: Clermont-en-Argonne is in 55 MEUSE. Research its location online and dot it in on your map.

 

ASIDE - CLERMONT-EN-ARGONNE IN WW1: Clermont-en-Argonne is just north of the line taken by the Western Front between Reims and Verdun during the initial German advances of August 1914. The Germans will subsequently withdraw slightly during the Battle of the Marne [=>1914 (5th September)], to take advantage of the wooded heights five miles further north, leaving Clermont to become a French-held Ville Martyre on the valley floor. The Clermont sector will remain comparatively quiet until selected as the jumping off area for the American Argonne Offensive [=>1918 (26th September)].

 

1654 [25th December] The "Western Design": This naval offensive takes place during the Closing Phase of the broader Franco-Habsburg War [<=1635 (20th May)] between an English fleet of conquest under (the ships) General-at-Sea William Penn1 [Wikipedia biography] and (the troops) Robert Venables [Wikipedia biography] and the Spanish overseas possessions in the Caribbean. They capture Jamaica on 17th May 1655. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1Father of William Penn, founder of the Colonial Province of Pennsylvania.

 

1655  Sébastian de Vauban [1654<=>1667] is commissioned as Ingénieur du Roi, and specialises in siege operations. [THREAD = WW1 ARTILLERY]

 

1655  The ironmaster Capel Hanbury [no convenient biography] takes production leases on "a parcel of waste ground called Pontypool". [THREAD = THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION]

 

1655 [3rd May] Oliver Cromwell [1654<=>11th October] appoints the lawyer/politician/diplomat John Thurloe [Wikipedia biography=>11th October] Postmaster General, from which position he runs his master's espionage and secret police department. [THREAD = ESPIONAGE AND INTELLIGENCE]

 

1655 [12th July] The Second Northern War, 1655-1660: This war is fought between the newly expansionist Swedish Empire of Charles X Gustav [Wikipedia biography=>1656] and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, both with various allies from time to time. There are some impressive early Swedish gains, followed by a series of Swedish reverses as their opponents get better organised. Here are some of the main events ...

 

·         The "Swedish Deluge", 1655

·         The Battle of Warsaw, 1656

·         The Danish Invasion, 1657 [Denmark and Sweden]

·         The Treaty of Roskilde, 1658 [Denmark and Sweden]

·         The Treaty of Oliva, 1660 [Sweden, Habsburg Empire, Brandenburg, and Poland-Lithuania]

·         The Treaty of Cardis, 1661 [Sweden and Russia]

 

The eventual outcome is that there are few changes to the status quo ante. The war is noteworthy in the present context (a) for elevating the Duchy of Prussia to a sovereign state, and (b) for doing a lot to stabilise the Baltic States in something close to their modern form. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1655 [12th July] The "Swedish Deluge": This is the name given to the first phase of the Second Northern War [<=preceding], during which the Swedes make major advances into Poland-Lithuania, but only at the expense of leaving their border with Denmark relatively lightly defended. [THREAD = THE SHAPING OF WW1 EUROPE]

 

1655 [11th October] The Major-Generals: The Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell [3rd May<=>17th September] approves a network of 12 military regions, each administered by a Major-General and together administered by a Committee of Council. One of their responsibilities is to maintain John Thurloe's state police system [3rd May<=>1659]. Now at the height of his polit